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    Bucuresti, sec.4, car. Berceni, str. Straduintei, tel. 0730.490.165
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    Motociclete: Yamaha SR 250 SE Special 1992, Kawasaki Vulcan VN 750 A9 1993, Suzuki Savage LS 650 Big Single P402 1995, primul proprietar 1996, Yamaha Virago XV 535 2YL 1993, Suzuki VX 800 VS51B 1993, BMW K 100 RS 1.0 i 16 V ABS, 08.1991, primul proprietar 1992, Yamaha Virago XV 535 3BR California 1991, Automobile: Dacia 1310 model export Canada, 25.09.1984, Ford Mondeo II Turnier Ghia RKB Combi 1.8 i 16 V Euro 2 1997, Opel Corsa B Hatchback 1.0 i 12 V Euro 2, 1.07.1997

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  1. Ma insor la 10 mai ora 14 Starea civila Sector 4, str Gramont, Bucuresti! Sunt bine-veniti toti bikerii care doresc!
  2. Lista Motoveteranilor

    Stoica Vladimir 1967 2007
  3. articole Tehnica Germana Uitata - Linkuri

    E foarte interesanta pentru cei pasionati de fizica si stiinta si tehnica! Farfuriile zburatoare superluminice pe principiu Tesla&Marconi si vimana hinduse au fost construite de germani in WWII si acum le detin si US Air Force. Primul link: Mark McCandlish: Zero Point Classified Anti Gravity Craft UFO Full Documentary by James Allen R I P Publicat pe 29 oct. 2016 How are the governments installing and maintaining all this gigantic equipment in outer space. This video provides some very important insights into who,what,when,where and how. The creative director behind this amazing documentary is dead. He was killed in a very similar fashion as Dr. Robert Harrington who tracked Planet X Nibiru for the US government and met with Zachariah Sitchin instigating his death shortly thereafter. Al doilea link: Ufo sightings UFO Hypotheses Michael Schratt Volume One 18 of 24 NeW Videos Publicat pe 7 oct. 2013 UFO Al treilea link: UFO Hypotheses - Michael Schratt Volume One (14 of 24) Încărcat pe 8 nov. 2007The introduction to a Michael Schratt UFO presentation in Tucson Arizona in September 2007. Sponsored by MUFON of Southern Arizona. Filmed and directed by Rick Keefe.
  4. articole Tehnica Germana Uitata - Linkuri

    Repulsin, farurie zburatoare sau aerodina lenticulara cu propulsie magnetohidrodinamica si motor cu implozie inventata de fizicianul austriac Viktor Schauberger si cu sustentatie si zbor pe baza efectului Coanda.http://www.pro-bike.ro/forums/topic/51124-tehnica-germana-uitata-linkuri/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3swu_lC-7zc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2giFGsGLft4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MwUpPwyyvLw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tydvDgVNiA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xfGqINFNL40 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hYJXE4FCm7Q http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ChsZUwqTeE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=prcc8UQW3bY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PgfwJzAvQNE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T0cgM-w3rNU http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cA-sHkdrwc8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qMPb0qA_5Ns https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=my23PIoQs9M https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8avAQ8UbPGk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-fmO0A2zuWM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tEe-QGohonU https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0k0E_T31Dzc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=adlyZaNSwK4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JQznApHOdU https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V--yZbO8GxM
  5. 14, 15, 16 sau 21, 22, 23 Transfagarasan si apoi Transalpina cu chooperul. 0730490165 e nr. meu (Vladimir Stoica). Doritorii care au choppere si nu numai, ma pot contacta. Nu strica sa aveti un motociclist puternic ca mine in grup. Cine se baga la drum? https://www.facebook.com/vladivalahulstoica
  6. articole Tehnica Germana Uitata - Linkuri

    Cred ca ma insor la 16 iunie 2016. Poti intra pe facebook la Vladimir Valahul Stoica sa vorbim acolo. E valabil pentru orice pasionat de fizica. Si cred ca am gasit pe cineva dornic sa se implice in punerea in practica a tahionator convertorului capitanului de marina din al doilea razboi mondial, Hans Kohler. Toate cele bune tuturor bikerilor si celor care le place fizica! Despre turbina cu gaze folosita la propulsia farfuriei zburatoare a fratilor Panait si Grigore Nica: Turbină cu gaze De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă Schema funcţionării unei turbine cu gaze cu compresor axial. O turbină cu gaze este o turbină termică, care utilizează căderea de entalpie a unui gaz sau a unui amestec de gaze pentru a produce prin intermediul unor palete care se rotesc în jurul unui ax o cantitate de energie mecanică disponibilă la cupla turbinei.[1][2] Turbina cu gaze mai este cunoscută și sub denumirea deinstalație de turbină cu gaze (ITG). Din punct de vedere termodinamic o turbină cu gaze funcționează destul de asemănător cu motorul unui automobil. Aerul din atmosferă este admis într-un compresor cu palete, unde este comprimat, urmează introducerea unui combustibil, aprinderea și arderea lui într-o cameră de ardere. Gazele de ardere se destind într-o turbină, care extrage din ele lucrul mecanic, iar apoi sunt evacuate în atmosferă. Procesul este continuu, iar piesele execută doar mișcări de rotație, ceea ce pentru o putere dată conduce la o masă totală a instalației mai mică. Ca urmare, turbinele cu gaze s-au dezvoltat în special ca motoare deaviație, însă își găsesc aplicații în multe alte domenii, unul dintre cele mai moderne fiind termocentralele cu cicluri combinate abur-gaz. Cuprins [ascunde] 1 Istoric 2 Clasificarea turbinelor cu gaze 2.1 După destinație 2.2 După modul de recuperare a căldurii evacuate 2.3 După felul ciclului în care lucrează 3 Principiul de funcționare 3.1 Ciclul Joule 3.2 Ciclul Joule cu recuperator 3.3 Ciclu cu fracționarea compresiei sau a destinderii 3.4 Ciclu deschis și închis 4 Poluarea cauzată 5 Descrierea părților componente 5.1 Compresorul 5.2 Camera de ardere 5.3 Turbina 5.4 Arborele 6 Exemple de utilizări ale turbinelor cu gaze 6.1 Turbine cu gaze pentru aviație 6.2 Turbine cu gaze pentru tracțiune terestră 6.3 Turbine cu gaze pentru tracțiune navală 6.4 Grupuri de turbosupraalimentare 6.5 Turbine cu gaze energetice 7 Turbine cu gaze fabricate în România 8 Avantaje, dezavantaje și perspective 9 Note 10 Bibliografie 11 Bibliografie adițională 12 Vezi și 13 Legături externe Istoric[modificare | modificare sursă] Dezvoltarea turbinelor cu gaze este de dată mult mai recentă decât a turbinelor în general, și de dată mai recentă decât a turbinelor cu abur. În 1791 englezul John Barber a brevetat prima adevărată turbină cu gaze, turbină care avea principalele elemente din turbinele cu gaze moderne.[3] În 1872 Dr. F. Stolger din Germania a construit prima turbină cu gaze, care însă n-a funcționat niciodată independent.[3] În 1903 norvegianul Ægidius Elling a construit prima turbină cu gaze funcțională, care a produs lucru mecanic, eveniment important, luând în considerare lipsa de cunoștințe de aerodinamică a vremii. Turbina sa a reușit să producă o putere de 11 cai putere, foarte mult pentru zilele respective. Din turbina sa s-a inspirat Frank Whittle. În 1914 Charles Curtis a realizat prima aplicație practică a unei turbine cu gaze. În 1918 General Electric, unul din cei mai mari producători, inclusiv din zilele noastre, își începe producția de turbine cu gaze. Turboreactor RD-500, clonă a Rolls-Royce Nene, fabricat în URSS. În 1930 englezul Frank Whittle brevetează proiectul unei turbine cu gaze pentru propulsia avioanelor (motor cu reacție).[4][5] Realizarea practică a acestui proiect s-a făcut însă abia în anul 1937. Compresorul acestui motor era de tip centrifugal, și pe baza lui s-a dezvoltat motorul Rolls-Royce Welland, care a echipat avionul Gloster Meteor. În 1936 Hans von Ohain și Max Hahn dezvoltă în Germania un motor cu reacție bazat pe un brevet propriu.[5][6] Compresorul acestui motor era de tip axial, și pe baza lui s-a dezvoltat motorul Junkers Jumo 004 care a echipat avionul Messersmitt Me 262. Clasificarea turbinelor cu gaze[modificare | modificare sursă] Articol principal: Turbină cu abur. În afară de clasificarea turbinelor termice în general, turbinele cu gaze se pot clasifica:[1][2] După destinație[modificare | modificare sursă] turbine de tracțiune pentru aviație (turboreactoare, turbopropulsoare, turboventilatoare și turbine pentru antrenarea elicelor elicopterelor); turbine de tracțiune navale; turbine de tracțiune terestre (pentru locomotive, autovehicule, motociclete, tancuri etc.); turbine de supraalimentare a motoarelor cu ardere internă. turbine energetice (pentru termocentrale cu ciclu cu gaze simplu sau cu ciclu combinat abur-gaz); După modul de recuperare a căldurii evacuate[modificare | modificare sursă] turbine cu recuperator; turbine fără recuperator. După felul ciclului în care lucrează[modificare | modificare sursă] cu ciclu închis; cu ciclu deschis. Principiul de funcționare[modificare | modificare sursă] Ciclul Joule[modificare | modificare sursă] Cea mai simplă turbină cu gaze este formată dintr-un compresor, care este montat pe același ax cu o turbină. Compresorul absoarbe aerul din atmosferă și îl comprimă la presiunea de câțiva bar. Aerul comprimat ajunge într-o cameră de ardere, în care este introdus și un combustibil. Aici are loc arderea la presiune constantă, cu creșterea temperaturii și a volumului gazelor produse prin ardere. Gazele de ardere se destind în turbină, producând lucru mecanic, iar apoi sunt evacuate în atmosferă.[1][7] Ciclul termodinamic al unei astfel de turbine cu gaze este ciclul Joule,[8] cunoscut în literatura engleză de specialitate ca ciclul Brayton. Transformările care au loc în diferitele părţi componente ale unei turbine cu gaze. Transformările termodinamice din ciclu sunt: 1 – 2 compresie izoentropică; 2 - 3 încălzire izobară; 3 - 4 destindere izoentropică; 4 - 1 răcire izobară. Randamentul termic al ciclului Joule ideal fără recuperator este:[9][10] ηt=1−1ϵk−1k unde ϵ este raportul de compresie = p2 / p1, iar k este exponentul adiabatic al gazului. Pentru aer, cu k = 1,4 , și pentru un raport de compresie de 15 (valoare uzuală), randamentul termic al ciclului este de 0,539. Randamentul termic al ciclului Joule ideal crește continuu cu creșterea raportului de compresie, însă creșterea acestui raport este limitată de rezistența materialelor și de pierderile din ciclul real. Ciclul Joule real ( cu albastru), faţă de ciclul Joule ideal (cu negru). Randamentul termic al ciclului Joule real fără recuperator, luând în considerare și randamentele interne ale turbinei ηT și compresorului ηC este:[11] ηt=1−T3T1ηT(1−1ϵk−1k)−1ηC(ϵk−1k−1)T3T1−1−1ηC(Πk−1k−1) Pentru aer, un raport de compresie de 15, T1 = 300 K , T3 = 1500 K, ηT = 0,85 și ηC = 0,75 (valori uzuale) randamentul ciclului real este de 0,300 , mult mai mic decât al ciclului ideal. Randamentul termic al ciclului Joule real are un maxim pentru un anumit raport de compresie (pentru exemplul de mai sus, chiar acel 15). În practică, randamentele efective (la cuplă) sunt și mai mici decât cele termice, datorită influenței randamentului mecanic al agregatului. Ciclul Joule cu recuperator[modificare | modificare sursă] Ciclul Joule cu recuperarea căldurii evacuate. Pentru mărirea randamentului termic se folosesc recuperatoare care recuperează o parte din căldura evacuată odată cu gazele arse în atmosferă q4-4' și o reintroduc în ciclu q2-2'. Randamentul termic al ciclului Joule ideal cu recuperator este:[12] 1−T1T3T2T1−11−T4T3 Pentru exemplul de mai sus cu ϵ = 15, din transformarea izoentropică se obțin T2 = 650 K , T4 = 692 K, cu care randamentul ciclului este de 0,567, ceva mai mare decât a ciclului fără recuperator. În exemplul prezentat diferența între T4 și T2 este mică, deci câștigul dat de recuperator este mic. În practică este greu de obținut o diferență de temperaturi mare, din cauza limitărilor date de materiale. În ciclul real influența recuperatorului este ceva mai mare, dar nu cu mult. Expresia matematică a randamentului termic al ciclului Joule real cu recuperator se complică foarte mult. Ciclu cu fracționarea compresiei sau a destinderii[modificare | modificare sursă] O altă cale de îmbunătățire a randamentului termic al ciclului este fracționarea compresiei, cu răcirea intermediară a aerului, respectiv fracționarea destinderii în turbină, cu reîncălzirea agentului termic, aspecte detaliate în ciclu termodinamic. Realizarea practică a răcirii intermediare a aerului comprimat se poate face: la turbine cu gaze de aviație, unde greutatea agregatului e critică, prin injecție de apă între treptele compresorului; la celelalte turbine, prin schimbătoare de căldură montate între trepte. Realizarea practică a reîncălzirii gazelor se poate face: prin arderea unei cantități suplimentare de combustibil în camere de ardere intermediare între corpurile turbinei; prin schimbătoare de căldură montate între corpurile turbinei. Ambele metode măresc mult dimensiunile instalației și nu sunt adecvate pentru turbinele cu gaze de aviație. Ciclu deschis și închis[modificare | modificare sursă] La turbinele cu gaze care lucrează cu aer absorbit din atmosferă și evacuează gazele de ardere tot în atmosferă (majoritatea cazurilor), ciclul nu este efectuat complet în instalație, transformarea 4-1 efectuându-se în atmosferă. Se spune că turbina lucrează în ciclu deschis. Dacă însă se folosește un alt agent termic, diferit de aer, acesta trebuie reținut, caz în care toate transformările din ciclu se realizează în instalație, și se spune că turbina lucrează în ciclu închis. Astfel de cicluri închise se întâlnesc în centrale nucleare, iar agentul termic este uzual dioxidul de carbon sau heliul. Poluarea cauzată[modificare | modificare sursă] Poluanții emiși de turbinele cu gaze sunt aceiași ca în oricare alt proces de ardere: dioxizii de carbon (CO2) și de sulf (SO2), monoxidul de carbon (CO) și oxizii de azot (NOx). Reducerea CO2 este limitată de fenomenul de ardere în sine, cantitățile emise fiind proporționale cu cantitățile de combustibil ars. Reducerea acestor emisii se poate face prin îmbunătățirea randamentului ciclului termic, îmbunătățire care, pentru o putere dată a turbinei, determină un consum de combustibil mai redus. Reducerea SO2 se poate obține numai folosind un combustibil fără sulf. De aceea este preferat gazul natural. Dacă se folosesc combustibili lichizi (de exemplu la turbinele mobile), este preferabilă desulfurarea prealabilă a combustibilului la rafinărie.[13] Reducerea CO se poate obține printr-o ardere completă din punct de vedere chimic (ardere perfectă) a combustibilului, lucru care necesită cantități de aer sporite în procesul de ardere, însă acest lucru nu este o problemă la turbinele cu gaze, care oricum funcționează cu cantități de aer mai mari decât strict cele necesare arderii. Eventualele urme pot fi eliminate prin metode SCR - reducere selectivă catalitică (engleză Selective Catalytic Reduction).[14] Reducerea NOx se poate obține prin scăderea temperaturilor de ardere, ceea ce însă afectează randamentul ciclului, sau prin reducerea chimică a NOx format, de exemplu prin procedee SCR sau SNCR - reducere selectivă necatalitică (engleză Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction). Ambele procedee au dezavantaje, SCR necesită catalizatori scumpi, care se consumă, iar SNCR produce emisii de amoniac (NH3).[14] Măsurile de reducere ale poluanților sunt costisitoare și se justifică în cazul emisiilor totale mari, în speță pentru țările industrializate. Descrierea părților componente[modificare | modificare sursă] Compresorul[modificare | modificare sursă] Compresorul axial cu 17 trepte al unui turboreactor GE J79. Rolul compresorului este de a realiza comprimarea agentului termic (de obicei aerul), realizând transformarea 1 – 2 din ciclul Joule. Se folosesc exclusiv compresoare cu palete. Compresoarele pot fi: centrifugale; axiale. Compresoarele centrifugale au un raport de compresie pe treaptă mai mare, deci pentru un raport de compresie total dat trebuie mai puține trepte, deci agregatul rezultă mai ușor. Randamentul acestor compresoare este însă mai mic. Compresorul centrifugal s-a folosit la primele motoare cu reacție ale lui Frank Whittle, inclusiv la motorul Rolls-Royce Nene. Actual este folosit pe scară largă la turbinele cu gaze pentru elicoptere mici, agregate care trebuie să fie cât mai ușoare. Compresoarele axiale au un raport de compresie pe treaptă mai mic, deci pentru un raport de compresie total dat trebuie multe trepte, deci agregatul rezultă mai lung, însă de diametru mai mic. Randamentul acestor compresoare este mai bun. Compresorul axial este folosit pe scară largă la turbinele cu gaze pentru toate turbinele pentru propulsia avioanelor, unde contează diametrul mic și randamentul bun, și toate turbinele energetice, unde contează randamentul bun. Camera de ardere[modificare | modificare sursă] Camerele de ardere individuale ale unui turboreactor GE J79. Rolul camerei de ardere este de a realiza introducerea căldurii în ciclu prin arderea unui combustibil, realizând transformarea 2 – 3 din ciclul Joule. Camerele de ardere au în interior o cămașă răcită cu aerul de diluție, cămașă care ecranează flacăra și protejează astfel corpul exterior al camerei. Aprinderea inițială se face cu o bujie. Camerele de ardere pot fi: individuale; inelare. Camerele de ardere individuale sunt de formă tubulară și se montează mai multe în jurul axului agregatului. În camerele de ardere individuale este mai ușor de asigurat stabilitatea arderii, adică se evită ruperea flăcării, iar în caz de rupere, ruperea nu se propagă în celelalte camere, ba din contră, acestea, prin canalizații prevăzute special în acest scop ajută la reaprindere. Nu întotdeauna fiecare cameră de ardere are bujie proprie, deoarece, cum s-a spus, camerele comunică între ele și flacăra se transmite. Camerele de ardere inelare au un spațiu de ardere unic, inelar. În aceste camere este mai greu de stabilizat flacăra, dozajul aer-combustibil, vitezele de introducere a aerului prin diversele secțiuni și geometria camerei fiind critice. Camerele inelare însă au mai puține repere și sunt mai ușoare, fiind din punct de vedere tehnologic mai evoluate. Combustibilii folosiți la turbinele cu gaze sunt: combustibili lichizi - nu sunt necesari combustibili cu fracțiuni ușoare, cum ar fi benzina, se pot folosi combustibili mai grei, ca petrol, kerosen (petrol de aviație), gazolină, combustibil lichid folosit la încălziri și, la instalațiile staționare, chiar păcură. combustibili gazoși - gaz natural, biogaz, gaz de aer, gaz de apă, gaz de gazogen, gaz de sinteză, gaz de furnal, gaz de cocserie și chiar hidrogen (experimental). Deși camerele de ardere pot arde și combustibili solizi (cărbune sub formă de praf), cenușa conținută de acest tip de combustibili este abrazivă, astfel că ei nu sunt folosiți. Dacă totuși se dorește folosirea lor drept combustibili pentru turbine cu gaze, cea mai bună soluție este gazeificarea lor prealabilă. De asemenea, gazele care conțin praf trebuie în prealabil desprăfuite. Turbina[modificare | modificare sursă] Turbina cu 3 trepte a unui turboreactor GE J79. Rolul turbinei este de a realiza destinderea agentului termic (de obicei gaze de ardere), realizând transformarea 3 – 4 din ciclul Joule. Turbina transformă entalpia a gazelor întâi în energie cinetică, prin accelerarea prin destindere a agentului termic și transformarea de către palete a acestei energii în lucru mecanic, transmis discurilor turbinei și apoi arborelui. Paleta unei turbine cu gaze Rolls-Royce/Turbo-Union RB 199. Pe bordul de atac se observă orificiile pentru obţinerea filmului de aer necesar pentru răcirea paletei. Piesele esențiale sunt ajutajele turbinei (a nu se confunda cu ajutajul unui turboreactor) și paletele, piese supuse unor solicitări termice și mecanice extreme. De aceea ele trebuie construite din materiale speciale, rezistente la temperaturi cât mai mari și se prevăd cu sisteme de răcire. Actual, temperaturile la intrarea în turbină au depășit în unele cazuri (turbine pentru avioane militare) temperatura de 1800 °C, paletele fiind făcute în acest caz din materiale ceramice poroase, prin porii lor circulând aer provenit de la compresor, relativ rece. Arborele[modificare | modificare sursă] Turboreactorul Rolls-RoyceOlympus 593 cu doi arbori coaxiali, folosit la motorizarea avionuluiConcorde. Turboventilatorul Rolls-RoyceRB 211 cu trei arbori coaxiali, folosit la motorizarea avionului Lockheed L-1011 „TriStar”. Arborele turbinei asigură transmiterea puterii între turbină, compresor, cuplă, demaror, pompe etc. Un singur arbore nu asigură turațiile optime pentru toate componentele, așa că există construcții pe unul sau pe mai mulți arbori coaxiali. Schemele cu un arbore sunt specifice primelor turbine cu gaze. Aceste scheme permit antrenarea compresorului la turația turbinei și, printr-un reductor a elicelor, pompelor sau generatoarelor electrice. Schemele cu doi arbori au pe arborele exterior turbina de înaltă presiune și compresorul de înaltă presiune, iar pe arborele interior turbina de joasă presiune, compresorul de joasă presiune și eventual acționarea reductorului. Aceste scheme sunt obișnuite la turbinele de aviația actuale. Schemele cu trei arbori au pe arborele exterior turbina de înaltă presiune și compresorul de înaltă presiune, pe arborele intermediar turbina de medie presiune și compresorul de joasă presiune, iar pe arborele interior turbina de joasă presiune și acționarea reductorului. La schemele cu trei arbori este foarte dificilă coordonarea lor și foarte puțini producători din lume dispun de tehnologia necesară în aceste caz. Exemple de utilizări ale turbinelor cu gaze[modificare | modificare sursă] Turbine cu gaze pentru aviație[modificare | modificare sursă] Turboreactor cu compresor centrifugal. Turboreactor cu compresor axial. Turbinele cu gaze pentru aviație sunt cunoscute și sub numele de motoare cu reacție, însă denumirea de motor cu reacție acoperă o arie mai largă, ea cuprinde și agregatele de tracțiune prin reacție care nu au turbine. Turboreactorul[15] (engleză Turbojet) este o turbină cu gaze la care destinderea în turbină se face până la o presiune anume, peste presiunea atmosferică, astfel încât turbina extrage din fluxul de gaze arse doar puterea necesară antrenării compresorului. În continuare, gazele de ardere se destind până la presiunea atmosferică într-un ajutaj plasat după turbină, ajutaj care generează forța de propulsie pentru avion. Turboreactoarele sunt eficiente la viteze de zbor relativ mari, cu numărul Mach peste 0,8 (cca. 900 km/h la nivelul solului, respectiv cca. 800 km/h la nivelul zborului de croazieră). Turbopropulsor. Turbopropulsorul[15] (engleză Turboprop) este o turbină cu gaze la care destinderea în turbină se face până la presiunea atmosferică, astfel că turbina extrage din fluxul de gaze arse o putere mai mare decât cea necesară antrenării compresorului. Puterea în plus este folosită la antrenarea unei elice plasată în fața motorului. Turbopropulsoarele sunt eficiente la viteze de zbor mai mici, cu numărul Mach între 0,5 și 1,0 (cca. 600 – 1200 km/h la nivelul solului, respectiv cca. 500 – 1000 km/h la nivelul zborului de croazieră). Turboventilator. Turboventilatorul[15] (engleză Turbofan) este un turbopropulsor cu o elice carenată și cu multe pale (numită ventilator), cu funcționare economică și generând un zgomot redus. O parte din fluxul de aer antrenat de ventilator intră în compresor, iar restul curge în jurul carenajului motorului, generând și el o forță de tracțiune. Turbină de elicopter. Turbina de elicopter[15] (engleză Turboshaft), zis și motor cu turbină liberă[16] este similară unui turbopropulsor, diferența constând în faptul că puterea nu se transmite în față, unei elice de tracțiune, ci în spate, unui reductor care o distribuie elicelor rotorului principal. Turbine cu gaze pentru tracțiune terestră[modificare | modificare sursă] Au existat câteva tentative de realizare a unor autovehicule cu turbină cu gaze, de exemplu Rover - JET1 (1950) [17] și Chrysler - câteva prototipuri (1950 – 1980). Toate au avut un consum de combustibil inacceptabil de mare, chiar pentru vremurile acelea. În 1993 General Motors a produs primul autovehicul comercial hibrid, acționat de o turbină cu gaze. Mai mult succes au avut turbinele cu gaze la autovehiculele de competiție și record. Mașini echipate cu turbine cu gaze au participat la cursele de la Le Mans (1963)[18] și Indianapolis 500(1967),[19] când s-au situat în fruntea curselor, dar n-au reușit să le câștige din cauza fiabilității reduse a acestor prototipuri. În domeniul vitezei maxime terestre, mașini ca Green Monster,[20]acționată de o turbină General Electric J79 (vezi componentele în figurile de mai sus), condusă de Art Arfons[21], Spirit of America,[22] acționată tot de o turbină General Electric J79 și condusă de Craig Breedlove[23] au deținut multe recorduri mondiale. Mașina Thrust2[24] acționată de o turbină Rolls-Royce Avon, condusă de Richard Noble [25] a fost prima care a depășit viteza de 1000 km/h. Recordul mondial actual a fost stabilit de mașina ThrustSSC,[26] acționată de două turbine Rolls-Royce Spey (varianta militară), condusă de Andy Green[27] și este de 1227,99 km/h (Ma = 1,016 – supersonic). În anul 2000 Marine Turbine Technologies Inc. a produs motocicleta MTT Turbine Superbike,[28] cunoscută și sub numele de Y2K Turbine Superbike, echipată cu o turbină Rolls-Royce Allison 250, cu o putere de 238 kW, care este considerată cea mai puternică motocicletă de serie din lume și care a atins viteza de 365 km/h. Turbinele cu gaze au fost folosite și pentru tracțiune feroviară la așa-numitele turbotrenuri. Primele locomotive cu turbine de gaze au fost livrate de firma Brown-Boveri înainte de cel de al doilea război mondial. În Anglia, Metropolitan Vickers a produs locomotive acționate de turbine de gaze.[29] Între anii 1948 și 1970 Union Pacific a folosit pe scară largă locomotive din seria UP, acționate de turbine de gaz de 1800 – 10000 hp fabricate de firma Westinghouse.[30] Ca aplicații militare, se menționează utilizarea turbinelor cu gaze ca agregate energetice la tancuri. Exemple sunt tancul american M1 Abrams[31] și tancul sovietic/rusesc T-80.[32] Turbine cu gaze pentru tracțiune navală[modificare | modificare sursă] Datorită raportului excelent putere/greutate, turbinele cu gaze au fost folosite și la acționarea navelor rapide. Exemple de astfel de nave au fost în Anglia vedetele MGB 2009 și fregatele Type 81, în Suedia vedetele torpiloare din clasa 6 Spica, acționate de turbine Proteus 1282 fabricate de Bristol Siddeley [33], în Finlanda corvetele din clasa Turunmaa, acționate de turbine Rolls-Royce Olympus TMB3,[34] în Canada distrugătoarele port-elicopter din clasa Canadian Iroquois,[35] iar în SUA cuterele din clasa Hamilton ale U.S Coast Guard.[36] Grupuri de turbosupraalimentare[modificare | modificare sursă] Grup de turbosupraalimentare Un grup de turbosupraalimentare este o mică turbină ce gaze, la care rolul de cameră de ardere îl joacă un motor cu combustie internă. Scopul nu este producerea de energie, ci alimentarea motorului cu aer comprimat, ceea ce duce la creșterea puterii și randamentului termic al motorului. Turbina (în figură cu roșu) recuperează energia cinetică a gazelor evacuate din motor și o folosește la antrenarea compresorului (în figură cu albastru). Turbine cu gaze energetice[modificare | modificare sursă] La aceste turbine nu se pune problema greutății sau spațiului, așa că ele pot beneficia de cele mai complexe scheme termice în vederea creșterii randamentului, dispun de obicei atât de răcirea intermediară a aerului în timpul compresiei cât și de arderea fracționată. Scopul principal este producerea energiei electrice și, pentru mărirea economicității se tinde spre puteri tot mai mari. Se remarcă turbinele (în paranteză puterea la bornele generatorului electric): General Electric PG7241FA (172 MW)[37] și PG9351FA (256 MW);[38]Alstom GT 24 (188 MW) și GT 26 (288 MW);[39] Siemens AG Seria SGT5 (168 – 340 MW).[40] Tot din categoria turbinelor energetice fac parte și microturbinele. Dacă până nu demult prin microturbină se înțelegeau turbinele de câțiva kW sau câțiva zeci de kW, destinația lor fiind alimentarea cu energie a unei locuințe individuale, actual se discută de microturbine de siliciu cu diametrul de câțiva mm, fabricația lor fiind bazată pe tehnologia fabricării semiconductorilor.[41]Aceste microturbine sunt destinate înlocuirii acumulatorilor din aparatele electronice, de exemplu computerele portabile, deoarece la dimensiuni comparabile cu ale bateriilor (incluzând șirezervorul de combustibil) pot furniza cantități de energie mult mai mari. Turbine cu gaze fabricate în România[modificare | modificare sursă] În 1975 Turbomecanica începe fabricația turbinelor cu gaze pentru tracțiune. Aici s-au fabricat sub licență motoarele Viper MK 632-41 (licență Rolls-Royce) Artouste III-B și Turmo IV CA(licențe Turbomeca).[42] Turbina cu gaze Viper MK 632-41[43] este un turboreactor care echipează avioanele IAR 93 (câte două agregate pe un avion) și IAR-99 „Șoim” ("Falcon") (un agregat pe un avion). Este o turbină cu un singur arbore, compresorul având 8 trepte, iar turbina 2 trepte. Camera de ardere este inelară. Masa sa este de 378 kg, iar turația este de 230 rot/s. Realizează o tracțiune la punct fix de 17,60 kN (4000 lbs) în acord cu limitările NATO privind aplicațiile militare pentru țările care la vremea respectivă nu făceau parte din această organizație. Turbina cu gaze Artouste III-B. Turbina cu gaze Artouste III-B[43] este un agregat care propulsează elicopterul IAR 316 B (Alouette III). Este o turbină cu greutatea de 178 kg, turația de 558 rot/s și care produce o putere la cuplă de 405 kW. Turbina cu gaze Turmo IV CA[43] este un agregat care propulsează elicopterul IAR 330 „Puma” (câte două agregate pe un elicopter). Este o turbină cu greutatea de 227 kg, care produce o putere la cuplă de 1115 kW. De asemenea, la Hidromecanica Brașov s-au fabricat grupuri de turbosupraalimentare pentru motoarele cu combustie internă fabricate în România,[44] exemple fiind grupurile VTR-200 și VTR-250,[45] care fac parte din seria TR. În 1980 Tehnoimportexport a obținut de la Rolls-Royce licența de fabricație a turboventilatorului Spey 512-14 DW civil, pentru echiparea avionului ROMBAC 1-11-500.[42] Avantaje, dezavantaje și perspective[modificare | modificare sursă] Avantajele turbinelor cu gaze foarte bun raport putere/greutate;[46]dimensiuni reduse;[46] timp de pornire scurt (5 ... 30 min);[47] mișcare de rotație uniformă (nu alternativă), echilibrare foarte bună;[46] vibrații reduse;[46] la ITG energetice, costul investiției și timpul de dare în funcțiune sunt mult mai mici în comparație cu instalațiile cu turbine cu abur;[48] pot funcționa fără apă de răcire, important în zone unde apa este deficitară, de exemplu în deșert.[47] Dezavantajele turbinelor cu gaze randament termic nu prea ridicat; scăderea pronunțată a randamentului și performanțelor în regimuri diferite de regimul pentru care au fost proiectate, (la sarcini parțiale); o oarecare inerție la modificarea turației; fabricație dificilă, necesită tehnologii înalte; materiale speciale, rezistente la temperaturi înalte, scumpe; întreținere pretențioasă, reparații planificate dese. Perspective O comparație cu competitorii săi se poate face doar pe domenii. La autovehicule, dimensiunile motorului nu sunt chiar critice, iar vibrațiile motoarelor cu piston sunt acceptabile, ca urmare dezavantajele turbinelor se manifestă din plin. În acest domeniu turbinele cu gaze își găsesc însă aplicabilitatea ca grupuri de turbosupraalimentare. La tancuri, randamentul termic mai scăzut nu este un impediment, costurile sunt acceptate de statele dezvoltate, iar puterea imensă dezvoltată de turbine asigură mobilitatea pe câmpul de luptă, avantaj care poate fi decisiv. În domeniul feroviar, greutatea nu contează, deoarece pentru a avea forță la cârlig sarcina pe osie a locomotivelor trebuie să fie apropiată de cea maximă admisă. Aici randamentul termic scăzut și costurile își spun cuvântul, fiind preferate motoarele cu piston sau cele electrice. În domeniul naval civil situația este similară cu cea din domeniul feroviar. În domeniul naval militar situația este similară cu cea de la tancuri. În domeniul aviației sunt două situații. În aviația comercială și militară raportul putere/greutate primează asupra oricăror alte considerente, așa că dominația turbinelor cu gaze este totală. În domeniul aviației utilitare, sportive șide agrement, costurile limitează folosirea turbinelor cu gaze, fiind preferate motoarele cu piston, mult mai ieftine și cu întreținere simplă. În domeniul energetic randamentul termic mai scăzut limitează utilizarea turbinelor cu gaze ca agregate independente în regim de bază, fiind preferate turbinele cu abur. Totuși, pornirea de la rece (din rezervă rece) a unui agregat energetic cu turbine cu gaze se poate face în timpi de ordinul minutelor, față de timpi de ordinul orelor la turbinele cu abur, ceea ce face ca agregatele cu turbine cu gaze să fie de neînlocuit ca unități de vârf[47] însistemele energetice care nu dispun de hidrocentrale cu lac de acumulare. Tot în domeniul energetic turbinele cu gaze lucrând în cicluri combinate abur-gaz (în serie cu turbine cu abur) fac ca randamentul termic al termocentralelor de acest tip să fie foarte ridicat, de 55 – 58%, ceea ce face ca ele să aibă în acest domeniu un mare viitor.[47]Note[modificare | modificare sursă] ^ a b c MIT, op. cit. p.105 ^ a b LTR, Turbină cu gaze" ^ a b Creța, op. cit. p.35 ^ Ispas, op. cit. p.42 ^ a b Creța, op. cit. p.40 ^ Ispas, op. cit. p.43 ^ Theil, op. cit. p.359 ^ MIT, op. cit. p.116 ^ MIT, op. cit. p.118 ^ Theil, op. cit. p.361 ^ Theil, op. cit. p.362 ^ Theil, op. cit. p.365 ^ en Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Washington State University Extension Energy Program ^ a b en Rajat Kapoor, Keith C. Kaufman Reducing Gas Turbine Emissions Pollution Engineering, 8 octombrie 2006 ^ a b c d Ispas, op. cit. p.79 ^ Ispas, op. cit. p.81 ^ Creța, op. cit. p.41 ^ en Rover BRM Gas Turbine Le Mans 1963 ^ en 1967 INDY Gas Turbine Car ^ en Art Arfons and His Green Monster (1967) ^ en Art Arfons ^ en Spirit Of America driven by Craig Breedlove ^ en Craig Breedlove ^ en Richard Noble and Thrust 2 ^ en Richard Noble Obe - Thrust 2 & SSC ^ en Supersonic Race Status - Wednesday 9th July 2003 ^ en Andy Green and Thrust SSC ^ en MTT Turbine Superbike ^ Șubenko-Șubin ^ en Gas Turbine Locomotives ^ en M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank ^ ru Основной танк Т-80 ^ en T 121 Spica ^ en Turunmaa ^ en Meet the IROQUOIS ^ en WHEC 378' Hamilton class ^ en MS7001FA Gas Turbines ^ en MS9001FA Gas Turbines ^ en GT24 and GT26 Gas Turbines ^ en Siemens - Large Scale 50 Hz ^ en Allan Epstein – microturbine ^ a b en The age of jet engines ^ a b c Creța, op. cit. p.45 ^ Creța, op. cit. p.46 ^ Creța, op. cit. p.720 ^ a b c d MIT, op. cit. p.106 ^ a b c d Creța, op. cit. p.38 ^ Creța, op. cit. p.37 Bibliografie[modificare | modificare sursă] Răduleț, R. și colab. Lexiconul Tehnic Român (LTR), Editura Tehnică, București, 1957-1966. Popa, Bazil (1986). Manualul inginerului termotehnician, (MIT), vol 2 (ed. Ed. a 2-a). București: Editura Tehnică Creța, Gavril (1996). Turbine cu abur și cu gaze (ed. Ed. a 2-a). București: Editura Tehnică. ISBN 973-31-0965-7 Ispas, Ștefan (1991). Motorul turboreactor – istorie, prezent, perspective. București: Editura Tehnică. ISBN 973-31-0273-3 Theil, Helmut (1972). Termotehnică și mașini termice. Timișoara: Litografia Univ. „Politehnica” Șubenko-Șubin, L. A. (1960). Atlas - Konstrukții i shem gazoturbinîh ustanovok. Kiev: Moskva Bibliografie adițională[modificare | modificare sursă] Alte lucrări pe profil care se găsesc în bibliotecile din România: it Momi Bartorelli Le moderne Turbine a gas, Ed Ulrico Hoepli, Milano, 1949 G. S. Jirițki Turbine cu gaze pentru aviație, (traducere din limba rusă), Editura Tehnică, București, 1952. V. Pimsner ș.a. Procese în mașini termice cu palete - aplicații și probleme, Editura Tehnică, București, 1986. Vezi și[modificare | modificare sursă] Termodinamică Transformări termodinamice Mașină termică Motor cu reacție Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă] en Enciclopedia BRITANNICA online en HowStuffWorks en Gas Turbine Laboratory at MIT en ASME International Gas Turbine Institute Producători de turbine cu gaze: en General Electric – turbine de tracțiune en General Electric – turbine energetice en Pratt & Whitney en Rolls Royce fr Turbomeca en Turbomecanica ro en de es Hidromecanica en Siemens AG en Alstom en Turbo Technics Ltd. en Turbo Systemes. de en MAN Turbo de Gasvergleich de Gaspreisvergleich Wikimedia Commons conține materiale multimedia legate deTurbină cu gaze Categorii: Articole de calitate Turbine cu gaze Maşini termice Turbomecanica De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă Turbomecanica este o companie producătoare de componente pentru aeronave din România. Turbomecanica este unicul producător de motoare cu turbină de gaze și ansambluri mecanice pentru aeronave din industria românească[1]. Acțiunile companiei sunt listate pe Bursa de Valori București. Principalii acționari ai companiei sunt Radu Viehmann, directorul general, cu o participație de 25,9% din acțiuni și Dana Maria Ciorapciu, cu un pachet de 15,2% din companie[2]. Compania produce pentru Rolls-Royce componente de motoare de aviație[3]. Parteneriatul dintre cele două companii datează de 30 de ani, odată cu acordarea licenței Rolls-Royce pentru fabricația motorului Viper 632 cu postcombustie și a motorului turboreactor civil Spey, Turbomecanica devenind, după 1990, furnizor al companiei britanice[3]. În decembrie 2008, capitalizarea bursieră a companiei a scăzut până la 7,4 milioane euro, adică sub valoarea terenurilor sale[4]. Cifra de afaceri: 2008: 63 milioane RON (17,1 milioane Euro)[5]2007: 91,8 milioane RON (27,5 milioane euro)[5][6] Venit net: 2008: -7,4 milioane euro (pierdere)[5]2007: 7,8 milioane lei (2,33 milioane euro)[6] Istoric[modificare | modificare sursă] Turbomecanica a fost înființată în anul 1975, pentru a produce motoare, ansambluri mecanice și echipamente pentru aeronave[1]. În perioada 1975 – 1977 s-a numit Fabrica de Motoare București, iar în perioada 1977 – 1990Turbomecanica București[1]. Din noiembrie 1990 a devenit societate pe acțiuni[1]. După 1991 din cadrul societății Turbomecanica s-au desprins două societăți comerciale: Aeroteh și Micron-Turboteh[1]. Note[modificare | modificare sursă] ^ a b c d e Profitul net al Turbomecanica a scazut cu peste 50%, in Q1, 30 Aprilie 2007, wall-stret.ro, accesat la 20 octombrie 2010 ^ Turbomecanica scoate la vânzare 3,4 hectare în București cu 11,5 mil. euro. Vezi aici unde este situat terenul, 24 august 2011, Adrian Cojocar, zf.ro ^ a b Industria aviatică romanească, incotro ?, 17 Mai 2006, wall-stret.ro, accesat la 23 ianuarie 2010 ^ Erste Bank: Ministerul de Aparare va decide viitorul Turbomecanica, accesat la 24 aprilie 2009, standard.ro ^ a b c Turbomecanica a trecut pe pierderi in 2008, cu un rezultate negativ de 27,45 milioane lei, Accesat la 24 aprilie 2009 ^ a b Turbomecanica: afaceri la jumatate si pierderi de 1,6 mil. euro, 19.05.2008, zf.ro, accesat la 11 februarie 2010 Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă] www.turbomecanica.ro - Site web oficial Acest articol legat de o corporație, intreprindere sau companie este deocamdată un ciot. Poți ajuta Wikipedia prin completarea lui! Categorii: Cioturi legate de companii Producători de componente pentru aeronave Companii din România IAR-99 Soim (Falcon) De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă Aparat de zbor IAR-99 Șoim Emblema IAR-99 IAR 99 Şoim Fișier:IAR-99 armament.png 200px IAR-99 Șoim (Falcon) este un avion militar românesc, produs de Avioane Craiova SA. Întrebuințarea principală este aceea de avion de antrenament capabil să asigure misiuni de atac la sol (CAS - close air support) precum și misiuni de recunoaștere. Cuprins [ascunde] 1 Caracteristici generale ale avionului 2 Principalele performanțe ale avionului 3 Caracteristici tehnico-tactice [1] 4 Armament [1] 5 Note 6 Legături externe Caracteristici generale ale avionului[modificare | modificare sursă] Lungimea (fără tubul Pitot) — 11,01 m Anvergura — 10,16 m Înălțimea — 3,898 m Unghiul de staționare — 1,30 Masa avionului gol echipat — 3320 kg Masa maximă la decolare: varianta lisă cu doi piloți — 4600 kg varianta de luptă cu container tun și patru suporți multipli cu 3 bombe (2 x 100 kg + 1 x 50 kg fiecare) — 5850 kg Tracțiunea motorului în condiții standard — 1760 -1814 kgf Aripa Anvergura teoretică — 9,85 m Coarda medie aerodinamică — 1,9629 m Coarda în PVS — 2,5 m Coarda la extremitate — 1,3 m Suprafața aripii — 18,71 m2 Unghiul de săgeată la 0,25c — 6°35' Unghiul diedru — 3,0° Unghiul de calare — 1,0° Profilul în PVS — NACA 64 A-214 Profilul la extremitate — NACA 64 A-212 Flapsul Suprafața — 2x1,270 m2 Semianvergura — 2,257 m Bracajul — +20°/+40° Eleronul Suprafața — 2x0,783 m2 Semianvergura — 1,808 m Bracajul — +15° Ampenajul orizontal Anvergura — 4,12 m Suprafața — 4,371 m2 Profilul — NACA 64A-009 Unghiul de săgeată la 0,25c — 9° 8' Unghiul de calare — 1° Profundorul Suprafața — 2x0,6247 m2 Bracajul — -20° / +10° Ampenajul vertical Înălțimea — 1,96 m Suprafața — 2,548 m2 Profilul — NACA 64A-008 Unghiul de săgeată la 0,25c — 34° Direcția Suprafața — 0,629 m2 Bracajul — +25 Trenul de aterizare Ecartamentul — 2,686 m Ampatamentul — 4,427 m Principalele performanțe ale avionului[modificare | modificare sursă] Varianta de antrenament Viteza maximă în zbor orizontal la H=0 760-830 km/h Viteza maximă în zbor orizontal la H=9000 m 800-850km/h Numărul Mach maxim de zbor la H=0 0,63-0,70 Numărul Mach maxim de zbor la H=9000 m 0,70-0,76 Viteza ascensională la H=0 25-30 m/s Plafonul practic (Vv =2,5 m/s) 12.000 m Lungimea de decolare 850 m Lungimea de aterizare 950 m Durata maximă de zbor cu combustibil intern (rezerva de combustibil 3%) 2h30min Distanța maxima de zbor cu combustibil intern (rezerva de combustibil 3%) 1100 km Varianta de luptă cu cinci puncte de acrosare Viteza maximă de zbor orizontal la H=0 640 km/h Viteza ascensională la H=0 15-20 m/s Plafonul practic 10.000 m Lungimea de decolare 950 m Lungimea de aterizare 1150 m Durata maximă de zbor cu combustibil intern (rezerva combustibil 10%) 1h 30min Distanța maximă de zbor (rezerva combustibil 0) 950 km Caracteristici tehnico-tactice [1][modificare | modificare sursă] Anvergură: 10,16 m Lungimea: 11, 01 m Înălțimea: 3,9 m Greutatea: 3, 32 t Greutatea maximă la decolare: 4,6 t Puterea motorului: 17,79 kN Viteza maximă 850: km/h Plafonul practic: 12 000 m Raza de acțiune: 1100 km Armament [1][modificare | modificare sursă] tun de 2x23 mm bombe: 50 kg, 100 kg, 250 kg muniție autodirijată: LGB, OPHER rachete: Python III, R3S/R13M, R60 Note[modificare | modificare sursă] ^ a b Cer senin, iulie 2004 Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă] http://www.timisoara2000.ro/avioane/iar99/iar99.shtml [ascunde] v • d • m Industria Aeronautică Română Seriile 10 - 99 IAR CV 11 • IAR-12 • IAR-13 • IAR-14 • IAR-15 • IAR-16 • IAR-21 • IAR-22 • IAR-23 • IAR-24 • IAR-27 • IAR-37 • IAR-38 • IAR-39 • IAR-46 • IAR-47 • S-79B • JRS-79B • IAR-80 • IAR-81 • IAR-93 • IAR-95 • IAR-99 Seriile 300 - 399 IAR-316 • IAR-317 • IAR-330 • IAR 330L SOCAT Seriile 800 - 899 IAR-822 • IAR-823 • IAR-825 • IAR-831 Motoare IAR IAR-7K • IAR-9K • IAR-14K • IAR-4G1 • IAR 6G1 ASTRA • Avioane Craiova • Aerostar Bacău • IAR Ghimbav • SET București • ICAR Categorie: Avioane româneşti de antrenament Ultima modificare efectuată la 15:16, 26 decembrie 2014. IAR 93 Vultur (Eagle) De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă IAR 93 IAR-93SC Tip Avion de luptă multirol Țară de origine România (în colaborare cuIugoslavia) Constructor Industria Aeronautică Română Proiectat de INCAS Romania Zbor inaugural 31 octombrie 1974 Produs 1975 - 1992 Retras aprilie 1998 Stare scos din fabricație scos din serviciu Beneficiar principal Forțele Aeriene Române Bucăți fabricate 88 Variante IAR-93A, IAR-93MB, IAR-93B modifică IAR 93 a fost un avion de luptă fabricat în România de Industria Aeronautică Română, în colaborare cu statul iugoslav. Rod al colaborării dintre specialiștii români și iugoslavi, avionul IAR 93 este un avion cu întrebuințări mutiple, putând îndeplini misiuni variate în toate condițiile meteorologice, ziua și noaptea. Primul zbor al prototipului a avut loc în data de 31 octombrie 1974, zbor care le-a confirmat proiectanților ceea ce anticipaseră prin calcule. După terminarea tuturor zborurilor de încercare, avionul a intrat în producția de serie și în dotarea Forțelor Aeriene Române. Descriere[modificare | modificare sursă] IAR 93 la Muzeul Aviației din București IAR 93 este un avion monoloc, bimotor, cu aripa sus, destinat misiunilor de cooperare și atac la sol, cu posibilități de interceptare a țintelor aeriene. Aripa are o săgeată de 43° la bordul de atac și diedrul negativ de 3,5°; este compusă din două lonjeroane, nervuri și lise, iar parțial învelișul este frezat. Pe bordul de atac se află amplasați voleți acționați hidraulic, iar pe bordul de fugă flapsuri de tip Fowler modificat. Fiecare aripă are pe extrados câte un cuțit aerodinamic, iar pe intrados câte doi piloni de acroșare. Fuselajul este de tip semimonococă, alcătuit din trei segmente: fuselajul anterior, fuselajul central și fuselajul posterior. Fuselajul anterior conține echipamente de navigație și control, jamba de bot și cabina pilotului amplasată între cele două prize de aer. Fuselajul central prezintă pe intrados două frâne aerodinamice perforate, pilonul central de acroșare și trenul principal de aterizare. Pe extrados, între cabina pilotului și ampenajul vertical, se găseste o coamă profilată aerodinamic care adăpostește trasee ale circuitelor hidraulice și comenzi de zbor. Fuselajul posterior conține cele două motoare ale avionului, ampenajul vertical și orizontal, iar pe extrados două derive. Ampenajul vertical este tip clasic, compus din derivă si direcție, iar cel orizontal este tip pendular, ambele având configurația săgeată. Trenul de aterizare este triciclu, cu roata de bot orientabilă. Atât jamba de bot (cu roată simplă), cât și trenul principal (cu roți duble) se escamotează înspre înainte, în fuselaj. Cabina pilotului este situată în fuselajul anterior, între cele două prize și este prevazută cu scaun catapultabil de tip „zero-zero”, cu ejectare prin cupolă. De asemenea, cabina este prevazuta cu aparate de navigație, control, comunicație etc. Pe avion se află montat un sistem de control al presurizării cabinei, aerului condiționat și degivrării parbrizului. Sunt prevăzute, deasemenea, două sisteme hidraulice independente pentru acționarea dispozitivelor de hipersustentație și a suprafețelor de comandă. Tot aceste două sisteme acționează frânele aerodinamice, escamotarea trenului, frânele trenului principal, parașuta de frânare și orientarea jambei de bot. Instalația electrică principală, de 28 V, este alimentată de două generatoare de 9 kW acționate de motoare. De asemenea, instalația cuprinde două baterii de 36 Ah și convertizoare statice de 700 VA. Date tehnice[modificare | modificare sursă] IAR 93 expus la Arsenal Park în Orăștie. Datele tehnice prezentate în continuare sunt pentru varianta IAR-93B, expusă laMuzeul Militar Național. Motoare: 2 x Rolls-Royce Viper MK 632-41 de 17,8 kN cu postcombustie. Performanțe: Viteza maximă: 1130 km/h la 0 m Viteza de croazieră: 730 km/h la 7000 m Viteza de ascensiune: 34 m/s fară poscombustie, 66 m/s cu postcombustie Plafon: 13000 m Distanță de decolare: 1100 m cu trecere peste obstacol de 15 m Distanță de aterizare: 1650 m cu trecere peste obstacol de 15 m Mase: Gol echipat: 6150 kg Maximă decolare: 10326 kg Dimensiuni: Anvergura 9,63 m Lungime totală: 14,88 m Înălțime: 4,45 m Suprafața portantă 26 m2. Bibliografie[modificare | modificare sursă] Wikimedia Commons conține materiale multimedia legate deIAR 93 John, Michael; Taylor, Haddrick (1991) (în engleză). Encyclopedia of modern military aircraft. Gallery Books. pp. 221. ISBN 9780831728083 [arată] v • d • m Liste legate de aeronautică [arată] v • d • m Industria Aeronautică Română Categorie: Avioane de luptă româneşti Ultima modificare efectuată la 23:45, 25 martie 2013. IAR 330 Puma SOCAT De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă IAR 330 IAR 330 Puma SOCAT Tip Elicopter de transport mediu Elicopter de atac (SOCAT) Elicopter naval (PUMA Naval) Constructor Întreprinderea Aeronautică Română Stare în producție Beneficiar principal Forțele Aeriene Române Bucăți fabricate peste 163 modifică IAR 330 este un elicopter de luptă produs de IAR sub o licență cumpărată de la firma franceză Aérospatiale; a fost una dintre puținele colaborări în plan militar dintre o țară NATO și una din blocul comunist, programul începând în iulie 1974. Au fost produse peste 163 de exemplare, aproximativ 57 fiind exportate (în țări precum Pakistan,Coasta de Fildeș, Emiratele Arabe Unite, Sudan, Ecuador). Un număr redus dintre acestea erau dotate cu flotoare gonflabile, pentru operațiuni maritime. Cuprins [ascunde] 1 IAR 330 2 Programul SOCAT 3 Variante 4 Caracteristici tehnice 4.1 Caracteristici generale 4.2 Performanțe Viteză maximă: 263 km/h () Rază de acțiune: 550 km (fără rezervoare suplimentare) () Plafon de serviciu: 4.800 m (15,750 ft) Viteză ascensională: 9,2 m/s (1.810 ft/min) Armament Puma tunuri NR-23 calibrul 23mm în gondole (2 pe lateralele botului) PRND (proiectile reactive nedirijate) S-5K/M calibrul 57mm în lansatoare multiple UB-16-57 (4 puncte de acroșare) mitraliere DȘKM calibrul 12,7mm (2 montate in cadrul usilor glisante laterale, de obicei doar una pe partea dreaptă) rachete antitanc Malyutka ghidată prin fir (4 șine), utilizate doar la teste 4 bombe de 50 sau 100 kg, utilizate doar la teste Puma SOCAT tun GIAT THL20 de calibrul 20 mm, turelat PRND (proiectile reactive nedirijate) S-5K/M calibrul 57mm în lansatoare multiple UB-16-57 (4 puncte de acroșare, uzual doar cele 2 spre interior) 8 rachete antitanc Rafael Spike-ER (cele două puncte de acroșare dinspre exterior) tun GIAT NC 621 de 20mm în gondolă cu 180 de lovituri (cele două puncte de acroșare dinspre exterior), utilizate doar la teste Note 5 Legături externe IAR 330[modificare | modificare sursă] SA 330 Puma a fost proiectat și construit de Aérospatiale pentru a satisface o cerere a Forțelor Terestre Franceze în privința unui elicopter de dimensiuni medii, capabil să opereze pe timp de noapte ori vreme nefavorabilă. În 1967, Puma a fost ales și de Forțele Aeriene Regale ale Marii Britanii, primind denumirea de Puma HC Mk.1. Ca urmare, firmele Westland Aircraft și Aérospatiale au ajuns la un acord prin care să producă împreună elicopterul. Primul dintre cele două prototipuri a zburat în 15 aprilie 1965. A fost construită o serie de producție inițială de șase aparate, ultimul zburând în 30 iulie 1968. Primul elicopter din producția de serie a decolat în septembrie 1968. Pe 25 aprilie 1978 SA 330J Puma a fost certificat pentru funcționare în condiții de vreme adversă (inclusiv îngheț), primul elicopter din afara Uniunii Sovietice care să atingă acest standard. Un număr de 697 de elicoptere au fost produse în total, până în 1987, când a fost înlocuit de o versiune mult îmbunătățită, AS 332 Eurocopter Super Puma. În afară de cele de mai sus, SA 330 a fost produs sub licență ori asamblat în Africa de Sud, de Atlas Aircraft Corporation, înRomânia de IAR și în Indonezia de IPTN. Programul SOCAT[modificare | modificare sursă] IAR-330L SOCAT Ținând cont de capacitatea de atac redusă a elicopterelor din dotare, Forțele Aeriene Române au demarat un program de îmbunătățire a unor aparate Puma, în principal prin adăugarea unor componente antitanc și senzori moderni, păstrând în același timp capacitatea de transport. Astfel a rezultat programul SOCAT (Sistem Optronic de Cercetare și Anti-Tanc). Valoarea totală a fost de 150 de milioane deeuro, programul începând cu anul 1999; 25 de elicoptere au fost modernizate și livrate Forțelor Aeriene Române (ultimul în 2005), lucrările fiind executate de societatea comercială IAR SA Brașov în cooperare cu firma Elbit din Israel. Elicopterul Puma SOCAT este multifuncțional: poate îndeplini misiuni de atac în sprijinul trupelor terestre (distrugerea mijloacelor de luptă blindate, a fortificațiilor, recunoaștere) dar și căutare-salvare ori transport de trupe, inclusiv pe timp de noapte ori vreme nefavorabilă. Prin modernizarea sistemelor electronice s-a ajuns la îmbunătățirea capacității de a descoperi și combate inamicul; de asemenea, sistemele de navigație asigură precizie pe distanțe lungi și zbor la joasă înălțime. Alte îmbunătățiri constau în implementarea conceptului HOTAS - Hands on Throttle And Stick (manevrarea aparatului și a sistemelor vitale fără a lua mâna de pe controale) și capacitatea de a transmite date de cercetare în timp real. În privința sistemelor de armament, elicopterul este dotat cu stație de avertizare radar și iluminare laser, dispersoare de ținte false radar și capcane termice; din punct de vedere ofensiv, poate folosi rachete anti-tanc, aer-aer, proiectile reactive nedirijate și tunul turelat de calibrul 20 mm. Țintele pot fi identificate de la o distanță de circa 5-6 km, ziua și noaptea; pentru atacarea țintelor se pot folosi imaginile transmise prin fibră optică de rachetele lansate anterior. Variante[modificare | modificare sursă] IAR 330H - prima variantă, construită între 1975-1977. IAR 330L - model îmbunătățit fabricat din 1977, cu pale din materiale compozite. IAR 330 Puma SOCAT - elicopter de atac, specializat în misiuni antitanc. 25 au fost transformate între 1999-2005.[1] Trei au fost pierdute în accidente. IAR 330M - variantă modernizată, cu echipamente similare versiunii SOCAT, dar fără armamentul și senzorii specifici. 16 elicoptere au fost aduse la acest standard, patru dintre acestea fiind MEDEVAC. Un elicopter Medevac a fost pierdut in accident. IAR 330 Puma Naval - elicopter navalizat, 3 au fost livrate Forțelor Navale Române în martie 2009. IAR 330 Puma SM - o variantă modernizată destinată Emiratelor Arabe Unite.[2] 15 elicoptere IAR 330/SA 330 vor fi modernizate de IAR Brașov și 10 vor fi noi.[3]Caracteristici tehnice[modificare | modificare sursă] Schiţe ale IAR 330 din diferite poziţii. IAR 330 in varianta de evacuare medicală. Elicopter Puma Naval al Forțelor Navale Române. Caracteristici generale Echipaj: 3 Capacitate: 16 pasageri Lungime: 18,22 m () Diametrul rotorului: 15,08 m () Înălțime: 5,14 m (16 ft 10 in) Greutate (gol): 3.615 kg () Greutate încărcat: () Greutate maximă la decolare: 7400 kg () Motor: 2× TURMO IV B turbopropulsor, 1.575 cai putere (1.175 kW) fiecare Performanțe Viteză maximă: 263 km/h () Rază de acțiune: 550 km (fără rezervoare suplimentare) () Plafon de serviciu: 4.800 m (15,750 ft) Viteză ascensională: 9,2 m/s (1.810 ft/min) Armament Puma tunuri NR-23 calibrul 23mm în gondole (2 pe lateralele botului) PRND (proiectile reactive nedirijate) S-5K/M calibrul 57mm în lansatoare multiple UB-16-57 (4 puncte de acroșare) mitraliere DȘKM calibrul 12,7mm (2 montate in cadrul usilor glisante laterale, de obicei doar una pe partea dreaptă) rachete antitanc Malyutka ghidată prin fir (4 șine), utilizate doar la teste 4 bombe de 50 sau 100 kg, utilizate doar la teste Puma SOCAT tun GIAT THL20 de calibrul 20 mm, turelat PRND (proiectile reactive nedirijate) S-5K/M calibrul 57mm în lansatoare multiple UB-16-57 (4 puncte de acroșare, uzual doar cele 2 spre interior) 8 rachete antitanc Rafael Spike-ER (cele două puncte de acroșare dinspre exterior) tun GIAT NC 621 de 20mm în gondolă cu 180 de lovituri (cele două puncte de acroșare dinspre exterior), utilizate doar la teste Note ^ IAR Brașov. „Combat support Puma helicopter with SOCAT system for RAF” (în engleză). iar.ro. Accesat la 20 mai 2012. ^ IAR Brașov. „Multirole Puma SM helicopter for UAE SOC” (în engleză). iar.ro. Accesat la 20 mai 2012. ^ Jane's (25 iunie 2001). „Eurocopter Romania awaits UAE contract” (în engleză). janes.com. Accesat la 20 mai 2012. Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă] Wikimedia Commons conține materiale multimedia legate deIAR 330 Descrierea aparatului pe situl oficial al Forțelor Aeriene Române Aparate construite la IAR Participarea IAR la prezentări în străinătate [arată] v • d • m Liste legate de aeronautică [arată] v • d • m Industria Aeronautică Română Categorie: Elicoptere româneşti Ultima modificare efectuată la 21:42, 22 noiembrie 2014. TR-85 M1 Zimbru (Bison) De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă (Redirecţionat de la TR-85 M1) TR-85 TR-85M1 Bizonul la Expomil 2005 Tip Tanc principal de luptă Loc de origine România Istoric operațional În uz 1986-prezent Folosit de Forțele Terestre Române Istoric producție An proiectare 1978–1986 Producător Uzina Mecanică București(ROMARM) An producție 1986-1990 (TR-85) 1999-prezent (TR-85M1) Date generale (TR-85M1) Greutate 50 tone Lungime 9,96 m (incl. țeava) Lățime 3,43 m Înălțime 3,10 m Echipaj 4 Blindaj 200 mm stratificat (șasiu) 320+20 mm blindaj suplimentar (turelă) Armament principal 1 × tun 100 mm cu țeavă ghintuită 41 de proiectile Armament secundar 1 × mitralieră PK coaxială 7,62 mm (4500 de cartușe) 1 × mitralieră antiaeriană DShK 12,7 mm (750 de cartușe) lansator de grenade: 6 tuburi 81 mm (20 de grenade fumigene) Motor Model 8VS-A2T2M, diesel, 8 cilindri, 4 timpi, supraalimentat, 860 CP (640 kW) Putere specifică 17,2 CP/t Transmisie hidromecanică Suspensie bară de torsiune Autonomie 400 km Viteză maximă 60 km/h modifică Tancul TR-85 (Tanc Românesc Model 1985) este un tanc principal de luptă proiectat în România, bazat pe șasiul tancului TR-77-580(succesorul românesc al lui T-55). Varianta modernizată a acestui tanc, TR-85M1 "Bizonul", este compatibilă cu standardele NATO. Cuprins [ascunde] 1 Predecesori 2 Proiectare 3 Modernizare 4 Utilizare 5 Variante 6 Apariții media 7 Galerie 8 Note 9 Bibliografie 10 Legături externe Predecesori[modificare | modificare sursă] Articole principale: T-55 și TR-77-580. TR-85-800 (prim-plan) și TR-77-580 (dreapta) la Muzeul Militar Național"Regele Ferdinand I" din București După evenimentele cunoscute sub numele de "Primăvara de la Praga", Republica Socialistă România a adoptat o nouă doctrină națională de apărare. Aceasta necesita o industrie proprie de armament. În luna aprilie a anului 1968 este prezentat Consiliului de Apărare al țării un raport privind fabricarea tancurilor în România. La 13 octombrie 1972, acest raport este aprobat. Programul de fabricare în țară a unuitanc mijlociu românesc a fost demarat pe 13 mai 1974.[1] Tancul urma să aibă o greutate de aproximativ 40 de tone, un tun de calibru 100 mm și un motor de 800 de cai putere. Primul pas către proiectarea unui tanc românesc a fost obținerea unei licențe pentru fabricarea a 400 de tancuri T-55, adaptate însă cerințelor Armatei Române și posibilităților industriei naționale. Versiunea românească a tancului sovietic T-55 a fost denumită TR-77, fiind proiectată între anii 1974 și 1980. Varianta finală, denumită TR-77-580 (Tanc Românesc model 1977 cu motor de 580 de cai putere), a fost fabricată între 1979 și 1985. Tancul TR-77 a fost un model tranzitoriu prin care industria de armament autohtonă a căpătat experiență în fabricarea vehiculelor blindate grele. Proiectare[modificare | modificare sursă] Concomitent cu proiectarea tancului TR-77, au fost aprobate cercetările pentru dezvoltarea unui sistem energetic de mare putere, capabil să genereze peste 800 de cai putere. Proiectarea motorului s-a realizat între anii 1974 și 1982 de către Institutul Național de Motoare Termice. Acesta dezvolta 830 de cai putere. Transmisia hidromecanică a fost dezvoltată de către ICSITEM București, având la bază modelul proiectat de Hidromecanica Brașov. Noul tanc, proiectat între 1978-1986, a fost denumit TR-85-800 (Tanc Românesc model 1985 cu motor de 800 de cai putere). Producția a fost realizată între anii 1986 și 1990, cu un ritm mediu de 100 de exemplare pe an, la Fabrica de Mașini Grele Speciale a Întreprinderii "23 August" din București. Modernizare[modificare | modificare sursă] TR-85M1 la parada militară din București, cu prilejul Zilei Naționale a României (2008) În luna martie a anului 1994 este inițiat, prin ordinul S/M 1429, un program de modernizare a tancului TR-85M1 "Bizonul". La 14 aprilie 1994 acest proiect este aprobat de către Consiliul Suprem de Apărare al Țării. Proiectarea noului tanc a început în anul 1996, când au fost construite și primele două prototipuri. Firmele implicate în program au fost atât din străinătate (EADS, Thales, SFIM/ODS, RKS, Sagem, Kollmorgen, Racall), cât și din România (Agenția de Cercetare pentru Tehnică și Tehnologii Militare, Faur, IOR, Romarm, Hidromecanica Brașov, IOEL[2]). Transformarea tancurilor TR-85 a început un an mai târziu. Obiectivul programului de modernizare a tancurilor a fost asigurarea interoperabilității cu tehnologia NATO. Au fost aduse îmbunătățiri sistemului de conducere al focului, mobilității, protecției, sistemelor de comunicații și a celor de vedere pe timp de noapte. TR-85M1 este de fapt un tanc nou, complet diferit de T-55, fiindcă are un șasiu modificat (extins), un motor diferit, o turelă nouă și sisteme îmbunătățite de conducere a focului. Utilizare[modificare | modificare sursă] În 1993, România avea în inventarul armatei 632 de tancuri TR-85. În 2008 erau în inventarul Armatei Române 265 de tancuri TR-85 [3]. Conform Institutului Internațional de Studii Strategice, în 2010 erau în uz 249 de tancuri TR-85 și 54 de tancuri TR-85M1.[4] Variante[modificare | modificare sursă] DMT-85M1 TR-85-800 - Prima variantă a tancului. TR-85M1 "Bizonul" - Versiunea modernizată a tancului TR-85, folosită în prezent de Forțele Terestre. DMT-85M1 (Dragor de mine pe șasiu de tanc TR-85M1) - vehicul blindat specializat, de geniu, folosit pentru neutralizarea minelor terestre antitanc. Cinci bucăți au fost construite între 2007-2009. Apariții media[modificare | modificare sursă] În cadrul primului episod al producției BBC "World's Toughest Driving Tests", prezentatorii britanici Will Mellor și Kirsten O'Brien au condus tancul TR-85M1 la Școala de Aplicație pentru Unități de Luptă "Mihai Viteazul" din Pitești. Episodul a fost difuzat pentru prima dată pe 23 februarie 2010 la postul BBC Three.[5] Galerie[modificare | modificare sursă] TR-85M1 Bizonul: TR-85: Note[modificare | modificare sursă] ^ Nicolae Ceaușescu și problemele tancurilor produse în țară, 22 mai 2009, Dr. Petre Opriș, Jurnalul Național, accesat la 2 iunie 2013 ^ Departamentul pentru armamente ^ Rapoarte ONU ^ The Military Balance 2010, p.157 ^ BBC Three Programmes Bibliografie[modificare | modificare sursă] ro Locotenent-colonel ing. Alexandru Caravan, Tancul Românesc - O istorie, Buletinul de Teorie Militară editat de Statul Major al Forțelor Terestre, anul II, nr. 1(5) din 2010. en Christopher F. Foss, Armour & Artillery 2005/2006 (Jane's Armour & Artillery), Jane's Information Group, ISBN 071062686X en Marsh Gelbart, Tanks : Main Battle Tanks and Light Tanks (Brassey's Modern Military Equipment), Brassey's UK,ISBN 185753168X en Alan K. Russel, Modern Battle Tanks and Support Vehicles (Greenhill Military Manuals), Greenhill Books, ISBN 978-1853672583 Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă] Wikimedia Commons conține materiale multimedia legate deTR-85 TR-85M1 Specificații tehnice ROMARM Made in Romania: Achtung! T.R., 10 iulie 2010, Laurentiu Dologa, Ziare.com [arată] v • d • m Vehiculele blindate ale Armatei Române după al Doilea Război Mondial [arată] v • d • m Tancuri moderne Categorii: Tancuri Tancuri din România Ultima modificare efectuată la 05:44, 31 ianuarie 2015.
  7. articole Tehnica Germana Uitata - Linkuri

    http://www.rexresearch.com/coler/coler2.htm Tastati http://www.rexresearch.com/ si adaugati coler/coler2.htm. rexresearch.com Han's Coler's "Free Energy" Generators by Robert A. Nelson Copyright 1999 HANS COLER's GERMAN PATENT ( PDF Format ) Immediately after World War Two, Allied technical teams plundered all the scientific data they could find in Germany. Much of what they learned remains classified to this day. One most remarkable exception to this secrecy is the declassified British Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee (BIOS) Final Report #1043, Item #32: "The Invention of Hans Coler Relating to an Alleged New Source of Power". Coler was interviewed by R. Hurst (Ministry of Supply) and Capt. R. Sandberg (Norwegian Army): "[Naval Captain] Hans Coler is the inventor of two devices by which it is alleged that electric energy may be derived without a chemical or mechanical source of power. Since an official interest was taken in his inventions by the German Admiralty it was felt that an investigation was warranted, although normally it would be considered that such a claim could only be fraudulent... Accordingly, Coler was visited and interrogated. He proved to be cooperative and willing to discuss all details of his devices, and consented to build and put into operation a small model of the so-called Magnetstromapparat [Magnet Current Apparatus]... With this device, consisting only of permanent magnets, copper coils and condensers in a static arrangement, he showed that he could obtain a tension of 450 mv for several hours... One model is said to have worked for three months locked in a room in the Norwegian Legation in Berlin in 1933... The greatest tension obtained was 12 volts." Coler also invented another device called the Stromzeuger (Current Generator). He claimed that, "with an input of a few watts from a dry battery an output of 6 kW could be obtained indefinitely." The last and largest model which Coler built was destroyed by a bomb in 1945, but "Coler expressed his willingness to construct it, given the materials, the time required being about 3 weeks." The public version of the BIOS report does not state whether or not this was done. However, Bill Lehr (d. 1996) informed this writer that a close friend of his once saw a Stromzeuger in operation in the offices of MI5 in London, and a copy of the original BIOS report which was over 200 pages in length. The declassified report is a mere 30 pages long. Hurst and Sandberg also interviewed Dr. F. Modersohn, who had been collaborated with Coler and financed his research for 10 years; he corroborated every detail of Coler's story. The Magnetstromapparat was developed by Coler and von Unruh (who had died by 1945), and they were assisted by Franz Haid of Siemens-Schukert. Haid also built a working model which was seen in operation by Dr. Kurt Mie (Berlin Technische Hochschule) and Herr Fehr, who was the assistant of the renowned scientist Fritz Haber. The Magnetstromapparat was described thus: "This device consists of 6 permanent magnets wound in a special way so that the circuit includes the magnet itself as well as the winding (Fig. 1). These 6 magnet-coils are arranged in a hexagon and connected as shown in the diagram (Figs. 2 & 3), in a circuit which includes two small condensers, a switch, and a pair of solenoid coils, one sliding inside the other. To bring the device into operation the switch is left open, the magnets are moved slightly apart, and the sliding coil set into various positions, with a wait of several minutes between adjustments. The magnets are then separated still further, and the coils moved again. This process is repeated until at a critical separation an indication appears on the voltmeter. The switch is now closed, and the procedure continued more slowly. The tension then builds up gradually to a maximum, and should then remain indefinitely. The greatest tension obtained was stated to be 12 volts... "In our presence, Coler built an apparatus as shown in Figures 1-3. It is to be noted that some of the magnets are wound in a clockwise direction looking at the N pole (called left) and others in an anti-clockwise direction (called right). The magnets were selected to be as nearly equal in strength as possible, and the resistance of the magnet-coil combination was checked after winding to see that this also was uniform (about 0.33 ohm). The physical arrangement was as shown in Fig. 2. A mechanical arrangement of sliders and cranks for separating the magnets evenly all around was made up. "When the magnets were at a separation of about 7 mm, the first small deflection was noted. The switch was closed and by slow adjustment of the sliding coil, and by increasing the separation of the magnets to just over 8 mm, the tension was raised to 250 millivolts. This was maintained for another 3 hours when a soldered tag became disconnected, and the meter slowly dropped back to zero. Soldering up the broken connection did not restore the tension. The magnets were closed up and left overnight, and the same procedure for adjustment was repeated on 2-7-46. After about 3 hours a deflection of 60 millivolts was obtained; this was maintained for more than 30 minutes, but then decreased to zero when further adjustments were tried. "During all this work the model was completely open, and nothing could be hidden in it. The breadboard and meter could be picked up and moved round the room, tilted, or turned, without effect. "The apparatus would appear to be to crude to act as a receiver of broadcast energy, or to operate by induction from the mains (the nearest cable was 6 feet away), and the result must for the moment be regarded as inexplicable" "[Coler was of the opinion that] ferro-magnetism was an oscillating phenomenon, of frequency about 180 kilohertz. This oscillation took place in the magnetic circuit of the apparatus, and induced in the electrical circuit the frequency which of course depended on the value of the components used. These two phenomena interacted, and gradually built up the tension... Coler stated that the strength of the magnets did not decrease during the use of the apparatus, and suggested that he was tapping a new sort of energy hitherto unknown "Raumenergie" (Space-energy). "It was judged that Coler was an honest experimenter and not a fraud... The result obtained was genuine insofar as could be tested with the facilities available, but no attempt has yet been made to find an explanation of the phenomenon." The Stromzeuger was invented in 1925, at which time Coler showed a 10-watt model to Prof. Kloss in Berlin. Kloss tried to interest the German government in the invention, but his request was refused (as was Coler's patent application) because it was a "perpetual motion machine". The model was also seen by Prof. Schumann (of terrestial resonance fame), Pr. Bragstad (Trondheim), and Pr. Knudsen (Copenhagen). Kloss and Schumann wrote reports explaining the physics of its operation, which apparently amplified the Barkhausen Effect to a useful level. The Stromzeuger was described in the BIOS report as follows: This device consists of an arrangement of magnets, flat coils, and copper plates, with a primary circuit energized by a small dry battery. The output from the secondary was used to light a bank of lamps and was claimed to be many times the original input, and to continue indefinitely." Coler and von Unruh constructed a 70 watt model of the Stromzeuger in 1933 and demonstrated it to Dr. F. Modersohn, who subsequently financed the development of the invention and established the Coler Gmbh. for the purpose. In 1937, Coler built a 6 KW version of the Stromzeuger. In 1942, Modersohn demonstrated the device to the Research Dept. of the German Navy, which intervened and supplied them with materials, meters and tools. Thereafter the research was directed by Oberbaurat (Naval Construction Chief) Seysen, who assigned Dr. H. Frolich to assist Coler for several months. The operation of the newly developed apparatus turned out to be more complicated than they had first thought, but progress was made. The large Stromzeuger was destroyed by a bomb which struck Coler's house in Kolberg (Pomerania) in 1945. Coler had been powering his house with the unit for three years. Hurst and Sandberg gave a summary account of the Stromzeuger in their report: "The basic principle is that an electron is to be regarded not only as a negatively charged particle but also as a South magnetic pole. "The basic element is that of an open secondary circuit, capacity loaded, inductively coupled to a primary circuit. The novel feature is that the capacities are connected to the secondary core through permanent magnets, as shown in Figure 4. "It is claimed that, on switching on the primary circuit, "separation of charges" takes place, i.e., Magnet 1 becomes positively charged and Magnet 2 becomes negatively charged, and that these charges are "magnetically polarized" when they are formed, owing to the presence of the magnets. On switching off the primary circuit a "reversing current" flows in the secondary, but the magnets "do not exert a polarizing effect on this reversal". "Two of these basic elements are now placed together making a double system or stage with the plates close together in parallel planes as shown in Figure 5. The secondary windings are both exactly equal and wound in a direction such that on switching on the primary coil the electrons in the secondary coil flow from P1 to P2 [P = Plate] and F1 to F2 [F = "Flat Spool"]. "It is then stated that system merely has an inducing effect, and the useful current comes into existence in the system. "A single stage cannot be effective but two stages connected so that the numbers of effective North and South poles are equal will provide a basic working arrangement. More double stages can then be added to provide higher outputs. "It is then stated that as well as the normal electrons flowing from the battery and from induction when the circuit is opened or closed, "space electron" flow from "repelling spaces" to "attracting spaces" between the plates" Professors M. Kloss and R. Franke (Technical College of Berlin) tested the Stromzeuger in March 1926; their report was included in BIOS Report 1043: "The apparatus consists of: a double row system of copper plates, a double-row system of flat spools, and a system of electromagnets, to whose cores silver wires are attached and through which branch currents of the plate-system are conducted. For each of the three systems a 3-part accumulator battery of 6 volts/6.5 ampere-hours capacity is provided. The plate-circuit and the spool circuit are parallel so that the two batteries appertaining thereto can also be replaced by a single battery. This was ascertained by switching off the one battery while the apparatus was working. "When asked why two batteries were used at all, Capt. Coler declared that for starting the apparatus a double battery is necessary to get a second charge-impetus after exciting with the one battery, and this for releasing the peculiar character of the apparatus. A test confirmed this assertion in as much as the mechanism could not be started with the single battery; on the contrary, the "adjustment" of the mechanism got disturbed. "Current-indicators are built into each of the three circuits mentioned, as well as volt-meters, behind some switch resistances necessary for the "adjustment". Between the open ends of the two plate and spool-systems there are the terminal clamps for the effective circuit for whose loading 3 bulbs of 8 volts are provided. The apparatus was then put into action and above all the load was tested with the aid of the built-in instruments, that is on being loaded with [2-3] lamps… "The consumption of energy in the external circuit is greater than the energy taken from the batteries. According to the circuit, the magnet-exciting circuit is fed by a special battery, completely separated from the other two circuits. Consequently, a direct comparison of efficiency and consumption of the apparatus would mean that only the sum of current of the plate circuit and of the spool circuit would count. "The reception of current from the two batteries in this case was 1.7 watt while the consumption of the bulbs amounted to about 8 watt. Especially striking in this connection is the considerably higher current-power in the bulb-circuit being about 12 times bigger than the current coming from the two batteries." Professor W.O. Schumann (Munich) also tested the Stromzeuger in 1926; his 6-page analysis was included in an appendix of the BIOS Report: "The apparatus in question principally consists of two parallel connected spools, which being bifilarly wound in a special way, are magnetically linked together. One of these spools is composed of copper sheets (the spool is called the plate spool), the other one of a number of thin parallel connected isolated wires (called: spool winding), running parallel at small intervals to the plates. Both spools can be fed by separate batteries; at least two batteries are necessary to put the spools to work. "The spools are arranged in two halves each, according to the bifilar winding system. The batteries are attached to the starting points, and the current-receivers to the parallel connected ends. Inter-communications are connected between parallel windings of the two halves of the plate spool which contain iron rods with silver connections. These rods are magnetized by a special battery through applied windings (called: exciter windings). "According to the statement of the inventor, the production of energy principally takes place in these iron rods, and the winding of the spools plays an important part in it (The form of the spool is a long small rectangle). "The inventor stated that the apparatus in its installation was very sensitive, especially with regard to the magnetic conditions of the iron cores, and that a wrong treatment [internal measurements] would cause interferences which would be wearisome and very difficult to be eliminated. "The exciter winding is electrically completely separated from the other windings... "Installed in the apparatus were 3 current meters for the currents from the 3 batteries, and furthermore current and volt meters for the current receivers. One and two bulbs respectively were employed for this purpose. "As a striking fact it should be mentioned that the spool circuit having been at first always switched on alone, received a current of 104 mA. As soon as plates and exciter circuit additionally and simultaneously were turned on, as, according to the inventor, the apparatus demands it, the current in the spool circuit comes down to about 27 mA. "After the present examination, carried through as carefully as [possible], I must surmise that we have to face the exploitation of a new source of energy whose further developments can be of an immense importance. I believe that a further development of the apparatus will prove justified and of great importance." In 1943, Hans Coler and Dr. Heinz Frohlich made a report to the Research Department of the Admiralty (OKM) in Berlin, in which they described the Stromzeuger: "The apparatus consists of three principle circuits which are inter-wound and inter-coupled in a peculiar way. Some of these are divided again into single subsidiary circuits which evidently have all to be brought into resonance with one another. "The principal circuits (called the anchor) in which the energy gain probably occurs, consists of metal plates between which transformer coils are connected, the whole being connected to one large coil plate. On each of the single windings on this is coupled a large flat coil (called field). These flat coils are interwound in two groups; these groups represent the turns of a transformer. This couples, on one hand on the flat coils of the other group (as secondary coils), and on the other hand on the anchor-plate coil, which is placed between them. The third electrically independent circuit (called the directing circuit) regulates this transference. Figure 1 [not included in the BIOS Report] shows diagramatically and in plan these interwound parts. Figure 2, the so-called basic diagram, shows the connections between these different parts. This basic diagram shows the conditions necessary for self-interruption. In consequence of this arrangement, different types of currents are created in different conductors (pulsed DC, AC, etc.). "The transformer coils, connected between the anchor plates, are connected in a peculiar way through thin permanent magnet rods. Their main object seems to be to pre-magnetize the transformer cores; it is, however, very probable that they are also connected with the Barkhausen Effect." In his report Coler also described the following simple, significant experiment: "Given a solenoid consisting of two windings, one upon the other, of the same length and number of turns, enclosing a soft iron cylindrical core. Firmly attached to one end of the core is a pre-magnetized steel rod. If an alternating current is passed through one of these coils, acting as primary, the residual magnetism of the steel rod is strengthened during one half cycle, through the magnetism induced in the core, during the other half it is weakened. If now the other winding is connected in series with the pre-magnetized steel rod (as secondary coil) in such a way that the secondary current must pass through the magnet, one half cycle of the secondary current must be more or less subdued; in other words, a rectifying effect must be created. It may be remembered that according to measurement by Profs. Kloss and Schumann a high-frequency pulsed direct current ~ about 180 kc ~ is flowing in the output resistance of the apparatus, for the creation of which no other explanation is possible." Another experiment with two double-wound solenoids, connected in series, revealed that "in such a secondary circuit a considerable DC component exists which can be strengthened by means which we shall not go into here…" Experiments were conducted with the plate and flat coil unit to test their interactions: As the plates are not only charged as condensers, but also have directed currents passing through them it had to be assumed that their mutual influences not only consisted of a condenser effect, but that they also created a magnetic field… It appeared that the "Ankertrakte" AC or BD are not all to be considered as oscillating units, but that the single group systems, consisting of plate - to anchor coils - plate, already represent independent oscillation circuits. According to this the apparatus contained ten such oscillation circuits… In order to make the apparatus work the harmony of all oscillating circuits in their individual frequencies would evidently be necessary -- at least within certain limits determined by the suppression in question… The previous occasional success must be considered as due to chance. The mutual influence of the flat coils upon one another could not the other hand easily be examined because, despite the great distance between the windings (25 mm), they have remarkably great apparent resistance (about 200 ohms at 10 kc). It appeared that the power factor of both of the flat coils wound 1:1, in consequence of their peculiar interwinding have the astonishingly high value of 0.85. The value of the power factor was at a maximum at 10 kc, at which frequency the most favorable matching of the impedance… was obtained. The repeated mention of 10 kc is also found in the scientific literature on the Barkhausen Effect. After all his experiments and measurements, Coler offered the following explanation of the way in which the apparatus works: "Due to the connecting of the batteries, a current impulse is induced in the anchor circuit which charges the plates. The discharge circuit from the plates causes electrical interruption of short duration of the battery current in the field circuit, which furthermore inductively interrupts, or changes the direction of, the battery current in the directing current for a short time. The electromagnetic field induced by this process in the directing circuit by its dissipation, induces over the field circuit a current in the anchor circuit recharging the plates, and so forth. "Due to the influence of the Barkhausen Effect each single process has an impulse-like character, and the necessary change of phase is produced to allow the regularity of the process. "Due to a source, up to the present not investigated, and not explainable by existing scientific theories, an additional quantity of energy is freed during each cycle which leads to a continual raising of the amplitude of the mutual processes, until the magnetic cores are saturated. "From the fact that in the resistance of the apparatus pulsed direct current is flowing… There is possibly an up to now unknown rectifying effect, or alternatively the gain in energy is produced only during one half of the cycle, either during the charging or discharging of the plates. The activity in the apparatus must take place in the ten oscillation circuits in a phase-like manner… No technical means were available to make the necessary tuning adjustments. "It is clear from the above that the success of the inventor up to now could only be due to chance, or happy accident. The necessity, therefore, arises to transfer the apparatus from the state of empirical development, with sufficient technical means and based on results of an exact basic research, to a state of working procedure which can be controlled." Other experiments, conducted by Frohlich with the arrangement in Figure 6, convinced Coler that his theory was correct: "The result obtained with this experimental arrangement… was the clear proof of a considerably larger energy during opening (intake), compared with closing impulses. The [10-50%] difference is always in favor of the opening impulse… Consequently this observation can also be considered as a proof of the fact that an energy difference exists. [There is a] considerable, but extremely short, energy peak of the opening impulse. My development of the "Space Energy Receiver" was based on this and was successful." In the 1980s, George Hathaway (Planetary Association for Clean Energy, PACE) constructed a Magnetstromapparat that produced 50 millivolts, and demonstrated it at unconventional technology conferences. There has been no news of further development. The Barkhausen Effect upon which the Coler inventions work is a low-field phenomenon that occurs when a ferromagnetic material is subjected to a change in the applied magnetic field. A series of discontinuous steps develop, corresponding to reversals in magnetization domain volumes from 10-10 to 10-8 cm3. The size of the discontinuities can be increased by stressing the magnet. Possibly the soft iron magnets which Coler used were subjected to such stress by ultrasonic magnetostriction from the coil windings at the 180 kHz resonant frequency. One can only wonder why British Intelligence (sic) declassified the Coler report, but we can be glad they did. If only they had seen fit to include more schematics of the Stromzeuger, because the available diagrams are woefully inadequate. At least we now know a few key facts, to wit: (1) Ferromagnetism resonates at 180 Khz; (2) The Barkhausen Effect can be amplified to provide useful power (10 Khz is another key frequency here); (3) "Some of the magnets are wound in a clockwise direction looking at the N pole (called left) and others in an anti-clockwise direction (called right)". The resistance of the magnet-coil combination was about 0.33 ohm; (4) "The basic principle is that an electron is to be regarded not only as a negatively charged particle but also as a South magnetic pole"; (5) "The novel feature is that the capacities are connected to the secondary core through permanent magnets"; (6) "There is a considerable, but extremely short, energy peak of the opening impulse". It is to be hoped that the Stromzeuger can be redeveloped, since it is a relatively simple, low technology device requiring no exotic components. It should not be left "to chance, or a happy accident", as it was for Hans Coler. Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 http://www.overunity.com/index.php?PHPSESSID=e70c2a40892cdf99425bcbeb7e98729a&topic=6646.0;topicseen Michelinho, Sr. Member « on: January 25, 2009, 02:12:26 AM » Captain Hans Coler (Kohler) Magnetstromapparat (Magnet Power Apparatus) Hi all, After reading all I found about Captain Hans Coler work, I decided to replicate his Magnetstromapparat (Magnet Power Apparatus) and after I will do the Stromerzeuger. Thanks to pese for the most than welcome info on this little marvel. Don't know if it will work but if I won't know if I don't try. Here are the first pictures of my replication of the magnetstromapparat. The setup is not finish and still a few things to do before the tests start. Enjoy, Michel Your Support Maintains this Service -- BUY The Rex Research Civilization Kit ... It's Your Best Bet & Investment in Sustainable Humanity on Earth ... Ensure & Enhance Your Survival & Genome Transmission ... Everything @ rexresearch.com plus Bonus Files on a Data DVD ! ORDER PAGE << $13, Postpaid Anywhere >> Rex Research, POB 19250, Jean, NV 89019 USA Barkhausen effect From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For the occurrence of stable oscillations in a positive feedback loop, see Barkhausen stability criterion. Magnetization (J) or flux density ( curve as a function of magnetic field intensity (H) in ferromagnetic material. The inset shows Barkhausen jumps. Domain wall motion with a Barkhausen jump The Barkhausen effect is a name given to the noise in the magnetic output of a ferromagnet when the magnetizing force applied to it is changed. Discovered by German physicist Heinrich Barkhausen in 1919, it is caused by rapid changes of size of magnetic domains (similarly magnetically oriented atoms in ferromagnetic materials). Barkhausen's work in acoustics and magnetism led to the discovery, which provided evidence that magnetization affects whole domains of a ferromagnetic material, rather than individual atoms alone. The Barkhausen effect is a series of sudden changes in the size and orientation of ferromagnetic domains, or microscopic clusters of aligned atomic magnets (spins), that occurs during a continuous process of magnetization or demagnetization. The Barkhausen effect offered direct evidence for the existence of ferromagnetic domains, which previously had been postulated theoretically. Heinrich Barkhausen discovered that a slow, smooth increase of a magnetic field applied to a piece of ferromagnetic material, such as iron, causes it to become magnetized, not continuously but in minute steps. Contents [hide] · 1 Barkhausen noise · 2 Practical use · 3 References · 4 External links Barkhausen noise[edit] A coil of wire wound on the ferromagnetic material can demonstrate the sudden, discontinuous jumps in magnetization. The sudden transitions in the magnetization of the material produce current pulses in the coil. These can be amplified to produce a series of clicks in a loudspeaker. This sounds as crackle, complete with skewed pulses which sounds like candy being unwrapped, Rice Krispies, or a pine log fire. Hence the name Barkhausen noise. Similar effects can be observed by applying only mechanical stresses (e.g. bending) to the material placed in the detecting coil. These magnetization jumps are interpreted as discrete changes in the size or rotation of ferromagnetic domains. Some microscopic clusters of atomic spins aligned with the external magnetizing field increase in size by a sudden reversal of neighbouring spins; and, especially as the magnetizing field becomes relatively strong, other whole domains suddenly turn into the direction of the external field. Simultaneously, due to exchange interactions the spins tend to align themselves with their neighbours. The tension between the various pulls creates avalanching, where a group of neighbouring domains will flip in quick succession to align with the external field. So the material magnetizes neither gradually nor all at once, but in fits and starts. Practical use[edit] A set-up for non-destructive testing of ferromagnetic materials: green – magnetising yoke, red – inductive sensor, grey – sample under test. The amount of Barkhausen noise for a given material is linked with the amount of impurities, crystal dislocations, etc. and can be a good indication of mechanical properties of such a material. Therefore, the Barkhausen noise can be used as a method of non-destructive evaluation of the degradation of mechanical properties in magnetic materials subjected to cyclic mechanical stresses (e.g. in pipeline transport) or high-energy particles (e.g. nuclear reactor) or materials such as high-strength steels which may be subjected to damage from grinding. Schematic diagram of a simple non-destructive set-up for such a purpose is shown on the right. Barkhausen noise can also indicate physical damage in a thin film structure due to various nanofabrication processes such as reactive ion etching or using an ion milling machine.[1] References[edit] 1. Jump up^ Fukumoto, Yoshiyuki; Kamijo (February 2002). "Effect of Milling Depth of the Junction Pattern on Magnetic Properties and Yields in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions". Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41: L183–L185. Bibcode:2002JaJAP..41L.183F. doi:10.1143/jjap.41.l183. External links[edit] · Barkhausen Effect Video demonstrating the effect · Barkhausen Noise grinding burn and heat treat defect monitoring Categories: · Magnetic ordering Despre generatorul Searl: Tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati pUUvhuQtba4; tQqkHA6LWYA; sVLRKDlE8c4; GqPhwuakcLM; Mo3p_F37930. Despre efectul Biefield-Brown: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 1Q0yxatzGAg; xfGqINFNL40 si Thomas Townsend Brown: Thomas Townsend Brown De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă Thomas Townsend Brown (n. 18 martie 1905 - d. 22 octombrie 1985) a fost un fizician american. În 1921, efectuând experiente pe un tub de raze X inventat de Coolidge, a descoperit ceea ce ulterior a fost denumitefectul Biefeld–Brown. În 1930 intră în United States Navy, unde își continuă cercetările fizice în domenii ca:electromagnetism, radiație, spectroscopie, gravitație, fizica câmpului. În 1955 pleacă în Anglia și ulterior în Franța unde lucrează la diverse companii aeriene continuându-și cercetările, ocupându-se și de domeniul obiectelor zburătoare neidentificate. Tastati https://www.google.ro/search?q=thomas+townsend+brown+gravitator&newwindow=1&site=webhp&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei= si adaugati BKumVMrHKIrkasz4grgP&ved=0CCcQsAQ&biw=1003&bih=617 https://www.google.ro/search?q=thomas+townsend+brown+gravitator&newwindow=1&site=webhp&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=BKumVMrHKIrkasz4grgP&ved=0CCcQsAQ&biw=1003&bih=617 John Ernst Worrell Keely din Philadelphia (1827-1898) a petrecut 50 ani în dezvoltarea și perfecționarea unei mari varietati de dispozitive care folosesc "forță vibratorie simpatica" sau "forța eterica" pentru a levita obiecte, invarti roți mari, motoare electrice, și dezintegra roci. John Ernst Worrell Keely From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia John Ernst Worrell Keely with a "Keely Engine". John Ernst Worrell Keely (September 3, 1837 – November 18, 1898) was a USinventor from Philadelphia who claimed to have discovered a new motive power which was originally described as "vaporic" or "etheric" force, and later as an unnamed force based on "vibratory sympathy", by which he produced "interatomic ether" from water and air. Despite numerous requests from the stockholders of the Keely Motor Company, which had been established to produce a practicable motor based on his work, he consistently refused to reveal to them the principles on which his motor operated, and also repeatedly refused demands to produce a marketable product by claiming that he needed to perform more experiments. He secured substantial investments from many people, among whom was John Jacob Astor. Contents [hide] 1 Biography 2 Career 2.1 Keely's theories 2.2 Etheric generator 2.3 Clara Jessup Bloomfield Moore 2.4 Stockholder suit 2.5 Vaporic gun 2.6 June 1885 demonstration 2.7 Wilson suit 3 Death 3.1 Philadelphia Press investigation 4 Present day 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links Biography[edit] Born in Chester, Pennsylvania, John Keely was orphaned in early childhood and was raised by his grandparents. Before becoming an inventor, he worked as a member of a theatrical orchestra, a painter, a carpenter, a carnival barker, and as a mechanic. Career[edit] In 1872, Keely invited scientists to attend a demonstration at his laboratory at 1422 North Twentieth Street Philadelphia, of a machine which he asserted was motivated by a new and hitherto unknown force. Keely announced that he had discovered a principle for power production based on the musical vibrations of tuning forks and that music could resonate with atoms or with the aether. Public interest was aroused and within a few months the Keely Motor Company was formed in New York, with a capital of $5,000,000.,[1] equivalent to $95 million in 2013.[2] Keely's theories[edit] Keely delivered descriptions of the supposed principles of his process on various occasions. In 1884, following the demonstration of his "Vaporic gun": Stripping the process of all technical terms, it is simply this: I take water and air, two mediums of different specific gravity, and produces from them by generation an effect under vibrations that liberates from the air and water an inter atomic ether. The energy of this ether is boundless and can hardly be comprehended. The specific gravity of the ether is about four times lighter than that of hydrogen gas, the lightest gas so far discovered. — New York Times , 22 September 1884 [3] Following a demonstration in June 1885: It is an elaboration of interatomic ether by vibration. The atomic ether vibrates all around the molecules of matter. There is a magnetic force attached to it at the same time, and it assimilates with the molecular atomic aggregations - that is, assimilates with a certain attractive force that it is hard to tell what it is. I call it a vibratory negative. It don't act like a magnet drawing metals toward it. There is a certain magnetic effect about it that causes it to adhere by vibratory rotation to different forms of matter - that is the molecular, atomic, etheric, and ether-etheric. The impulse is given by metallic impulses, the rotary power that is formed by etheric vibration - that is the force that holds it in position. — New York Times , 7 June 1885 [4] In the 19th century most physicists believed that all of space was filled with a medium called the "Luminiferous aether" (or "ether"), a hypothetical substance which was thought necessary for the transmission of electromagnetic waves and to the propagation of light, which was believed to be impossible in "empty" space. In 1887, an experiment was performed byAlbert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley to attempt to confirm the existence of the ether. The experiment, named theMichelson-Morley experiment after the two scientists, shocked the scientific community by giving results which implied the ether's non-existence. This result was later used by Albert Einstein to refute the ether's existence, and to develop special relativity. Etheric generator[edit] On November 10, 1874, Keely gave a demonstration of an "etheric generator" to a small group of people in Philadelphia. Keely blew into a nozzle for half a minute, then poured five gallons of tap water into the same nozzle. After some adjustments a pressure gauge indicated pressures of 10,000 psi which Keely said was evidence that the water had been disintegrated and a mysterious vapor had been liberated in the generator, capable of powering machinery. In subsequent demonstrations he kept changing the terminology he used, to "vibratory-generator" to a "hydro-pneumatic-pulsating-vacu-engine" to "quadruple negative harmonics". It was later reported that the witnesses of the demonstration were so impressed that they formed a stock company, purchased patent rights for the six New England states, and paid $50,000 in cash for their share in the invention.[5] The New York Times reported in June 1875 that Keely's new motive power was generated from cold water and air and evolved into a vapor "more powerful than steam, and considerably more economical". It reported that Keely refused to disclose what the vapor was or how it was generated until he had taken out patents in "all the countries of the globe which issue patent rights" which was estimated would cost around $30,000.[5] Keely said that the discovery of this new energy source was accidental. He said that the apparatus by which it was generated was called a "generator" or "multiplicator", from where it was then passed into a "receiver" and from there to the cylinders of a steam engine. The "generator" was reported as being about 3 ft (0.91 m), made of Austrian gunmetalin one piece, and holding about 10 or 12 gallons of water. Its inside was made up of cylindrical chambers connected by pipes and fitted with stopcocks and valves. The "receiver" or "reservoir" was about 40 in (1,000 mm) long by 6 in (150 mm) in diameter and connected to the "generator" by a 1 in (25 mm) diameter pipe. Keely claimed that his apparatus would generate his "vapor" from water solely by mechanical means without using any chemicals and claimed to be able to produce 2,000 psi in 5 seconds.[5] Clara Jessup Bloomfield Moore[edit] In 1881, Keely met Clara Jessup Bloomfield Moore, the wealthy widow of a Philadelphia industrialist who had the year before established the Bloomfield Moore art collection. Mrs Moore became acquainted with Keely through her interest in scientific subjects, and remained his friend and patron up to the time of his death. She invested $100,000 plus a monthly salary of $250 (around $2.2 million and $5400/month in today's values [1]) so that he could devote his entire time and energy to the perfection of his motor and widely advocated him and his work, producing many articles and books.[6] Her family did not approve of her assuming obligations which they believed the company should fulfill under its contract with Keely. She made an arrangement with Keely on 12 April 1890 to furnish him with an additional $2,000 a month for his household and shop expenses and for instruments of research, which was to expire when he had gained sufficient control of his unknown force to enable him to resume his work under the direction of the management of the company upon a provisional engine. This arrived in December 1890, when Mrs Bloomfield Moore handed over to the Directors bills that had been presented since the expiration of Mr. Keely's contract with her.[7] Stockholder suit[edit] On 14 December 1881 the stockholders of the Keely Motor Company held a meeting at which a report was read that complained that while they had faith in the merits of Keely's invention, the inventor was unreasonably secretive of the principles and operating methods of his apparatus. He had assured them that the "generator" had been perfected a year before, and that the "multiplicator" was also now perfected, and they considered it only fair and reasonable that the secrets of the machinery be revealed to them. They recommended that some intelligent and trustworthy person be taken into Keely's confidence "so that in the case of accident they would not be totally without a clue to the invention". The report complained at some length about Keely's uncommunicativeness and said that it was the experience of everyone who had come into contact with him over the previous ten years that "any attempt at a serious investigation of his operations has been met on his part with deception and misrepresentation".[8] Keely was reluctant to reveal his secrets, and filed a demurrer on 20 January 1882 to the bill in equity presented against him by the Keely Motor Company's stockholders. The demurrer was described as entirely technical, and gave a number of reasons why the court should not afford the plaintiffs the relief they sought.[9] Argument was heard on the demurrer in Philadelphia's Court of Common Pleas on 27 March, when it was argued that the inventor "could not be made to expose that which no one knew but himself and which was hidden in his own brain".[10] However, Keely was overruled by Judge Pierce on 1 April 1882, who ordered him to "make known his process in the way indicated in the bill filed by the Keely Motor Company".[11] On 24 May Keely filed his answer to the stockholders' equity suit. He admitted the truth of the complainants' bill regarding the contract, and added that although, due to "certain abstruse difficulties by reason of the nature and qualities of the said force", he had so far failed to bring his inventions into practical use, he believed he would ultimately succeed.[12] In June 1882 a committee appointed by the Company's board of directors agreed that one William Boekel of Philadelphia was to be "instructed by Mr. Keely in the construction and operation of his inventions".[13] The annual meeting of the Company's stockholders on 13 December 1882 heard a report from Boekel in which he stated that what Keely claimed to have discovered was "the fact that water in its natural state is capable of being, by vibratory motion, disintegrated so that its molecular structure is broken up, and there is evolved therefrom a permanent expansive gas or ether, which result is produced by mechanical action". Boekel said that it would be improper to describe the mechanism used, and added that Keely had discovered all that he had claimed.[14] It was later discovered by a Timesreporter in August that Boekle had not yet been entrusted with the secrets of the motor as promised by Keely, and that the inventor kept delaying matters by telling Boekle that he could explain it to him in less than two hours after it was completed, and that he had not done so already because the engine had not yet reached that state.[15] On 28 August 1883, at the monthly meeting of the Company's directors, it was announced that Keely's engine would be ready for operation around the first week in September, and that a final inspection of it by the Trustees would be conducted on 29 August, at which the stockholders were expected to be present. When the inspection was made the following day, however, Keely said that it would not be ready for another six weeks.[16] On 29 October 1883 it was reported that the Company's stockholders were to bring another suit against the inventor in the name of the company for "fulfilment of his many pledges".[17] At a meeting of the Board of Directors the following day, Keely made a statement explaining his progress, saying that he was constructing a street chamber to hold his vapor and that when this was complete a demonstration would be given, and his explanation was voted "very satisfactory" by the directors.[18] At the annual stockholders' meeting on 12 December 1883 a letter from Keely was read out, in which the inventor said that he could not see why he might not fulfil the shareholders' expectations in the next two months and suggested that the stockholders' meeting be postponed to 1 February 1884. This proposal met with some disagreement from some stockholders, and it was decided to give Keely no funds for the next 60 days.[19] When the promised stockholders' meeting was held on 1 February 1884, another postponement was announced at Keely's request.[20] A board meeting which took place on 25 March 1884 reported that the vibratory engine was finished, that "the work of adjusting and focalizing is progressing rapidly", and that Keely had set the date for the demonstration of the motor to take place on or before 10 April.[21] Vaporic gun[edit] On 20 September 1884 Keely demonstrated a "vaporic gun" at Sandy Hook to a party of Government officials. He said that he had brought with him five gallons of "vaporic force" in a "receiver" which, if the experiments were successful, would show that no bogus aids had been used. The gun was described as a small gun with a 1.25 in (32 mm) bore, resting on wheels, with an iron "receiver" 4.5 ft (1.4 m) long containing Keely's mysterious force connected to it by "an iron wire tube" 3/16" in diameter. Keely rammed a small lead ball about 5 oz (140 g) in weight into the gun's muzzle, then tapped the iron "receiver" with a hammer. He explained that this was to stimulate the "vibratory force". He then turned a handle and the ball was fired from the gun with a short, sharp report but no smoke and very little recoil. It was reported that the projectile had been fired a distance of 300 yd (270 m). More shots were fired and their velocity measured; one attained 482 ft/s (147 m/s), another 492 ft/s (150 m/s), and yet another 523 ft/s (159 m/s). The gun was also tested by firing against three 3 in (76 mm) thick spruce planks and penetrated the first and went halfway through the second. Keely said that he had used a pressure of 7,000 psi and could use 30,000 psi.[22] The following day Keely met with a reporter to whom he declared that his experimenting days were over and that complete success was close. He announced that his motor would be completed in less than two months and that he would then make a public exhibition of its powers.[3] The vaporic gun failed to impress Lieutenant E.L. Zalinski, who had witnessed the demonstration. He told the President of the Keely Motor Company, A.R. Edey, that with the same apparatus he could perform the same experiments with compressed air, and go even further than Keely had gone. Edey said he would "speak about it to Mr. Keely," but offer was not accepted. Zalinski said that none of the experiments at Sandy Hook showed that Keely had discovered a new force.[23] Zalinski later attended a demonstration at Keely's workshop in November, in place of Colonel John Hamilton. He later reported that he suggested to Keely that it would be a more complete test of his power if he would discharge a large reservoir which he showed his guests, and then recharge it using his generator. Keely declined to do this, on the grounds that it would take two hours - despite his many statements that he could generate force in a few seconds - and that the reservoir had been "carefully negatized". Keely also claimed to have achieved pressures of 50,000 psi, and that he had broken all his pressure gauges. When Zalinski produced a pressure gauge he had brought with him - capable of registering 10,000 psi - and offered it to Keely, saying "I would like to have you put it on, and break it for me", Keely was momentarily lost for words before saying, "I do not believe in pressure gauges, anyhow."[24] June 1885 demonstration[edit] On 6 June 1885 Keely gave what he called "an exhibition" of his motor at his workshop at North Twentieth Street, Philadelphia. Around 20 witnesses attended, including newspaper reporters, a mechanical engineer, and officers and stockholders of the Keely Motor Company. A reporter noticed a "large iron globular object" which he was told was a new engine which Keely was engaged in building.[4] Keely assembled an apparatus on top of which was screwed a globe with several apertures to which tubes were fixed, leading to cylinders. A reporter asked if he could see the globe's contents, but Keely declined, saying that it would take too long, and that he wished to show results rather than the mechanism. Keely then proceeded by taking a violin bow and rubbing it across one of two large tuning forks which formed part of his apparatus. After making a minor adjustment to the device, he opened a stopcock leading into one of the cylinders and the witnesses heard "a hiss as of escaping air". Keely told them that it was in fact "etheric vapor", adding "It ain't compressed air or any vapor having substance." The force was then used to lift some weights, and Keely claimed that he had about 22,000 psi of pressure at his disposal.[4] A further demonstration was given, of a rotating iron globe suspended on an axle, which was used to saw some wood. The globe was not opened, Keely saying that it was hollow and empty, and his assistants saying that it contained "some bits of mechanism". A sceptical reporter, who believed that it was in fact operating on compressed air, asked how long the engine could work. Keely replied that he had one run for 40 days, whereupon the reporter suggested he simply run it for half an hour, just making the globe rotate. Keely duly set the globe rotating, and it ran for less than 15 minutes, constantly decreasing in power, before he stopped it.[4] On 26 March 1886 Keely performed a demonstration before a committee of scientists and engineers from New York, where he obtained a pressure of 2,700 psi apparently by using a single pint of water, and then doubled the pressure by adding more water. Keely claimed that the "etheric force" by which these results were obtained would be utilized as fully as possible in the 25,000 hp engine on which he was then working.[25] The stockholders of the Keely Motor Company met on 14 December 1887, and expressed their confidence in Keely's ultimate success. Keely did not attend the meeting, but supplied a report in which he reviewed his efforts and experiments since 1882 and announced that he had abandoned "etheric force" in favour of a new force which was unnamed but which he said was based on "vibratory sympathy".[26] Wilson suit[edit] On 3 January 1888 an injunction was granted against Keely on behalf of complainant Bennett C. Wilson, who said that in 1863 he had entered into an agreement with Keely, who he had originally engaged to varnish furniture. The agreement was that Wilson was to find tools and materials and pay the expenses of inventions made by Keely, Keely agreeing that all inventions so made, and patents obtained, should be equally owned by him and Wilson. On 14 August 1869 Keely assigned a half ownership in what was referred to as the "Keely motor" to Wilson, who claimed that Keely had then assigned all rights and title to the invention later that same month in return for funds.[27] Wilson alleged that he had only recently become aware that the machine called the "Keely motor" was the same as the one constructed in 1869 and assigned to him. He asked for an injunction restraining Keely from removing the machine or altering its construction or mode of operation, and requested that an order also be made compelling Keely to exhibit to the complainant all models, machines, and drawings of the invention referred to in the assignments to Wilson, and that an order be made compelling Keely to fully disclose the invention and the mode of constructing and operating it.[27] On 7 April a formal order was made directing Bennett Wilson, his attorney, and four experts, to make a full and detailed inspection of the Keely motor, its mode of construction, and principle of operation within 30 days. The four experts were named as Dr. Charles M. Cresson, Analytical Chemist of City and State Boards of Health; Thomas Shaw, mechanical engineer; William D. Marks, civil engineer and Professor of Dynamical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania; and Jacob Naylor, iron founder and President of the Eighth National Bank. The result of the inspection was to make known only whether the present Keely motor was or was not the same apparatus that he was alleged to have assigned to Wilson in 1869.[28] On 18 September it was revealed that Keely had not yet obeyed the court order, despite the time span having been increased to 60 days, and a lawyer representing Bennett Wilson said he believed Keely never would comply with the order and that he had never intended to do so.[29] Finally, on 17 November 1888, Keely was jailed in Moyamensing Prison for contempt of court for refusing the court order to "operate and explain the mode of operation" of the Keely Motor.[30] However, he was soon released on bail on 20 November by three judges of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania.[31] Finally, on 28 January 1889, the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania handed down an opinion reversing the order committing Keely to prison for contempt, and ordered his discharge. The opinion declared that the order commanding Keely to "exhibit, explain, and operate his motor" was premature, and that the court had no right to enforce the order by committing Keely to jail for contempt.[32] On March 28, 1889 Keely's counsel announced that the inventor had the "missing link" which was needed to make the "vibratory resonator and ethereal generative evaporator" a success. It was described as a copper tube in the form of a loop, with the ends welded together so that no joint could be seen, and had been made in copper due to that metal's "resonant properties". A private demonstration of Keely's motor was promised as soon as the tube was "adjusted", and was stated as likely to occur "in a week or two".[33] At the Keely Motor Company's stockholders' meeting in December, a report was read from Keely in which he discussed the difficulties he had had with the Board of Directors during 1889 and said that while the work of "graduating" or adjusting his provisional engine had not progressed as rapidly as he had expected, no serious obstacles had presented themselves, and there were no difficulties affecting the principle or "essence" of his work. While he could not give a timescale for when the graduation of the engine would be completed, Keely said that it would not be a protracted period, and that when it was finished, one or more engines would at once be ordered.[34] In June 1895 the trade journal Electricity published a challenge to Keely, in which they said that they would undertake to repeat every phenomenon produced by Keely within 60 days. Keely ignored this challenge.[35] After an absence of several years in England, Mrs Moore returned to the US to deal with litigation concerning her late husband's estate. Her advocacy of Keely and his inventions formed part of the case and she decided to strengthen her position by getting eminent physicists to examine his inventions. Among those invited were Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla, both of whom declined the opportunity for various reasons.[36] Keely again informed the directors of his company in early November 1895 that "before the end of the year" he would "positively be all through with his work to prove conclusively that" he has devised "a practical commercial working engine" operated by his new force.[35] On 14 November it was reported that another meeting had been arranged between Keely and Mrs Bloomfield Moore and New York capitalists headed by John Jacob Astor, who were interested in the Keely Motor Company.[37] It was reported the following week that Astor had purchased a large interest in the motor from "a person who for some years past has been an enthusiastic advocate of M. Keely".[35] Also in November 1895, Mrs Moore invited Addison B. Burk, president of the Spring Garden Institute to make an inspection. Burk asked if electrical engineer E. Alexander Scott of the Engineers Club could accompany him, and this was agreed to. In the event, Scott took charge of the investigation as he was familiar with Keely and had talked to him in 1874.[1][36] Scott made several visits to Keely's workshop, beginning on 9 November 1895, and was shown many demonstrations. Among these was a levitation experiment where heavy weights in sealed flasks of water were made to rise and fall in response to differently pitched sounds from a zither, to activate a "globe liberator" which then transmitted "the aetheric force" through a wire to the water container. This had been shown to many investors and investigators. Scott was accompanied by Burk on his second and third visits and when the two analysed what they had seen they concluded that compressed air had been used in nearly all the experiments, in some cases alongside another more powerful but hidden force. The demonstration with the rising and falling weights was powered by compressed air via a thin tube which Keely had assured Burk and Scott was a solid wire and which was a common feature in nearly every piece of apparatus in Keely's laboratory.[38] Burk and Scott reported their findings to Mrs Moore, who was concerned by the negative report, and also by dismissive articles in the press. It was reported on 22 March 1896 that Mrs Bloomfield Moore had arranged with Professor Wentworth Lascelles Scott of London to investigate Keely's claims of etheric force and also to examine his other inventions. It was said that "an important series of tests will be made in the presence of the scientist".[39] Lascelles Scott was allowed to examine whatever he wanted and had complete instructions on its use from Keely. After spending a month investigating, Lascelles Scott stated to a meeting of the Franklin Institute that "Keely has demonstrated to me, in a way which is absolutely unquestionable, the existence of a force hitherto unknown."[38] Since Lascelles Scott and Alexander Scott disagreed, they were brought together to witness more demonstrations by Keely. Mrs Moore suggested that a definitive test would be to cut the wire that Scott alleged was in fact an air pipe, but Keely flatly refused to do so and Mrs Moore, her faith shaken, reduced Keely's monthly salary. On 24 December 1895 Mrs Bloomfield Moore said that due to the position taken by the managers of the old Keely Motor Company at the annual meeting, and the delay on the part of the stockholders in accepting his proposition for a reorganization, Keely had decided not to take out any patents on his inventions, and would instead adopt a royalty system in dealing with his inventions commercially. Mrs Moore said that at least 30 patents would be required, which would take much time and money which would be better used in developing Keely's system.[40] On 18 June 1897 Keely demonstrated his new etheric engine to the General Manager of the Manhattan Elevated Railway, the Chief Engineer of Western Union, and a representative of the Metropolitan Traction Company. All were reported as being surprised at the force produced by Keely's new motor, but declined to express any opinion as to its value. The engine was reported as weighing about 200 lb (91 kg) and being capable of developing 10 hp.[41] Death[edit] Keely died at his home in Philadelphia from pneumonia on 18 November 1898.[42] His will was admitted to probate on 1 December, and bequeathed his entire estate of about $10,000 to his widow, Anna M. Keely, who was appointed his executor. The will made no reference to his motor.[43] After his death a close friend revealed that he had once asked Keely what he wanted for an epitaph, and Keely had replied, "Keely, the greatest humbug of the nineteenth century".[44] Keely is buried in West Laurel Hill Cemetery in Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania. The first meeting of the Keely Motor Company's stockholders following his death was held on 20 December 1898. Charles S. Hill, his widow's attorney, stated that Keely's secret did not exist in manuscript form, but that Keely had suggested before his death that an inventor, Thomas Burton Kinraide of Boston, was the one man who could successfully carry on his work. Hill then announced that he had a secret which he would pass on to only one person. This secret, he said, was "of a nature to encourage the stockholders and to induce them to leave everything in Kinraide's hands for one year". John J. Smith, one of the Company's Directors, was appointed to confer with Hill, and later reported that the secret told to him by Hill "offered great encouragement to the stockholders" but did not divulge any further details.[45] In January 1899 Kinraide had 20 large packing cases transported to his laboratory in Jamaica Plain, Boston, said to contain the material part of Keely's motor. Kinraide said that he had often talked with Keely about the principles of his invention and said that he felt he knew more about it than any other person. He was to continue with Keely's experiments at the request of Mr. and Mrs Keely.[46] However, on 6 May 1899 it was reported that Kinraide had abandoned all work on the Keely motor and was to return all the machines and notes to the Keely Company. He stated that he wanted nothing more to do with the motor due to the notoriety caused him by the Philadelphia Press's report and when asked whether he thought the motor was a fraud simply replied that he had not arrived at any such conclusion and had decided to make no further investigations.[47] Philadelphia Press investigation[edit] On 19 January 1899 The Philadelphia Press published an illustrated article detailing an investigation made by the newspaper of Keely's workshop, in which the Press contended that the investigation had clearly proven Keel's motor to have been "a delusion and deception" and that its alleged mysterious forces were the result of trickery.[48] The investigation, which took a week, was assisted by consulting engineer Professor Carl Hering, Assistant Professor of Physics at the University of Pennsylvania Professor Arthur W. Goodspeed, Professor of Experimental Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania Lightner Witmer, and Doctor M. G. Miller, who superintended digging operations. Electrical engineer Clarence B. Moore, the son of Mrs. Bloomfield Moore, was an observer. The scientists involved substantiated the report with signed statements.[48] The floors of Keely's workshop were taken up and a brick wall was removed. Inside the wall they found mechanical belts linked to a silent water motor two floors below the laboratory. In the basement there was a three-ton sphere of compressed air that ran the machines through hidden high pressure tubes and switches. The walls, ceilings and even solid beams were found to have concealed tubes. Journalists documented everything photographically to leave no room for doubt. Hering and Goodspeed were of the opinion that the tubing and the large steel sphere in the basement indicated the use of normal forces and possible deception, and Hering said in his signed statement that Keely had probably lied and deceived, and was satisfied that he had used highly compressed air to power his demonstrations.[48] At a meeting of the Keely Motor Company's board on 25 January 1899, President B. L. Ackerman issued a statement denying the Philadelphia Press report. The statement claimed that the tubes mentioned in the report had been discarded by Keely years before, and that in all his experiments since 1887 only solid wires had been used. Up to that time, it was stated, Keely had been working on a theory of etheric or vaporic force, and used the tubes to convey this force, but after 1887 he was convinced that he had discovered what he called "vibratory sympathy". A concealed electric wire discovered in Keely's workshop was described by Ackerman as the remains of the wires of a burglar alarm, and in no way connected with the force used by Keely's motor. The statement denied all assertions that Keely was an imposter, and declared that there was no trickery in any of the results that Keely had claimed to have obtained.[49] Present day[edit] Today, Philadelphia has forgotten all about its infamous resident. Even Keely's old house has completely disappeared and the site is now a private parking lot for the property next door.[50] A model of Keely's engine is in the collection of theFranklin Institute in Philadelphia, and an "Etheric Force Machine" of his dating from 1878 is in the American Precision Museum in Windsor, Vermont. Keely still has supporters, who continue to claim that he was framed. "Unfortunately the history books took the Scientific American debunking as fact and John Keely has been portrayed historically as a fraud and a conman . This is because Clarence Moore found the floor of Keeley's 'workshop' raised and saw a pressure machine that was hooked up to his machines to make them look like they actually worked. Those who have any inkling of physics who have studied what remains of his work, know these reports to be mostly erroneous." —Jerry Decker, KeelyNet.com Keely's theories are now also incorporated in 'Sympathetic Vibratory Physics', a merging of science and new agephilosophy. Keely's theories were featured prominently in the 1998 book 'Gods of Eden' by Andrew Collins, in relation to the theoretical use of SVP-based devices as systems of levitation. Notes[edit] ^ Jump up to:a b Federal Writers' Project, Philadelphia: A Guide to the Nation's Birthplace, US History Publishers, p. 119,ISBN 1-60354-058-X Jump up^ US Inflation Calculator ^ Jump up to:a b "KEELY'S ETHERIC VAPOR; HE EXPLAINS HIS INVENTION TO A REPORTER. THE INVENTOR SATISFIED WITH HIS SANDY HOOK EXPERIMENTS--ANOTHER PUBLIC TEST PROMISED SOON." (PDF),New York Times, 22 September 1884 ^ Jump up to:a b c d "KEELY'S RED LETTER DAY; HE STARTS HIS MOTOR FOR A FEW MORE TURNS. SOME CURIOUS TRICKERY WHICH HIS STOCKHOLDERS APPLAUDED AND HIS LEARNED EXPLANATION OF IT." (PDF),New York Times, 7 June 1885 ^ Jump up to:a b c Own, Our (11 June 1875), "THE KEELY MOTOR.; WHAT IS CLAIMED FOR IT." (PDF), New York Times Jump up^ "MRS. BLOOMFIELD MOORE DEAD.; Philadelphia Woman, Interested in the Keely Motor, Dies in London -- An Eventful Life." (PDF), New York Times, 6 January 1899 Jump up^ "RID OF KEELY AT LAST.; HIS GREATEST BENEFACTOR WASHES HER HANDS OF THE "INVENTOR."" (PDF), New York Times, 18 December 1890 Jump up^ "KEELY'S SECRET DEMANDED.; THE STOCKHOLDERS OF THE MOTOR COMPANY WANT TO KNOW SOMETHING." (PDF), New York Times, 15 December 1881 Jump up^ "KEELY WISHES TO KEEP HIS SECRET." (PDF),New York Times, 21 January 1882 Jump up^ "SEEKING KEELY'S SECRET." (PDF), New York Times, 28 March 1882 Jump up^ "KEELY TO DIVULGE HIS SECRET." (PDF), New York Times, 2 April 1882 Jump up^ "KEELY'S ALLELGED MOTOR." (PDF), New York Times, 25 May 1882 Jump up^ "ONE MAN TO KNOW KEELY'S SECRET." (PDF),New York Times, 8 June 1882 Jump up^ "MR.KEELY NOT YET READY.; ANNUAL MEETING OF THE MOTOR COMPANY --REPORTS OF KEELY AND BOEKEL." (PDF), New York Times, 14 December 1882 Jump up^ "THE KEELY MOTOR COMPLETED.; TO BE READY FOR OPERATION THE FIRST WEEK IN SEPTEMBER." (PDF), New York Times, 29 August 1883 Jump up^ "MR. KEELY'S PERFORMANCES.; ANOTHER POSTPONEMENT OF THE MOTOR TEST ANNOUNCED." (PDF), New York Times, 30 August 1883 Jump up^ "DISGUSTED KEELY MOTOR MEN." (PDF), New York Times, 30 October 1883 Jump up^ "KEELY EXPLAINS AGAIN." (PDF), New York Times, 31 October 1883 Jump up^ "MORE TIME FOR KEELY.; THE MOTOR MAN GRANTED TWO MONTHS TO COMPLETE HIS INVENTION." (PDF), New York Times, 13 December 1883 Jump up^ "THE MOTOR STILL NOT READY." (PDF), New York Times, 2 February 1884 Jump up^ "KEELY NOT YET READY." (PDF), New York Times, 26 March 1884 Jump up^ "KEELY'S VAPORIC FORCE.; EXPERIMENTS WITH A MYSTERIOUS GUN AT SANDY HOOK." (PDF), New York Times, 21 September 1884 Jump up^ "LIEUT. ZALINSKI AND MR. KEELY." (PDF), New York Times, 24 September 1884 Jump up^ "KEELY BEARDED IN HIS DEN; TOO MUCH NECROMANCY AND TOO LITTLE SCIENCE. LIEUT. ZALINSKI'S VISIT TO THE PHILADELPHIA CONJURER UNSATISFACTORY--WHAT COMPRESSED AIR WILL DO." (PDF), New York Times, 16 November 1884 Jump up^ "KEELY STILL PROMISING WONDERS." (PDF),New York Times, 27 March 1886 Jump up^ "KEELY'S CHANGE OF BASE; HIS "ETHERIC FORCE" LONG SINCE ABANDONED. "VIBRATORY SYMPATHY" HIS PLEA NOW FOR EXTRACTING MONEY FROM CONFIDING STOCKHOLDERS."(PDF), New York Times, 15 December 1887 ^ Jump up to:a b "THE MOTOR GETS INTO COURT.; A SUIT WHICH MAY FORCE KEELY TO SHOW HIS HAND." (PDF),New York Times, 4 January 1888 Jump up^ "THE KEELY MOTOR EXPERTS." (PDF), New York Times, 8 April 1888 Jump up^ "KEELY NOT YET IN JAIL.; WHY THE COURT HESITATES TO COMMIT HIM." (PDF), New York Times, 19 September 1888 Jump up^ "INVENTOR KEELY IN JAIL.; SENT TO PRISON FOR REFUSING TO OBEY THE COURT." (PDF), New York Times, 18 November 1888 Jump up^ "KEELY OUT ON BAIL.; THE CONTEMPT CASE BEFORE THE SUPREME COURT." (PDF), New York Times, 21 November 1888 Jump up^ "KEELY NOT IN CONTEMPT.; THE ORDER COMMITTING HIM REVERSED BY THE SUPREME COURT." (PDF), New York Times, 29 January 1889 Jump up^ "KEELY'S MISSING LINK." (PDF), New York Times, 28 March 1889 Jump up^ "KEELEY STILL PROMISING.; CONSOLING HIS VICTIMS WITH EMPTY WORDS. HE ADMITS THAT HIS "GRADUATING" WORK IS SADLY BEHINDS BUT CLAIMS ULTIMATE SUCCESS FOR HIS "MOTOR.""(PDF), New York Times, 18 December 1889 ^ Jump up to:a b c "KEELY'S MOTOR." (PDF), New York Times, 8 November 1895 ^ Jump up to:a b Ord-Hume, Arthur W. J. G. (2006), Perpetual Motion: The History of an Obsession, Adventures Unlimited Press, p. 143, ISBN 1-931882-51-7 Jump up^ "Astor and Keely to Confer Again" (PDF), New York Times, 15 November 1895 ^ Jump up to:a b Ord-Hume, p. 144 Jump up^ "To Investigate Keely's Claims." (PDF), New York Times, 22 March 1896 Jump up^ "What Keely Will Do." (PDF), New York Times, 25 December 1895 Jump up^ "A KEELY MOTOR TESTED.; New Etheric Engine and Its Powers Displayed in Philadelphia to Representative Railroad Men." (PDF), New York Times, 20 June 1897 Jump up^ "KEELY, THE INVENTOR, DEAD.; Maker of the Famous "Motor" Expires Suddenly at His Home in Philadelphia." (PDF), The New York Times, 19 November 1898 Jump up^ "INVENTOR KEELY'S WILL FILED." (PDF), The New York Times, 2 December 1898 Jump up^ Ord-Hume, p. 147 Jump up^ "THE KEELY MOTOR COMPANY.; Stockholders Hardly Know What to Do Now that Keely Is Dead -- Mysterious Communication." (PDF), The New York Times, 21 December 1898 Jump up^ "KEELY'S MOTOR IN BOSTON.; Mr. Kinraide to Continue Experiments with the Invention." (PDF), The New York Times, 4 January 1899 Jump up^ "KEELY MOTOR ABANDONED.; T. Burton Kinraide Will Have No More to Do with It." (PDF), The New York Times, 7 May 1899 ^ Jump up to:a b c "Keely's Secret Disclosed.; Scientists Examine His Laboratory and Discover Hidden Tubes in Proof of His Deception." (PDF), The New York Times, 20 January 1899 Jump up^ "DENIES KEELY WAS AN IMPOSTOR; President of the Motor Company Defends the Dead Inventor." (PDF),The New York Times, 26 January 1889 Jump up^ Ord-Hume, p. 150 References[edit] Schadewald, Robert J. (2008), Worlds of Their Own - A Brief History of Misguided Ideas: Creationism, Flat-Earthism, Energy Scams, and the Velikovsky Affair, Xlibris, ISBN 978-1-4363-0435-1 Paijmans, Theo (1998), Free Energy Pioneer: John Worrell Keely, Illuminet Press, ISBN 1-881532-15-1 External links[edit] "Etheric Force Machine" at the American Precision Museum Decker, Jerry, and Chuck Henderson, "KeelyNet". KeelyNet, Carrollton, Texas. Website of Keely supporters. Pond, Dale, "Sympathetic Vibratory Physics — Historical articles on John Keely". Simanek, Donald E., "Keely Motor Company". The Museum of Unworkable Devices Main Gallery. Pond, Dale, "Sympathetic Vibratory Physics - It's a Musical Universe". SVPvril, 2001. Dale Pond on Google Video demonstrating the principles of a Keely motor. (3 hours in 2 parts) Biography-West Laurel Hill Cemetery web site John Worrell Keely: Über das Prinzip seiner Erfindungen. http://www.lohengrin-verlag.de/keely/keelytexte.htm R. Harte: "Keely's Secrets: Introduction" — 1888 article published by The Theosophical Publishing Society. Authority control VIAF: 11897388
  8. Accident Bucuresti - Bd. Brancoveanu

    Alexandru Angelo (Inger) Iorga a fost prietenul meu cel mai bun ( era un baiat cu plete blonde ondulate natural, ochi albastrii si piele alba, cu suflet bun, a fost si instructor de culturism si proprietar de aparate pe care le-a inchiriat la o sala, si a facut si facultatea de psihosociologie), tineam la el ca la sora-mea, e fiul colegei cele mai bune de facultate a mamei mele (au facut faculatea de agronomie). Asa cum sora-mea s-a luat dupa mine si a facut facultatea de ingineria instalatiilor, el s-a luat dupa mine si a facut culturism (eu am facut si haltere) si si-a cumparat motocicleta si si-a luat permisul (conducea de ani buni). Mai are o sora, care a facut facultatea de studii economice. Am fost afectat, de aceea nu am scris nimic. Era cu gandul la logodnica din Bacau, de care se ruga de trei ani sa vina in Bucuresti. Era vorba sa vina vineri la el si nu a venit. Sambata a murit el. Era grabit sa aranjeze casa cu etaj mostenita de mama lui de la sora ei, de pe Imparatul Traian, in spate la spitalul de copii Budimex (Marie Curie). S-a suit pe motor, cu toate ca era aproape bancomatul de unde mai voia sa scoata niste bani pentru amenajarile interioare, dar grabindu-se, nu a luat-o pe jos, sau cu RATB-ul, ci s-a suit pe motor, fara casca, mintea fiindu-i la logodnica care nu venise. Joi (azi) i-au eliberat corpul de la IML. Chiar daca purta casca, tot murea. A fost lovit frontal. Avea 1,80 m si 90 kg si facea culturism. L-a facut zob cel cu masina cu nr. de MH, (Opel Astra berlina), a intrat pe Bd. Brancoveanu (la Tip-Top pt cei din zona) facand stanga de pe o straduta laterala - adica a taiat linia dubla continua, el avand B32SUZ (Suzuki Bandit negru). Ultima pe care a calarit-o a fost motocicleta. Numai ea nu l-a tradat si i-a fost aproape pana in ceasul dinainte de a muri (a fost exclusiv vina celui cu masina care a schimbat directia de mers taind linia dubla continua). De aceea isi iubesc atat de mult pilotii motocicletele. A fost dus in viata la Spitalul de urgenta Bagdasar (care e si de neurochirurgie). Interesant ca tot pe 20 ianuarie era nascut, ca sora mea, care tot de moarte violenta prematura din motive sentimentale a murit. Scriitorul Scarlat Demetrescu (Scarlat Demetrescu s-a născut în Bucureşti la 26 iulie 1872. A absolvit Facultatea de Ştiinţe din Bucureşti, devenind profesor de ştiinţe naturale şi geografie. Desfăşoară o devotată muncă de dascăl la Liceul Sf. Sava şi Liceul Gh. Lazăr. Simultan cu o intensă activitate de profesor şi publicist, este subdirector la Senat, geolog la Institutul Geografic al României şi conduce revista spiritualistă "B. P. Haşdeu". Moare în 11 octombrie 1945, în Bucureşti. Pe lângă numeroasele manuale de botanică şi zoologie apărute între 1913 şi 1929 publică următoarele lucrări : "Viaţa dincolo de mormânt" (1928); "Greşeli din alte vieţi" (1932); "Cercetări în domeniul metapsihic şi spiritist" (1933); "Din tainele vieţii şi ale universului" (1939). Conferenţiază în cadrul Societăţii spiritiste "B. P. Haşdeu") spunea ca in momentul cand e sa mori, toate evenimentele concura la acest deznodamnat tragic si nimeni nu poate sa faca nimic. Poetul geniu Mihai Eminescu spunea: "Traiand in cercul vostru stramt, norocul va peterece/Ci eu in lumea mea ma simt nemuritor si rece". Un alt prieten de al meu, Adrian Banoiu, inginer la RAR com. Voluntari, care a absolvit un curs de 2 ani de astrologie, dupa ce a instalat pe calculatorul meu un program horoscop frantuzesc, a rezultat la ziua cand a murit sora-mea (24 decembrie 2001), ca era ca si cum nu ar fi existat, nu mai era nici o casa din cele 12 prezenta, era o configuratie planetara aproape goala. Eu as fi putut impiedica accidentul daca mergeam mai devreme la ea, ceea ce am vrut sa fac, dar a intervenit altceva si am ajuns mai tarziu. Odihneasca-se amandoi in pace! Cine vrea sa vina cu motor sau fara, mai ales motociclistele care ar dori sa fie iubite atat de mult de un motociclist si nu si-ar bate joc de iubirea lui curata asa cum si-a batut joc bacauanca pe care a iubit-o pana in ultima clipa, azi, 31 iulie 2014, la ora 14:00, la capela cimitirului Serban Voda (Bellu), inainte de intersectia Oltenitei cu Giurgiului, cum vii dinspre metrou Constantin Brancoveanu. R.I.P. Odihneasca-se in pace! Eu merg azi acolo. Uitati un link cu el calare pe choopperul meu: Dupa cum se vede la inceputul filmarii, ii producea bucurie motocicleta. Avea si permis de conducere automobil de si mai multi ani (asta ca sa nu mai injure atat soferii, mai ales ca a fost vina conducatorului auto care l-a lovit frontal: si eu am si masina, nu numai motocicleta). Traiasca powerbuilderii (culturism -bodybuilding- cu greutati mari, la care scopul este dezvoltarea fortei, nu a volumului muscular, asa cum fitness-ul inseamna culturism cu greutati mici si multe repetari pe serie, scopul fiind mentinerea unei biomecanici bune), gladiatorii moderni, si motociclistii, cavalerii moderni ai cailor de fier: In asemenea situatii e clar ca e necesar sa incurajam motociclistii (inclusiv motociclistii powerbuilderi - culturism cu greutati maximale: 1-2 repetari pe serie -, halterofili sau powerlifteri - sunt 3 exercitii de culturism la care la concurs se executa o singura repetare cu greutatea maxima: impins din culcat, genuflexiune si indreptare -)! Am o cunostinta care nu s-a mai suit pe motor de cand i-a murit prietenul in accident de motocicleta...
  9. articole Tehnica Germana Uitata - Linkuri

    Multumesc din inima! Ar fi bun si un finantator sa pun in aplicare cateva sisteme de producere de energie, propulsie si zbor. De tahionator convertorul capitanului de marina german Hans Kohler, construit dupa inginerul in electrotehnica aroman Nicolae Teslea (Nikola Tesla), sau convertizorul de energie libera electromagnetica ma apuc in curand, pentru ca nu presupune efort mare financiar. Despre motorul cu ulei in miscare la presiuni foarte mari, in loc de combustibil, folosit ca sursa de automentinere a miscarii, prin cirulatia fortata intr-un sistem de capilare spiralate, inventat de americanul Richard Clem, nu pot spune insa acelasi lucru. Acolo trebuie finantare sau dotare tehnica corespunzatoare. Iata un link despre implozie si impulsia magnetohidrodinamica la aerodinele lenticulare Repulsin ale lui Viktor Schauberger: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati Z8HO5DGZcM0, si unul despre aparatul de levitatie al entomologului rus Viktor Grebenikov, bazat pe folosirea aripioarelor cheratinoase ale gandacului de stejar din Austria, scarabeului din Egipt, radascai sau gandacului cerb si gandacului rinocer de la noi, care au o structura spatiala microscopica care genereaza antigravitatie si distorsionarea continuumului spatiu-timp in jurul pilotului: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati hYJXE4FCm7Q; _ChsZuwqTeE. Deasemenea despre tancul german Leopard 2 si posibilul Landkreuzer (Land Cruiser) P1000 Ratte (Sobolan): tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 8h0-yfoi5PM; yL0h19ci6dw. Despre giroscoapele electrogravitationale Haunebu I, II, III si IV: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati A-p2s7ltRh0. Despre electromagnetul monopolar, care poate pune in miscare o roata, sau genera levitatie: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati i-dhIK2ozz0. Despre navele extraterestre vazute de cei 24 de astronauti, din care 12 au pasit pe Luna intre 1969 si 1972, preintre care si doctor E. D. Mitchell care a zburat cu racheta Saturn in misiunea Apollo 14: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati FkNfNUJl6dI. Despre neamul de uriasi si urmasii lor: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati gmA_lyYJLu0; -LxRtfQnzG4; b_-vWCY5lN0; _GzesvdOu6c. Despre artefacte extraterestre: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati asomHvqhYB4. Despre umanoizii cu cranii mari conice: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati Oa6nqmfEM-0. Despre Edward Leedskalnin: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati H5q-LOhBHSI. Despre nave uriase extraterestre filmate de astronomul si astrofotograful John Lenard Walson cu un telescop special: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 4buqxm1ZOys. Iata si Luna filmata de el: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati ohL8v_6SNjY. MetisElara posted on Sep, 3 2007 @ 06:01 AM link Mods, bear with me, as I'm aware there have been threads on this topic in the past. However, I feel they weren't started correctly and focused on Jose Escamilla's controversial and undependable distribution methods rather than on the actual subject matter itself. I feel this thread should stand alone. I ask responders to focus on the subject, rather than on their anger for not receiving proper service from Mr. Escamilla after paying for the online download of "Interstellar", which uses Microsoft DRM and has caused some issues. I understand that Mr. Escamilla should be accountable and timely in issuing refunds, however this is not what I'm focusing on, so I politely ask that you remain on subject. I do not have first hand experience with the broken downloads or refunds; I am merely addressing the people that have posted about it to get it out of the way. I also understand that there were some copyright issues with the YouTube videos below. I don't want that to be the focus of this either. I believe this topic deserves a more focused beginning, (which the other's lacked) in order to pick up some steam; hence the reason I've started this one. I hope it doesn't get locked. Here goes: Amateur astronomer John Lenard Walson claims to have devised an "apparatus" composed of a common CCD camcorder and a commercial grade telescope that is capable of zooming and focusing in on deep space objects (which appear to the naked eye as regular stars) in such a way, that their shape and structure becomes clearly visible. In the latest release from independent UFO documentary filmmaker Jose Escamilla, titled simply, "Interstellar", Mr. Escamilla claims to provide half an hour of "live" footage recorded directly through Mr. Walson's contraption. The images are incredible and shocking, to say the least. If the footage is real, this could be the biggest discovery in history. The images show intricate and structured objects of vast proportions, clearly not of naturally occurring origin. Jose and John have taken to calling them "starships". They claim these starships are orbiting earth at varying distances; some in very deep space and others closer than I dare to imagine! I will admit that some of the objects appear to be nebulas or gas formations, but others appear more "intentional" or anomalous to be natural, at least in my opinion. Mr. Walson claims to have received attention from NASA astronomers as well as prestigious universities for his discovery and has stated that he will disclose his technique to the world at large at some point in the near future. The images below are only a tease. Watch the videos! Despre nave extraterestre observate de un cosmonaut rus: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati ePHyCsLOHIo. Despre intalniri filmate cu nave extraterestre si ocupantii lor: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati iKUtmJOzNdA; 8BhJL1O7gmw; N_WLP8c0KnQ. Filmari cu sirene: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati fz1NOgrpipE; dMaIlFyVKWM; 4Q7-qxuxmyw. Despre incidentul Roswell, New Mexico, 1947: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati IETeIi6Zuzs. Despre baza nazista actuala si orasul antic si nava-mama antica de pe Luna, mare cat Manhattanul, aflata intr-o cariera aurifera de suprafata, impreuna cu ocupanta ei, avand musculatura upgradata prin nanotehnologie: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati uF-F67OUEAw. Despre extraterestrii de 15 cm din Anzi: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati HPJA9unQFw4. Despre energia electromagnetica continuta de spatiul tridimensional si constiinta universala: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati X4HQtB_A_Tc. Despre paleoastronautica cu Erich von Daniken: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati CGCswr6qwC0. Despre nave aerospatiale cu Michael Schratt de la U. S. Air Force, de forma triunghiulara TR-3B cu reactor nuclear si levitatie folosind bobina toroidala Marco Rodin, cu fluid feromagnetic (mercur cu particule feroase), presurizat la 250000 atmosfere si rotit la 50000 rpm, anuland 89% din gravitatie, cei 11% fiind preluati de minirachete de ghidaj cu impuls multimod amplasate in varfurile triunghiului, apoi de forma discoidala cu reactor nuclear si cu turboreactoare, apoi tot de forma discoidala, dar giroscoape electrogravitationale, apoi sub forma de clopot, pe efect Biefeld-Brown (Thomas Townsend Brown), cu propulsie ionica ascensionala de voltaj inalt (intre 25 si 200 KV), cu o bobina Tesla in jumatatea superioara si o baterie de placi capacitive plan paralele incarcate cu sarcini pozitive in jumatatea inferioara, apoi bombardierul strategic "aripa zburatoare delta" de joasa altitudine, invizibil radar, B-2 Spirit, fratele mai mic fiind F-117 A, construit dupa aripa zburatoare H-9 a fratilor nazisti germani Reimar si Walter Horten din WWII, combinata cu antigravitatie datorata campului dielectric si polarzarii opuse a bordului de atac al aripii, incarcata cu sarcini electrostatice pozitive, respectiv a gazului de evacuare, ionizat negativ, combinata cu ionizarea aerului si generarea plasmei la botul avionului, ceea ce duce la o reducere la 60% a consumului pentru atingerea vitezei de croaziera, iar datorita antigravitatiei si modificarii campului gravitational, sub botul avionului diminuandu-se mult, respectiv sub turboreactoarele posterioare diminuandu-se putin, ducand la un randament supraunitar, deci la oprirea alimentarii cu cherosen, aceasta fiind propulsia electrogravitica, incarcarea cu sarcini opuse a jumatatilor inferioara, respectiv superioara ale aeronavei care genereaza antigravitatie, iar datorita ionizarii aerului reduce la zero frecarea cu acesta (americanii construind de asemenea pe acest principiu avioane care prind 8 Mach (de 8 ori viteza sunetului)), fiind descoperita de Viktor Schauberger, studiind zborul gargaritei: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati xfGqINFNL40. Despre nave spatiale, inclusiv nave "buchet" sau obiecte zburatoare neidentificate "tort de nunta", fotografiate de Eduard Albert Meier, contactat la varsta de 5 ani, in 1942, de pleiadieni inalti, blonzi, cu ochi albastri si piele alba, care a vorbit cu 28 de ani inainte de a avea loc, despre razboiul din golful persic, si despre marturiile lt. col. U.S.A. Force Wendelle C. Stevens, despre "clopotele" zburatoare germane Haunebu II, din 19 februarie 1945, capabile sa distruga cate 200 bombardiere "fortarete zburatoare" B-29 din WWII (Al Doilea Razboi Mondial), si despre pistolul cu laser pleiadian (din Constelatia Pleiade, aflata la 68 de ani lumina, steaua Aldebaran, cu planetele Sumer si An), din 6 iulie 1977, capabil sa traga la 37,2 km: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati CCds1GMHcHs; _82jhX-MIZc; Ekws-cCrt8g; hB2fVceXl0Q; HQO3yUA5S3Y; C53OYAST9CI; tfH2oKrvmYg; NrMxNyhBkps; sBbocB96TKM, in afara de: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 3swu_lC-7zc; ; ; ; ; 7IvhcYnGUjU; prcc8UQW3bY; PgfwJzAvQNE. Ciocnire razanta laterala intre automobil si giroscop electrogravitational: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati xqdKYsztBXg. Despre fiinte ciudate: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 2MX1Y9-q5vk; PLj4cw-Bz-E. Despre sunete ciudate: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati -c7hCWwTlrY. Despre Marte: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati JpNg8Z75sEs. Despre semnale ciudate: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati My02OrCHxVw. Despre lacasuri subterane: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati MSNqKVCrDJQ. Despre atac cu nave aerospatiale triunghiulare TR-3B cu levitatie folosind bobina toroidala Marco Rodin, cu fluid feromagnetic: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati YQWqiI0jlQc. Despre Blackstar, avion orbital, zburand la 480 km altitudine, cu motor racheta, apoi depre Northrop-Gruman RQ-180, cu anvergura de 39,6 m si capabilitate de 24 de ore de zbor la 17,7 km altitudine, urmasul lui RQ-170 si SR-71 Blackbird, care zbura cu de 4 ori viteza sunetului, si al carui fuzelaj se etansa la viteze supersonice, avion de spinaj care a zburat pana in 1998, apoi despre Boeing X37-B, de 8,8 m lungime, avion spatial robotic, pentru testarea tehnologiei spatiale reutilizabile, lansat in varful unei rachete Atlas 5, capabil de un an de zbor orbital, inainte de aterizare, bombardier spatial, avion de spionaj si arma antisatelit, urmasul lui X-40, apoi despre Aurora de 455 milioane dolari, nava triunghiulara hipersonica, cu motor cu detonare pulsatorie, bombardier neconventional, ale carui bombe genereaza unde seismice reperate de seismografe, zboara la 27,4 km altitudine cu Mach 4 pana la Mach 5,2 (1 Mach = viteza sunetului): tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati VJ0I773sFbw. Thomas Townsend Brown From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Thomas Townsend Brown (March 18, 1905 – October 22, 1985) was an American inventor who's research into odd electrical effects led him to believe he had discovered a connection between strong electric fields and gravity, a type of antigravity effect. For most of his life he attempted to develop devices based on his ideas, trying to promote them for use by industry and the military. He came up with the name "Biefeld-Brown effect" for the phenomenon he had discovered and called the field of study electrogravitics. Instead of being an antigravity force, what Brown observed has generally been attributed to electrohydrodynamics, the movement of charged particles that transfers their momentum to surrounding neutral particles in air, also called "ionic drift" or "ionic wind". In recent years Brown's research has had an influence in the community of amateur experimenters who build "ionic propulsion lifters" powered by high voltage. There are still claims Brown discovered antigravity, an idea popular with theunidentified flying object (UFO) community and spawning many conspiracy theories. Contents [hide] 1 Biography 2 Anti-gravity research 2.1 Legacy 3 References 4 References and external articles Biography[edit] Thomas Townsend Brown was born into a wealthy construction family in Zanesville, Ohio in 1905. His parents were Lewis K. and Mary Townsend Brown. Thomas was interested in electronics from early childhood and his wealthy parents indulged their sons interests, buying him his own experimental equipment. He started what would be a lifelong series of experiments with electrical phenomenon and began to investigate what he thought was an electro-gravity phenomenon while still in high school. For two years in 1922 and 1923 Thomas Brown attended Doane Academy, a preparatory school associated withGranville, Ohio's Denison University, graduating in June of 1923. In the fall of 1923 he entered the California Institute of Technology. He struggled with the required curriculum of a freshman student and to help Thomas in his school work his parents set up a fully provisioned private laboratory in the family home in Pasadena, California. Here he demonstrated his ideas on electricity and gravity to invited guests such as the physicist and Nobel laureate, Dr. Robert A. Millikan. Millikan told the freshman student his ideas were impossible and told him to complete his college education before trying to develope such theories. Brown left Cal-Tech after his first year. In 1924 he attended Denison University but left there after a year as well. In September 1928 Thomas Townsend Brown married Josephine Beale, daughter of the Zanesville, Ohio physician Clifford Beale. In 1930 Brown enlisted in the United States Navy as an apprentice seaman. After completing basic training, based on his background in experimental electrical research he was ordered to report to duty at the Naval Research Laboratory in Anacostia, D.C. on March 16, 1931. He performed the dual rolls of a rank-and-file sailor and a research assistant on the Navy submarine S-48 in the the Navy Department's International Gravity Expedition to the West Indies in 1932. In 1933 he was assigned to the yacht "Caroline" (loaned to the Navy by Eldridge Reeves Johnson) which was conducting US Navy ocean surveys and research in the Johnson-Smithsonian Deep Sea Expedition of 1933. His primary duties were as sonar and radio operator with little involvement in scientific work. In 1933 Brown lost his job at the Naval Research Lab due toDepression era budget cutbacks and he joined the U.S. Naval Reserve. Brown found a job during the 30s as a soil engineer for the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and then as an administrator for the Ohio Civilian Conservation Corps. Thomas Brown and Josephine were divorced in 1937 for a short while, re-marring in September 1940. Also in 1937 Thomas Brown re-enlisted in the US Navy. In 1938 Brown was promoted to Lieutenant and in 1939 was assigned for a few months as a material engineer for the Navy’s flying boats being built at the Glenn L. Martin Company in Maryland. He was engaged in magnetic and acoustic mine-sweeping research and development under the Bureau of Ships in Washington D.C. From October, 1940 to March, 1941. After the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 he was transferred to the Atlantic Fleet Radar School in Norfolk, Virginia in May of 1942. In October 1942 Brown was discharged from navy service with Brown requesting to resign "for the good of the naval service in order to escape trial by General Court Martial" and with his official discharge exam listing "no comment" as to the reasons why.[1] After 1944 he worked as a Radar consultant to the Lockheed-Vega Aircraft Corporation.[2] After leaving Lockheed, Brown moved to Hawaii where he was temporarily a consultant to the Pearl harbor Navy Yard due to Commander in Chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet Admiral Arthur W. Radford's interest in Browns ideas on Gravitor devices, although the work was looked on more as a curiosity than any type of workable device. In 1952 Brown moved to Cleveland in hopes of selling his Gravitor device to the military establishment but there was little interest in it. In 1955 Brown went to Europe first in England and then to France. In research test for the French corporation, La Socie'te' National de Construction Aeronautique Sud Ouest (SNCASO) Brown demonstrated what he thought was an antigravity effect in a vacuum with his device but all funding was cut off when SNCASO was merged with SNCASE forcing Brown to return to the U.S. in 1956. Brown became involved in the subject of unidentified flying objects (UFOs) and in 1956 helped found the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) although he was forced out as director in 1957 with allegations that Brown was using funds to further his own anti-gravity research. In 1958 Brown worked as a research and development consultant for Agnew Bahnson's Whitehall Rand Project, an anti-gravity venture at the Bahnson Company of Winston-Salem, North Carolina. That same year Brown setup his own anti-gravity corporation, Rand International Limited. He filed several patents but his ideas met with little success. In the early 1960s he worked as a physicist for Electrokinetics Inc., of Bala Cynwyd, PA. and then went into semi-retirement living in California. Thomas Townsend Brown died on October 22, 1985. Anti-gravity research[edit] Further information: Biefeld-Brown effect and Electrogravitics In 1921 while experimenting in the lab his parents had set up for him while he was still in high school, Brown discovered an unusual effect while experimenting with a Coolidge tube, a type of X-ray vacuum tube with two asymmetrical electrodes. Placing it on a balance scale with the tube’s positive electrode facing up, when the power was on the tubes mass seemed to decrease. When tube's electrode was facing down the tube's mass seemed to increase.[3] Brown was convinced that he had managed to influence gravity electronically. At Caltech in 1923 Brown tried to convince his instructors about his throries via inviting them to his home laboratory but they showed little interest. He also invited the press and the May 26, 1924 edition Los Angeles Evening Express ran a story on Brown titled "Claims Gravity is a Push, not a Pull." After quitting Caltech Brown studied one year at Denison University where he claimed that he did a series of experiments with professor of astronomy Paul Alfred Biefeld although the present day Denison University claims they have no record of such experiments being carried out, or of any association between Brown and Biefeld.[4] Brown would continue to claim Biefeld as his mentor and co-experimenter, eventually calling the phenomenon the Biefeld–Brown effect.[5] The phenomenon was also given the name "Electrogravitics" by Brown based on his belief this was an electricity/gravity phenomenon. Working in his home lab Brown developed an electrical device he called a “gravitor” or “gravitator", consisting of a block of insulating or dielectric material with electrodes at either end. He received a British patent for it in November 1928. In demonstrations Brown would mount the unit as a pendulum, apply electrical power, and the unit moves in one direction. In 1929 Brown published "How I Control Gravity," in Science and Invention where he claimed these devices were producing a mysterious force that interacted with the pull of gravity. He envisions a future where, if his device could be scaled up, "Multi-impulse gravitators weighing hundreds of tons may propel the ocean liners of the future" or even "fantastic 'space cars'" to Mars.[6] Brown spent the rest of his life working in his spare time and sometimes in funded projects trying to prove his ideas on Electrogravity. He proposed his gravitator as a means of propulsion to General Motors executives in 1930 and as ship propulsion while he was at the Naval Research Laboratory in 1932. After World War II Brown sought to develop and sell his "Electrogravitic" effect as a means of propulsion for aircraft and spacecraft. Brown refined his invention over the years and eventually came up with designs consisting of metal plates or disks charged with 25,000 to 200,000 volts that would produce a pulpulsive force. Brown demonstrated a working apparatus to an audience of scientists and military officials in the US, England, and Fance. Research in the phenomenon was popular in the mid-1950s, at one point the Glenn L. Martin Company placed advertisements looking for scientists who were "interested in gravity", but rapidly declined in popularity thereafter (see United States gravity control propulsion research). Most scientists who witnessed the demonstrations were skeptical, attributing the noticed motive force to the more well understood phenomenon of ionic drift or "ion wind" from the air particles, some of which still remained even when Brown's put his device inside a vacuum chamber. His association with UFOs and a 1979 book on the Philadelphia Experiment(where the Navy allegedly teleported a warship) helped to give Brown the reputation in mainstream physics of being a "crackpot".[6] Legacy[edit] Electrogravitics is popular with conspiracy theorists with claims that it is powering the B-2 Stealth Bomber and UFOs with claims it may have become a classified subject by 1957.[6] There are further claims that it can be used to generate "free energy".[7] Brown's research and the "Biefeld-Brown effect" has since become something of a popular pursuit around the world, with amateur experimenters replicating his early experiments in the form of "ionic propulsion lifters" powered by high voltage. References[edit] Jump up^ Paul Schatzkin, Defying Gravity: The Paraellel Universe of T. Townsend Brown, 2005-2006-2007-2008 - Tanglewood Books, Chapter 43 - For the Good of the Service Jump up^ Paul Schatzkin, Defying Gravity: The Paraellel Universe of T. Townsend Brown, 2005-2006-2007-2008 - Tanglewood Books, Chapter 43 - For the Good of the Service Jump up^ The Canonical Hamiltonian The Intersection Of Chip Design and Physics by Hamilton Carter, Thomas Townsend Brown: Part IV of the Holiday Serial Jump up^ Paul Schatzkin, Defying Gravity: The Paraellel Universe of T. Townsend Brown, 2005-2006-2007-2008 - Tanglewood Books, Chapter 13: Notes from the Rabbit Hole #3: "He Made Things Up" (online excerpts) Jump up^ alienscientist.com, Biefeld-Brown Effect Controversy, Tajmar ESA Experiments ^ Jump up to:a b c Thompson, Clive (August 2003). "The Antigravity Underground". Wired Magazine. Jump up^ Chapter Six UFOs and Electrogravity Propulsion, Did Tesla Discover the Secrets of Antigravity? Farrell, Joseph P., "Covert Wars and the Clash of Civilizations" c.2013, Adventures Unimited Press, Kempton, Illinois, Chapter 9, pages 221-245 ISBN 978-1-939149-04-6 Sources for biography Paul Schatzkin, Defying Gravity: The Paraellel Universe of T. Townsend Brown, 2005-2006-2007-2008 - Tanglewood Books Len Kasten, The Secret History of Extraterrestrials: Advanced Technology and the Coming New Race, Inner Traditions / Bear & Co - 2011, pages 143-147 William L. Moore, "The Wizard of Electro-gravity" The man who discovered how UFO's are powered, Saga UFO Report, May 1978 References and external articles[edit] Patents GB300311 — A method of and an apparatus or machine for producing force or motion (accepted 1928-11-15) US 1,974,483 — Electrostatic motor (1934-09-25) US 2,949,550 — Electrokinetic apparatus (1960-08-16) US 3,018,394 — Electrokinetic transducer (1962-01-23) US 3,022,430 — Electrokinetic generator (1962-02-20) US 3,187,206 — Electromagnetic apparatus (1965-06-01) US 3,196,296 — Electric generator (1965-07-20) Websites http://ttbrown.com/. Maintained by Paul Schatzkin, author of "Defying Gravity: The Parallel Universe of T. Townsend Brown" http://projetmontgolfier.info Projet Montgolfier Reports 1955-1958 Categories: 1905 births 1985 deaths American physicists Pseudophysics People from Zanesville, Ohio Anti-gravity
  10. articole Tehnica Germana Uitata - Linkuri

    Tastati si adaugati: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: u48p24utVJo; V1uZzUy7SRQ; Pzhcqd4-z3Q; LWDtuSLLjPI; vXCXXLNaYjo; o1515ujK7AI; 3J_K5vHQnlQ; cat si altul despre aterizarea unei farfurii zburatoare si contactul cu ocupantii ei: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: PgfwJzAvQNE, cat si despre aerodina lenticulara (farfuria zburatoare) facuta pentru nazisti a lui Henri Marie Coanda al nostru: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: 3swu_lC-7zc; 2giFGsGLft4; MwUpPwyyvLw; 5tydvDgVNiA; -f5Y1RAo4pY; 7IvhcYnGUjU; si despre farfuria zburatoare garvito-spatio-temporala extraterestra studiata prin retroinginerie, in baza S4 de langa zona 51 de fizicianul Robert Lazar: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: prcc8UQW3bY, si despre Basarabia, parintele Arsenie Boca: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: 7IvhcYnGUjU si Iustin Parvu: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: -voq6QHgN1w, si despre testamentul Maresalului Ion Victor Antonescu: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: pEhzcfuhRrg; CbhSgvYZERA; P1uv5gW_kU8; 1C6ZXlZw5To.
  11. articole Tehnica Germana Uitata - Linkuri

    Romanul Henri Marie Coanda nu e SF, la indrumarea caruia s-a construit aerodina lenticulara Coanda 9 bazata pe efectul Coanda si motoare cu reactie, cu 12 turboagregate BMW 028, nici austriacul Viktor Schauberger, la indrumarea caruia s-a construit Repulsin, un disc zburator cu impulsie magnetohidrodinamica, cu motor cu implozie (suctiune, scadere a presiunii fluidului aflat pe directia de inaintare a avehiculului) magnetohidrodinamica cu vortex de aer ionizat sub presiune intr-o spirala Nautilus, cu sectiune crescand dupa sirul lui Fibonacci si apa fierbinte sub presiune, generand automentinerea unei miscari de rotatie la 1200 rpm, si tasnirea verticala a discului, si in nici germanul Rudolph Schriever, la indrumarea caruia s-a construit avionul rotund Rund Flugzeug (RFZ) sau elicopterul supersonic cu reactie Flugelrad (aripa rotativa) la Praga, nici aromanul (romanii de peste Dunare, din Timoc si Voivodina) Nicolae Teslea sau Nikola Tesla, dupa care capitanul de marina Hans Kohler a construit tahionator converterul sau convertizorul de energie libera folosit la crearea giroscopului electrogravitational Thule, Vril, si apoi, Haunebu (clopotul zburator Haunebu IV avea 120 m diametru) si navei mama Andromeda, de 139 m lungime, de marimea unui zepelin mare (Hindenburg avea 253 m), nici Andreas Epp, la indrumarea caruia s-a construit farfuria zburatoare Omega 8. Viktor Grebennikov si Edward Leedskalnin au dezvoltat metode de invingere a gravitatiei, Grebennikov folosinduse de proprietatile geometrice ale structurii microscopice a aripilor cheratinoase ale sacarabeului, care duc la deformarea continuumului spatiu-timp si generarea leviatiei si opririi scurgerii timpului pentru cel care leviteaza: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: _ChsZUwqTeE. Deasemenea despre bazele naziste subterane din nord-estul Antarctidei (la Polul Sud), fata nevazuta a Lunii si Marte, a scris si generalul de brigada Emil Strainu, cat si militarii rusii au comentat despre campania militara a amiralului de marina Richard Bird din 1947 pentru distrugerea bazei naziste de la Polul Sud soldata cu esec. Nu mai zic despre fizicianul Robert Lazar care a lucrat la baza S4 din apropierea Zonei 51 la retroingineria unor discuri zburatoare, inclusiv celui cazut la Roswell in 1947. Si pe canalele de stiinta de la RDS apar unele din aceste informatii. Dar nu cred ca ai avut rabdare sa studiezi tot ce scrie la aceast topic despre ei. Nici nu e de condamnat, mai ales daca nu stai bine cu timpul liber si daca nu te pasioneaza fizica. Oricum, e parerea ta si e dreptul tau sa ti-o exprimi! Toate cele bune! Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: 3J_K5vHQnlQ; Y02BLG9Xek4; 1fn5_8gw6Qg; Rx6SWYT5abw; U53zCg8uFAo; gcD1h9DYitg; o2weEI1F64o; _1tkWMI-TSc; NiVROBhwHUM; VjpCKZ7cEoY; 3W94TT2eFV8; mJtKcUiWEms; GIIHzpzBErM; _6G_QDnXgx0; UBZZlM3IJ60; GP1TTwUWpg4; 9-UXJbrgIr0; 7k0OXGLC8Ok; G7Zi5i94rzs; 9-UXJbrgIr0; KMyiH-dFqfs; SqvnbgGPdmI; prcc8UQW3bY; x8npcgiNGus; dKOYzYwQ6js; dlo8IEBJaqs; 7-0iOfYF6o0; 4NLIkKl8NlY; V9-BsAUps5E; OcoPsm26RfQ; VSTaQ51stb4; eb97wVaz3Ic; rN2AhUXlcLs; HRfW7w1YoUU; sVLRKDlE8c4; 5VtYQzMvSio; _ECjO46EUp4; DRWbmiXQba0; NN09AAG94Os; xEEw3TzahVI; KBrYCUnEExA; 7hJP9ZWRXCo; 6EWpNckTqLA; gc0menDzaUE&feature=c4-overview-vl&list=PLE34B0DF38A5BD062; EeocSYQ5GnY; HRfW7w1YoUU; e5gQ2D5St3Q; 3VWmNm6J09M; nuQp8OxgJrQ; PgfwJzAvQNE; 3swu_lC-7zc; 2giFGsGLft4; MwUpPwyyvLw; 5tydvDgVNiA; hYJXE4FCm7Q; _ChsZUwqTeE. Zum ersten mal in der Geschichte der Menschheit, in einem Weltweiten event, Ganz gleich, wer sie sind, Ganz egal, wo sie sind, machen Sie sich gefasst, auf eine neue Ara in der Geschichte der Menschheit. http://www.vortex-world.org/repulsin.htm the VORTEX WORLD the repulsin It happend at 1200 rpm ... With a snapping sound the machine broke loose from the six quarter inch bolts that connected it to the ground, and then, with a soft wining sound, it took off with a blue glowing fog emerging from the machine ... Imagine that we could control that force .... Among Viktor Schaubergers machines there is no one like the Repulsin or the flying saucer that has created such myths and stories. The basic designs are from the mid thirties when he tried to finish the Climator. Often mysterious material acting as catalysts are used in the devices. Different light and sound phenomena are also reported from people that claim that they had been eye witnesses to these flying devices. A most peculiar thing is that they seem to be very difficult to control, as they have a habit of smashing into the ceiling, and after that, being irreparable. Viktor himself claimed that powerful diamagnetic forces were responsible for the enormous effect. However, in the literature and in Viktor's own notebooks there is no evidence, if and if so how these devices worked. The question is, are all these rumours true ? Do these devices really work ? Well, what we can see from the few pictures that exist is that there seems to be some kind of turbine, shaped as a double flat membrane with concentric rills on it. If you compare to the wave pattern you get when you throw a stone into a small pond you will comprehend better what I mean. However, the wave pattern on the upper membrane had a small difference in the phase compared to the lower membrane. On the edge rim, turbine vanes are mounted, probably acting as a source of power for both self rotation and even for the generation of power. The double membrane was probably co-rotating as four bolts that fix them together, can be observed. In the pictures we can also see that there is some kind of body, a bowl shaped plate that is bend over the membrane whose outlet can be found inside the rim foil. Together, the rim foil (the metal band around the lower rim) and the outlet form a Venturi "tube". An air intake can be seen on the top of the device. Unfortunately, one important component is missing on the top. This component should "pre-form" the air so it starts to twist before it enters the double membrane. This component had a similar shape as a sea shell. Viktor said that this device was never built as it is very difficult to produce a thing with such a complex geometry. In the book Living Water (by Olof Alexandersson) a colloid solution of very fine grained quartz crystal and water is mentioned as a catalyst for the process. So, if we start to think for a while. Let's say that this device really worked, it really did take off! How would it work ? Consider what probably happens in the machine: - The air is sucked through the intake where it is pre-formed into a vortice containing vortices within vortices shaped as long threads rotating around their axis.In my opinion the double membrane was not co-rotating. If they where not counter rotating, one of the was fixed, probably the upper membrane and the lower rotating on the driving axis. A description on what happens is given on the wind mill page. - Briefly the air threads start to spin faster and faster around their axis driven by the difference in speed between the membranes. As the air reaches longer out on the membrane, the peripherical speed increases along with the radius and so does the angular speed of the air threads. - During the passage between the double membrane the air has to pass cavities where the volume sometimes is bigger and sometimes is smaller due to the difference in phase between the upper and the lower membrane. When the air passes a narrow cavity it gets extra energy input and when it passes a larger cavity it is allowed to expand. - The "air threads" are twisted along their axis in a smaller and smaller radius leading to an increase of the angular speed. As the air reaches further out, closer to the rim, the threads start to bend due to the increasing peripherical speed. When the air passes the different cavities it starts to pulsate in a rhythm that is depending on the angular speed of the disc. Huge forces are generated when all these degrees of freedom are harmonised into a symphony. However, it is not necessary to use unknown theories as the diamagnetic forces to explain how the powerful lift is generated. Of course this can be the explanation, the future will show us if this is the case. As for the colloid solution of fine grained quartz and water, one can imagine that huge amounts of piezo electricity is produced between the membranes, where the pulsating and twisting air containing small amounts of the solution is passing. At a certain rotation speed we have reached the level where we have "harmony" and the air is "self pulsating" and generating electricity that "pumps" up the energy level. What actually happens in this process in certainly unknown! But, high levels of static electricity have been reported in similar devices connected to the ZPE-area. ZPE stands for zero point energy or vacuum energy which is the idea of an unknown field of energy existing in vacuum. Read more about this phenomena! In several proposals of propulsion devices, for flying saucers high electric energy levels are also used. As an example we have David Hamels flying disk. You can read about it here. It could be that the diamagnetism that Viktor Schauberger mentioned, is the same phenomena or physical principle that is proposed in these propulsion devices. In Viktor's lessons he always talked about two important things: "You shall always remember two things. First, remember how the rivers are meandering. Second, remember the electrophorus (or Kelvin's thunderstorm ) experiments!" As I mentioned before there is one (at least…) more explanation on why Viktor Schaubergers machine took off with such power. It might be explained by "normal" aerodynamics and a phenomena named ‘the Coanda effect'. Very brief the Coanda effect is the phenomena when a flowing media tends to "stick" to a curved surface, You can read a biography of Henri Coanda here . If we take a closer look on the bowl shaped plate, we realise that it is a circular wing. When the air is rushing out inside the foil or the metal band that can be seen on the lower rim of the device it creates a sub pressure just over the foil. The surrounding air is sucked inside the foil and with the air from the membranes. This generates a sub pressure over the device and the device is "hanging" in it. You could say that it is an inverted hovercraft. But instead of creating a pressure under the craft You create a sub pressure over it. Basically it is the same, it is only a matter of pressure differences. The sub pressure is modest but as we have a large area we also get a huge lifting force. There is one more way to create the sub pressure over the craft. You can let the air blow out on the top instead. When the twisted air follows the Coanda surface it sweeps down the surrounding air and we get the sub pressure this way. If You want to read more about the Coanda effect follow this link . On this page You can read a lot about different applications and a very interesting new type of fan, the Jet Fan. The principle of the "flats and angles" (type 1) is demonstrated in picture 1, where I have built a small (250 mm diameter, 80 mm high) prototype of the Jet Fan type (type1). I have also "rebuilt" my vacuum cleaner so it is blowing instead (my wife demanded a new one … ). The air blows out through a special nozzle so it forms a "disk" of blowing air. Picture 2: When the nozzle with the "air disk" is placed close to the top, we can simulate what is happening on type 1. As You can see in the picture, the silk threads follow the air flow shoving the path. Picture 3: Oh Yes, It works ! The Malmögroup will continue their work during 1998 with further testing of these ideas. We proposed a model of the membrane turbine and will continue to shape the moulds so we can multiply the membranes. A section of the body will also be designed as a test rig where it will be possible to test different profiles of the body and different types of nozzles and other things related to the device. We will also present the results on this page, please continue to check the site. I will write in the "what's new section" when there is more info. Repulsin type B, inner part of air inlet removed Picture 1 Picture 2 Picture 3 http://davidpratt.info/gravity2.htm Gravity and Antigravity David Pratt Feb 2001, last rev’d Jul 2007 Part 2 of 2 Contents Part 1 Part 2 4. Levitation and technology 5. Human levitation 6. Theosophical writings 4. Levitation and technology Myths and megaliths The megalithic structures found at many sites around the world have generated endless controversy as to how they were built. Conventional archaeologists, who dismiss the possibility of highly advanced civilizations in the remote past, insist that they were built solely with the use of primitive tools and brute force. Some of the structures, or parts of them, could have been built in this way. However, a number of engineers have stated that some features would be difficult if not impossible to duplicate today, even using the most advanced technology. The sheer weight and size of some of the stone blocks have prompted several researchers to wonder whether the ancient builders had mastered some form of levitation technology.* *The acoustic and magnetic levitation techniques currently under development by mainstream scientists create a physical lifting force stronger than the force of gravity and do not modify gravity or generate an antigravitational force. The pre-Incan fortresses at Ollantaytambo and Sacsayhuaman in the Peruvian Andes consist of cyclopean walls constructed from tight-fitting polygonal stone blocks, some weighing 120 tonnes or more. The blocks used at Ollantaytambo were somehow transported from a quarry located on another mountaintop 11 km away, the descent from which was impeded by a river canyon with 305-metre vertical rock walls. The ruins of Tiahuanaco (Tiwanaku) near Lake Titicaca in Bolivia include blocks weighing around 100 tonnes, which were transported from quarries 50 km away.1 According to the local Aymara Indians, the complex was built at the ‘beginning of time’ by the founder-god Viracocha and his followers, who caused the stones to be ‘carried through the air to the sound of a trumpet’. An alternative theme is that they created a ‘heavenly fire’ that consumed the stones and enabled large blocks to be lifted by hand ‘as if they were cork’. According to a Mayan legend, the temple complex of Uxmal in the Yucatan Peninsula was built by a race of dwarfs who were able to move heavy rocks into place by whistling.2 Legends of occult power being employed to lift and transport stone blocks are in fact universal. For example, according to tradition the megalithic city of Nan Madol on the Micronesian island of Pohnpei was built by the god-kings Olosopa and Olosipa, who used magic spells to make the huge stones ‘fly through the air like birds’.3 Legends about the huge stone statues or moai on Easter Island, many of which are as high as a three-storey building, tell how magicians or priests used mana, or mind power, to make them ‘walk’, or float through the air.4 According to early Greek historians, the walls of the ancient city of Thebes were built by Amphion, a son of Jupiter, who moved the large stones ‘to the music of his harp’ while his ‘songs drew even stones and beasts after him’. Another version claims that when he played ‘loud and clear on his golden lyre, rock twice as large followed in his footsteps’. The 10th-century Arab historian Mas’di wrote that, to build the pyramids, the ancient Egyptians inserted papyri inscribed with certain characters beneath the stone blocks; they were then struck by an instrument, producing a sound which caused them to rise into the air and travel for a distance of over 86 metres.5 The achievements of the ancient Egyptian builders have caused even some fairly orthodox investigators to wonder whether levitation might have been employed.6 For instance the roof of the King’s Chamber in the Great Pyramid, 200 feet up, consists of huge granite beams weighing up to 70 tonnes. What’s more, the major temples on the Giza plateau – the two next to the Sphinx and those besides the Second and Third Pyramids – contain colossal limestone blocks weighing between 50 and 200 tonnes and placed on top of one another. The largest are 9 metres long, 3.6 metres wide and 3.6 metres high. It is interesting to note that there are only a few cranes in the world today capable of lifting objects weighing 200 tonnes or more.7 The largest blocks used in any known man-made structure are found in the ancient platform beneath the Roman Temple of Jupiter at Baalbek in Lebanon.8 The foundation platform is enclosed by a cyclopean retaining wall; in the western side, on the fifth level, at a height of 10 metres, there are three colossal stones known as the Trilithon, each measuring about 19.5 metres long, 4.5 metres high and 3.5 metres deep, and weighing a staggering 1000 tonnes. The stones fit together perfectly and not even a knife blade can be pushed between them. At the quarry, half a kilometre away, there remains a fourth, even larger block, weighing as much as 1200 tonnes, the lower part of its base still attached to the bedrock. The course beneath the Trilithon contains seven mammoth stones weighing about 450 tonnes each. There are no traces of a roadbed leading from the quarry and no traces of any ramp. Nor are there any written records as to how the platform was built. According to local Arab legend, Baalbek’s first citadel was built before the Flood, and rebuilt afterwards by a race of giants. The Phoenician historian Sanchoniatho stated that Lebanon’s first city was Byblos, founded by the god Ouranus, who designed cyclopean structures and was able to make stones move as if they had a life of their own. Fig. 5.1 The massive Trilithon at Baalbek.9 (The silhouetted two-storey house has been inserted for scale.) Fig. 5.2 Another view of the Trilithon. Fig. 5.3 The ‘Stone of the South’ still in the quarry at Baalbek.10 Among the Tibetans Evidence that worldwide legends of acoustic levitation might have a basis in fact, was provided by the Swedish engineer Henry Kjellson, who in the 1950s recorded the experiences of two separate western travellers who had allegedly witnessed demonstrations of sonic technology in Tibet.1 Since neither of the following accounts can be verified, sceptics assume that Kjellson probably made them up himself. During a visit to a Tibetan monastery situated southwest of the capital Lhasa, the Swede Dr Jarl was taken to a meadow where there was a high cliff to the northwest. About 250 metres up the face of the cliff was an entrance to a cave, in front of which was a wide ledge where monks were building a stone wall. Embedded in the ground 250 metres from the foot of the cliff, was a large rock slab with a bowl-shaped depression in it. A block of stone, 1.5 metres long, 1 metre wide, and 1 metre high, was manhandled into the depression. Monks with 19 musical instruments, consisting of 13 drums and 6 very long trumpets, were arranged in an arc of about 90 degrees, 63 metres from the bowl-stone. The drums, open at one end, were aimed at the stone block. Behind each instrument was a line of monks eight to ten deep. A monk in the middle of the arc started chanting and beating out a rhythm on a small drum, and then the other instruments joined in. After four minutes, the large stone block began to wobble and floated into the air rocking from side to side. All the instruments were trained constantly on the stone as it rose upwards at an accelerating rate and finally crashed onto the ledge. The monks continued to perform this feat at the rate of 5 or 6 stones per hour. The role of the 200 or so monks behind the instruments was unclear: one suggestion is that they used some form of coordinated psychokinesis to aid the flight of the stone. Fig. 5.4 Dr Jarl’s sketch showing how Tibetan monks were able to raise stone blocks into the air using the power of sound. The second case involved an Austrian named Linauer, who stated that while at a remote monastery in northern Tibet during the 1930s, he had witnessed the demonstration of two curious sound instruments which could induce weightlessness in stone blocks. The first was an extremely large gong, 3.5 metres in diameter, composed of a central circular area of very soft gold, followed by a ring of pure iron, and finally a ring of extremely hard brass. When struck, it produced an extremely low dumph which ceased almost immediately. The second instrument was also composed of three different metals; it had a half-oval shape like a mussel shell, and measured 2 metres long and 1 metre wide, with strings stretched longitudinally over its hollow surface. Linauer was told that it emitted an inaudible resonance wave when the gong was struck. The two devices were used in conjunction with a pair of large screens, positioned so as to form a triangular configuration with them. When the gong was struck with a large club to produce a series of brief, low-frequency sounds, a monk was able to lift a heavy stone block with just one hand. Linauer was informed that this was how their ancestors had built protective walls around Tibet, and that such devices could also disintegrate physical matter. Keely and Leedskalnin A man who appears to have gone a long way to unlocking the secrets of sound was John Ernst Worrell Keely of Philadelphia (1827-1898). He spent 50 years developing and refining a wide variety of devices that used ‘sympathetic vibratory force’ or ‘etheric force’ to levitate objects, spin large wheels, power engines, and disintegrate rock. He performed many convincing demonstrations in his laboratory for scientists and other interested observers. He attempted to put his apparatus into commercial production, but this was hampered by the fact that it had to be tuned to the bodily vibrations of the operator and also to the surroundings.1 Fig. 5.5 John Keely. Keely built several devices to manipulate gravity.2 One of them was the ‘sympathetic transmitter’, a copper globe about one foot (30 cm) in diameter, containing a Chladni plate and various metal tubes, whose position could be adjusted by means of a knob. The globe was held by a metal stand, around the base of which projected small metal rods a few inches long, of different sizes and lengths, which vibrated like tuning forks when twanged by the fingers. In one experiment, the transmitter was connected by a wire made of gold, platinum, and silver to the top of a water-filled glass jar. When the right chord was sounded on the strings of a zither, metal balls, weighing 2 pounds (0.9 kg), rose from the bottom of the jar until they hit the metal cap, and remained there until a different note was played which caused them to sink again. Witnesses relate how, after further experimentation, Keely was able to make heavy steel balls move in the air by simply playing on a kind of mouth organ. Using the same combination of transmitter, connecting cord, and musical instrument, he was able to make a 3.6-kg model of an airship rise into the air, descend, or hover with a motion ‘as gentle as that of thistledown’. He was also able to lift extremely heavy weights by connecting them to vibratory appliances worn on his person; several people witnessed him levitate and move a 3-tonne cast-iron sphere in this way, and also make it heavier so that it sank into the ground as if into mud. Keely was able to catalyze the vibratory force necessary to make objects move using a variety of musical instruments, including trumpets, horns, harmonicas, fiddles, and zithers, and could even operate the equipment just by whistling. One sceptic, however, claimed that Keely did not play on an instrument to set up sympathetic vibration but to signal to a confederate in another part of the building when to turn on or off the compressed air that supposedly powered his ‘fraudulent’ devices! A man who in more recent times claimed to know the secret of how the pyramids and other megalithic structures were built was Edward Leedskalnin.3 He lived in a place called Coral Castle, near Miami, Florida, which he built himself from giant blocks of coral weighing up to 30 tons. In 28 years, working alone, without the use of modern construction machinery, he quarried and erected a total of 1100 tons. He was very secretive and usually worked at night, and died in 1952 without divulging his construction techniques, despite visits from engineers and government officials. Some teenagers spying on him one evening claimed they saw him ‘float coral blocks through the air like hydrogen balloons’. It is widely thought that he had discovered some means of locally reversing the effects of gravity. From the remaining contents of Leedskalnin’s workshop and photographic evidence, engineer Chris Dunn suggests that he generated a radio signal that caused the coral to vibrate at its resonant frequency, and then used an electromagnetic field to flip the magnetic poles of the atoms so that they were repulsed by the earth’s magnetic field. Fig. 5.6 The Nine-ton Gate at Coral Castle. Originally used as a turnstile, the 8-foot-tall gate is perfectly mounted and balanced so that a child can open it with the touch of a finger.4 Schauberger and nature’s levity According to aeronautical experts, the flight of the simple bumble bee is a mystery that defies conventional laws of physics, as its wings do not flutter rapidly enough to create sufficient lift. The rhinoceros beetle should also be unable to fly as its body mass is completely out of proportion to its wing area. Some writers have suggested that levitational forces help to explain how birds and insects fly, and fishes swim. Austrian scientist and inventor Viktor Schauberger (1885-1958) believed that, alongside gravity, a principle of levity operated in nature, governing all upward movement of energy, all uplift and upward growth. During his early life as a forester in the Alpine wilderness, he observed how large mountain trout could lie motionless in the strongest currents, except for an occasional slight movement of their tail-fins. If alarmed, they darted at lightning speed upstream, instead of allowing the current to carry them downstream. Trout and salmon are able to jump up high waterfalls (even as much as 60 m high) with little apparent effort. Schauberger would watch trout dance in a wild spinning movement at the bottom of a waterfall, and then come out of this spinning movement and float motionlessly upwards. He developed the idea that in addition to the gravitational movement of water from the spring down to the sea, there is a flow of ‘levitational’ energy in the opposite direction. In one experiment Schauberger had 100 litres of hot water poured into a stream. Although it did not noticeably warm the water, a trout resting about 150 m downstream immediately became very agitated: it started to flail its tail, moving backwards all the time as it struggled to maintain its position. Finally it was swept downstream, and only returned much later. Schauberger concluded that the hot water had destroyed the upward flow of levitational energy. One moonlit winter night, he saw egg-shaped stones the size of a head rise to the surface of a deep pool, and concluded that the combined effect of the cold and the metalliferous composition of the stones (especially their silica content) was responsible for enhancing the levitational energies. Schauberger was surprised to find that the tips of mosses on rocks in a shaded mountain stream point upstream, somehow resisting the pressure of the fast-flowing current. He regarded this as a reliable indicator of a stream’s state of health, because it showed that the downstream gravitational flow of matter and the upstream, levitational flow of energy were in balance. However, if through deforestation a stream is exposed to direct sunlight, the water becomes warmer, less dense, and the moss-tips point downstream. Pristine wilderness is nowadays hard to find, owing to the marauding hand of man. Schauberger sought to develop energy-generating machines which, by the power of shape, form, and motion alone, were able to mimic nature’s processes. Whereas today’s main energy technologies use outward-moving explosion, such as fuel-burning and atom-splitting, his machines operated on the basis of inward-spiralling movements, or implosion. He wrote: ‘If water or air is rotated into a twisting form of oscillation known as “colloidal”, a buildup of energy results, which with immense power, can cause levitation.’ Vortical motion, with rotational velocities of 15-20,000 revolutions per minute, accompanied by rapid cooling, created strong vacuum effects inside his machines. Some researchers think that the transmutation of matter into more ethereal states and the production of genuine levitational forces also occurred. Detailed reports of his experiments with a variety of designs are generally lacking, but his efforts seem to have met with at least partial success. During the second world war, he was forced to work for the Nazis, and developed small ‘flying saucers’. One of the scientists involved was reported as saying that at the first attempt to run one of the models, it shot upwards unexpectedly, trailing a blue-green then silver-coloured glow, and was wrecked against the ceiling of the hangar. At the end of the war Schauberger’s research was investigated by the Americans and Russians, but as far as the public record is concerned, none of his models were developed further. More recently there has been a resurgence of interest in his revolutionary ideas.1 Fig. 5.7 Two prototypes of Schauberger’s flying saucer, about 65 cm in diameter. References Myths and megaliths Paul LaViolette, Genesis of the Cosmos: The ancient science of continuous creation, Rochester, VE: Bear and Company, 2004, p. 343; Ian Lawton and Chris Ogilvie-Herald, Giza: The truth, London: Virgin, 1999, p. 201. Andrew Collins, Gods of Eden: Egypt’s lost legacy and the genesis of civilisation, London: Headline, 1998, pp. 58-62. Graham Hancock and Santha Faiia, Heaven’s Mirror: Quest for the lost civilization, London: Michael Joseph, 1998, p. 235. Easter Island: land of mystery, section 5, davidpratt.info. Gods of Eden, pp. 35-37, 62-63. Giza: The truth, pp. 198-210. Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock, Keeper of Genesis, London: Heinemann, 1996, pp. 28-29. Andrew Collins, ‘Baalbek, Lebanon’s sacred fortress’, www.andrewcollins.com/page/articles/baalbek.htm; Gods of Eden, pp. 63-64; David Hatcher Childress, Lost Cities of Atlantis, Ancient Europe & the Mediterranean, Stelle, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press, 1996, pp. 31-36, 48-50; Christian and Barbara Joy O’brien, The Shining Ones, Kemble, Cirencester: Dianthus Publishing, 2001, pp. 265-282. The Shining Ones, p. 269. www.lessing4.de/megaliths/non_europ.htm. Among the Tibetans Collins, Gods of Eden, pp. 66-72. Keely and Leedskalnin H.P. Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine, Pasadena, CA: Theosophical University Press, 1977 (1888), 1:554-566. Theo Paijmans, Free Energy Pioneer: John Worrell Keely, Lilburn, GA: IllumiNet Press, 1998, pp. 58, 144, 200, 207-212; Clara Bloomfield Moore, Keely and his Discoveries: Aerial navigation, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., 1893, Mokelumne Hill, CA: Health Research, 1971, pp. 106, 122-123; Dale Pond, Universal Laws Never Before Revealed: Keely’s secrets, Santa Fe, NM: Message Company, 1996, pp. 54-60, 214-217, 232-234, 257 (www.svpvril.com); Dan A. Davidson, Energy: Breakthroughs to new free energy devices, Greenville, TE: RIVAS, 1990, pp. 12-13. Christopher Dunn, The Giza Power Plant: Technologies of ancient Egypt, Santa Fe, NM: Bear & Co, 1988, pp. 109-119; Frank Joseph, ‘Mysteries of Coral Castle’, Fate, 1998, www.parascope.com/en/articles/coralCastle.htm; Kathy Doore, ‘The enigma of Coral Castle: a geomantic wonder’, www.labyrinthina.com/coral.htm. http://coralcastle.com. Schauberger and nature’s levity Callum Coats, Living Energies: An exposition of concepts related to the theories of Viktor Schauberger, Bath: Gateway Books, 1996; Olaf Alexandersson, Living Water: Viktor Schauberger and the secrets of natural energy, Bath: Gateway Books, 1996; John Davidson, The Secret of the Creative Vacuum, Saffron Walden, Essex: Daniel Company, 1989, pp. 246-262; Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, London: Arrow, 2002, pp. 296-328; www.schauberger.co.uk. 5. Human levitation There are reports of over 200 Christian saints levitating – usually involuntarily – during religious raptures, and some cases are supported by an impressive amount of eyewitness testimony.1 For instance, the 16th-century mystic St Teresa of Avila was observed on many occasions, typically when deep in prayer, to rise anywhere from a few feet to as high as the ceiling of the room. When she felt an ‘attack’ coming on she would beg the sisters in her convent to hold her down, though they were not always successful. Once while receiving Holy Communion from the Bishop of Avila, she felt her knees begin to leave the floor so she clutched onto the grille. But after receiving the sacrament, she let go and rose into the air. The 17th-century Franciscan monk St Joseph of Copertino began levitating during services and was often observed by whole congregations. Once while walking in the monastery grounds, he soared up into the branches of an olive tree and remained kneeling on a branch for half an hour, the thin stem hardly moving under his weight. Unable to glide down, after his ecstasy had passed, he had to wait for a ladder to be brought. For 35 years he was banned from all public services, but he levitated not only before the Pope and his fellow monks but also before Europe’s titled heads and the philosopher Leibnitz. The Spanish ambassador to the papal court watched him fly over the heads of a crowd to a statue of the Virgin Mary, where he briefly hovered. After giving his customary shriek, he flew back; the ambassador’s wife had to be revived with smelling salts. The duke of Brunswick hid himself in a stairway to observe one of Joseph’s levitations. After observing a second levitation, the duke renounced his Lutheran faith and became a Catholic. At Osimo, Joseph flew eight feet into the air to kiss a statue of Jesus then carried it off to his cell and floated about with it. He is also reported to have caught up another friar and carried him in the air around the room. The annals of 19th-century spiritualism contain many references to human levitations, as well as to tables, chairs, and other objects gaining or losing weight, levitating, and moving without human contact.2 The most famous levitator of all was the medium Daniel Dunglas Home (pronounced: Hume). His first recorded levitation took place at a seance in August 1852. He was suddenly ‘taken up into the air . . . He palpitated from head to foot with the contending emotions of joy and fear . . . Again and again he was taken from the floor, and the third time he was carried to the ceiling of the apartment, with which his hands and feet came into gentle contact.’ He later became able to levitate at will, and believed he was lifted up by ‘spirits’. During a public career spanning 30 years, hundreds of people witnessed his levitations. The most famous incident was when in the company of Lord Adare, the Master of Lindsay, and a friend of theirs, he floated out of one window of a London house and in at another. The eminent English scientist Sir William Crookes saw him levitate on several occasions and verified that there was no trickery involved. On one occasion, Crookes’ wife, who was sitting beside Home, was raised off the ground in her chair.3 The magician Harry Kellar, who enjoyed showing audiences how mediums did their tricks, described how during a world tour in the 1870s he was watching a Zulu witch doctor go into a trance when suddenly ‘to my intense amazement, the recumbent body slowly arose from the ground and floated upward in the air to the height of about three feet, where for a while it floated, moving up and down’. In 1882 he challenged the medium William Eglinton to perform some feat which no conjuror could repeat. Eglinton then levitated, carrying Kellar, holding his foot, into the air – an achievement which Kellar had to admit he could not explain.4 The Italian medium Eusapia Palladino occasionally used to levitate and was also able to increase or decrease the weight of objects. Her paranormal powers were verified in investigations conducted by European scientists around the turn of the 20th century. After witnessing her demonstrations, the French astronomer Camille Flammarion stated that levitation should no longer be any more in question than the attraction of iron by a magnet.5 In the 1920s Brazilian medium Carlos Mirabelli performed stunning phenomena under test conditions. Full-form materializations of deceased individuals known to the witnesses appeared, who were able to converse with the investigators, and to touch and be touched. He was also able to levitate and remain floating for minutes at a time. In one instance, a chair with Mirabelli in it rose into the air until it was two metres above the floor, where it remained for two minutes.6 Levitations of mediums have frequently been reported since then in spiritualist journals but, as far as is known, no medium has been able to produce them in fraud-proof conditions. Fig. 6.1 Mirabelli levitating. Levitation is one of the Catholic Church’s criteria for demonic possession. In 1906 a 16-year-old schoolgirl from South Africa, Clara Germana Cele, who was allegedly possessed, levitated up to 5 feet off the ground, sometimes vertically and sometimes horizontally. She fell if sprinkled with holy water.7 In the mid-19th century, Louis Jacolliot, Chief Justice of Chandernagore, travelled all over India to learn more about wonder-working fakirs. He witnessed many extraordinary phenomena, which he tried to view in an objective and unprejudiced manner. In Varanasi (Benares) he met a fakir named Covindasamy, who performed various paranormal phenomena for him. On one occasion he crossed his arms on his chest and slowly levitated to a height of ten to twelve inches, remaining in the air more than eight minutes.8 Another of his levitations is described by Jacolliot as follows: Leaning upon [his] cane with one hand, the Fakir rose gradually about two feet from the ground. His legs were crossed beneath him, and he made no change in his position . . . For more than twenty minutes I tried to see how Covindasamy could thus fly in the face and eyes of all the known laws of gravity; it was entirely beyond my comprehension; the stick gave him no visible support, and there was no apparent contact between that and his body, except through his right hand.9 A similar display was reported by American journalist John Keel. While travelling in Sikkim in the 1950s, he met an old lama who demonstrated his ability to levitate. He . . . pressed one hand on top of his stick, a heavy branch about four feet long, frowned a little with effort, and then slowly lifted his legs up off the floor until he was sitting cross-legged in the air! There was nothing behind him or under him. His sole support was his stick, which he seemed to use to keep his balance. I was astounded. The lama then conducted the rest of the conversation ‘sitting there in empty space’.10 In July 1916, P. Muller, a German veterinarian stationed in Turkey, attended a gathering of the Rufai dervishes. He described a large hall in which white-robed dervishes wearing tall black caps ‘moved in a circle with sideways steps and curious jerking motions’. About an hour into the ceremony, the music and dancing and cries of the dancers intensified, when suddenly one of them bounded into the middle of the circle. He stood still, with his arms upraised, palms facing the sky: And now the incomprehensible happened . . . lowly the whole tense body of this man elevated itself about eighteen inches off the floor and remained there, floating in the air with the toes pointing down. The ecstatic man remained suspended for about a minute.11 Tibetans speak of a power of fast-walking known as lung-gom. An eye-witness account was provided by Alexandra David-Neel, an early 20th-century explorer, journalist, and Buddhist. While in northern Tibet, she saw a man approaching with an ‘unusual gait’ and ‘extraordinary swiftness’. I could clearly see his perfectly calm impassive face and wide-open eyes with their gaze fixed on some invisible far-distant object situated somewhere high up in space. The man did not run. He seemed to lift himself from the ground, proceeding by leaps. It looked as if he had been endowed with the elasticity of a ball and rebounded each time his feet touched the ground. His steps had the regularity of a pendulum.12 The native American Indians apparently knew of a similar method of magical running. In the 1920s anthropologist Carobeth Laird reported on one of the last men to travel ‘the old way’: the tracks left by his feet were very faint and far apart, as if his feet had barely touched the ground.13 On 6 June 1936, Indian yogi Subbayah Pullavar levitated for four minutes in front of 150 witnesses. He was in a state of deep trance and, once back on the ground, his limbs could not be unbent at first.14 Fig. 6.2 Indian yogi Subbayah Pullavar. In 1984 a German film crew filmed the levitation of an African witch-doctor, Nana Owaka, in Togo. After meditating for a full day, he placed dry leaves and twigs in a circle and sat in the middle. Just as the sun was setting, Owaka started to stir. A villager lit the circle of twigs and flames shot up. Drums began beating wildly – then we were hardly able to believe our eyes as Owaka stood and rose straight upward! It was as if he were being lifted on a pillow of air. He simply hung as if suspended, with nothing above or below him. After about a minute, Owaka fell back to earth. He was filmed from two angles, and no one who has examined the film has been able to detect any signs of trickery.15 Paranormal phenomena, including levitation, are sometimes reported in connection with UFO encounters. For instance, in 1954 a man who was coming back from the fields with his horse had to let go of the bridle as the animal was lifted several feet into the air when a dark, circular object flew fast over the trail they were following. In 1968 a French doctor saw two glowing discs in the sky merge into a single object, and during the sighting he was hit by a beam of light. A few days later he and his baby son each developed a strange, reddish, triangular mark on the abdomen, and this mark recurred in successive years. Strange paranormal phenomena began to take place, including poltergeist activity, unexplained disturbances in electrical circuits, meetings with a mysterious, nameless man, and on at least one occasion uncontrolled levitation.16 References Rodney Charles and Anna Jordan, Lighter than Air: Miracles of human flight from Christian saints to native American spirits, Fairfield, IO: Sunstar Publishing, 1995, pp. 155-180; Stuart Gordon, The Paranormal: An illustrated encyclopedia, London: Headline, 1992, p. 395; Brian Inglis, The Paranormal: An encyclopedia of psychic phenomena, London: Paladin, 1985, pp. 159-160; Richard S. Broughton, Parapsychology: The controversial science, New York: Ballantine Books, 1991, pp. 52-53. William Crookes, Researches in the Phenomena of Spiritualism, London: J. Burns, 1874, Pomeroy, WA: Health Research, n.d., pp. 9-19, 21-43, 88-91; H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, Pasadena, CA: Theosophical University Press, 1972 (1877), 1:202-204, 358-359. Researches in the Phenomena of Spiritualism, pp. 89-90; Gordon, The Paranormal, pp. 395-396; Inglis, The Paranormal, p. 161. Inglis, The Paranormal, pp. 161-162. Brian Inglis, Natural and Supernatural: A history of the paranormal, Bridport, Dorset: Prism Press, Lindfield, NSW: Unity Press, 1992, p. 425. Brian Inglis, Science and Parascience: A history of the paranormal, 1914-1939, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1984, p. 224. Rosemary Ellen Guiley, The Encyclopedia of Ghosts and Spirits, New York: Checkmark Books, 2nd ed., 2000, p. 221. Louis Jacolliot, Occult Science in India and Among the Ancients, NY: University Books, 1971, p. 257. Ibid., pp. 237-238. Lighter than Air, pp. 64-65. Ibid., p. 132. Alexandra David-Neel, With Mystics and Magicians in Tibet, London: Penguin Books, 1937, p. 186. Lighter than Air, pp. 98-99. Gordon, The Paranormal, pp. 358/9. D. Hatcher Childress (ed.), The Anti-Gravity Handbook, Kempton, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press, 1993, p. 171. UFOs: the psychic dimension, section 6, davidpratt.info. 6. Theosophical writings As mentioned in section 1, Kepler believed that the rotation of the sun generated its gravitational force. A disciple of Pythagoras and Plato, he believed in an ether of subtler matter and that stars and planets were animated by souls. He took the view that it was solar magnetism that held the planets in their orbits, and he conceived magnetism to be a form of vortical motion. More recent theosophical writers such as H.P. Blavatsky, W.Q. Judge, and G. de Purucker have also highlighted the link between gravity and electromagnetism, the bipolar nature of gravity, and the etheric origin of force, as the following quotations show. [A]ether is the source and cause . . . of cohesive, chemical, thermal, electric, and magnetic forces . . .1 [T]he Occultists . . . consider all the forces of Nature as veritable, though supersensuous, states of Matter; and as possible objects of perception to Beings endowed with the requisite senses.2 [T]here is no gravitation in the Newtonian sense, but only magnetic attraction and repulsion; . . . it is by their magnetism that the planets of the solar system have their motions regulated in their respective orbits by the still more powerful magnetism of the sun, not by their weight or gravitation.3 Gravitation . . . depends entirely on electrical law, and not on weight or density.4 [The theosophical adepts] reject gravity as at present explained. They deny that the so-called ‘impact theory’* is the only one that is tenable in the gravitation hypothesis. They say that if all efforts made by the physicists to connect it with Ether, in order to explain electric and magnetic distance-action have hitherto proved complete failures, it is again due to the race ignorance of the ultimate states of matter in nature, foremost of all the real nature of the solar stuff. Believing but in the law of mutual magneto-electric attraction and repulsion, they agree with those who have come to the conclusion that ‘Universal gravitation is a weak force,’ utterly incapable of accounting for even one small portion of the phenomena of motion.5 *The theory that gravity is caused by bombardment of material objects with tiny particles. [G]ravitation [is] the same fundamentally as cosmic electro-magnetism.6 [G]ravitation is: Vital Cosmic Magnetism; the efflux or outflow of cosmic vitality from the heart of the celestial bodies . . . It is this Vital Electricity or Vital Magnetism in the Cosmic Structure which attracts in all directions, thus uniting all things into the vast body corporate of the Cosmos. Furthermore, some day it will be discovered that this Cosmic Magnetic Vitality contains or includes in itself as powerful and as greatly functional an element of repulsion as it does of attraction; and that behind all its phenomenal workings, in fact, behind and within itself, lie the still higher and incomparably more potent principles or elements of the inner and invisible Universe which thus infallibly guide its activities everywhere.7 [Einstein’s] ideas with regard to the nature of gravitation as being . . . a warping or distortion of space in the proximity of material bodies seem to be a mathematical pipe-dream, purely and simply, although doubtless very creditable indeed to the gentleman’s mathematical ability . . .8 The earth is a magnetic body . . . It is charged with one form of electricity – let us call it positive – which it evolves continuously by spontaneous action, in its interior or centre of motion. Human bodies, in common with all other forms of matter, are charged with the opposite form of electricity – negative. That is to say, organic or inorganic bodies, if left to themselves will constantly and involuntarily charge themselves with, and evolve the form of electricity opposed to that of the earth itself. . . . [T]here is an attraction between our planet and the organisms upon it, which holds them upon the surface of the ground. But the law of gravitation has been counteracted in many instances, by levitations of persons and inanimate objects . . . [T]he action of our will . . . can produce . . . a change of this electrical polarity from negative to positive; the man’s relations with the earth-magnet would then have become repellent, and ‘gravity’ for him would have ceased to exist. It would then be as natural for him to rush into the air until the repellent force had exhausted itself, as, before, it had been for him to remain upon the ground. The altitude of his levitation would be measured by his ability, greater or less, to charge his body with positive electricity. This control over the physical forces once obtained, alteration of his levity or gravity would be as easy as breathing.9 Until gravitation is understood to be simply magnetic attraction and repulsion, and the part played by magnetism itself in the endless correlations of forces in the ether of space . . . it is neither fair nor wise to deny the levitation of either fakir or table. Bodies oppositely electrified attract each other; similarly electrified, repulse each other. Admit, therefore, that any body having weight, whether man or inanimate object, can by any cause whatever, external or internal, be given the same polarity as the spot on which it stands, and what is to prevent its rising?10 Levitation of the body in apparent defiance of gravitation is a thing to be done with ease when the process is completely mastered. It contravenes no law. Gravitation is only half of a law. The Oriental sage admits gravity, if one wishes to adopt the term; but the real term is attraction, the other half of the law being expressed by the word repulsion, and both being governed by the great laws of electrical force. Weight and stability depend on polarity, and when the polarity of an object is altered in respect to the earth immediately underneath it, then the object may rise. . . . The human body . . . will rise in the air unsupported, like a bird, when its polarity is thus changed.11 Blavatsky says that the flight of birds and swimming of fishes, including the rapid sinking of whales, involve changes in polarity and gravity not yet admitted by science. Animals can do this instinctively, while humans can learn to do so by will.12 Theosophy asserts that during the life-period of a planet or star, gravitational forces do not remain constant. The first half of a planet’s life (the ‘descending arc’) is said to be characterized by the condensation of matter from a primordial, ethereal state, implying a strengthening of attractive and cohesive forces. It is followed by the reverse process of etherealization and spiritualization (the ‘ascending arc’), when attractive and cohesive forces weaken and matter becomes increasingly radioactive.13 References H.P. Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine, Pasadena, CA: Theosophical University Press (TUP), 1977 (1888), 1:508. Ibid., 1:143fn. H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, TUP, 1972 (1877), 1:271. William Q. Judge, Echoes of the Orient, San Diego, CA: Point Loma Publications, 1975, 1:336. H.P. Blavatsky Collected Writings, Wheaton, IL: Theosophical Publishing House, 1950-91, 5:152-153. G. de Purucker, The Esoteric Tradition, TUP, 2nd ed., 1940, p. 441. Ibid., pp. 860-861. Ibid., p. 861fn. Isis Unveiled, 1:xxiii-iv, 497-498. Blavatsky Collected Writings, 1:244. W.Q. Judge, The Ocean of Theosophy, TUP, 1973 (1893), p. 154. Blavatsky Collected Writings, 4:167-169. The Secret Doctrine, 1:159, 2:68fn, 250, 308fn; The Esoteric Tradition, pp. 324-327, 453-454, 760; G. de Purucker, Studies in Occult Philosophy, TUP, 1945, pp. 450-451; A.T. Barker (comp.), The Mahatma Letters to A.P. Sinnett, TUP, 2nd ed., 1926, pp. 98-99. Gravity and antigravity: Contents Aetherometry and gravity: an introduction Homepage Șirul lui Fibonacci[modificare | modificare sursă] Articol principal: Numerele Fibonacci. În șirul de numere al lui Fibonacci, fiecare număr reprezintă suma a două numere anterioare, începând cu 0 și 1. Astfel, șirul incepe cu 0,1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610 etc Cu cât este mai mare valoarea unui număr din cadrul acestui șir, cu atât mai mult se apropie de corelația supremă două "numere Fibonacci" consecutive din șir, numere care se împart prin ele însele (aproximativ 1 : 1,618 sau 0,618 : 1). Corelația supremă a fost folosită pe scară largă în timpul Renașterii, în picturi. Despre șirul lui Fibonacci a tratat și matematicianul român Miron Nicolescu în 1933. Formula matematica a existentei lui Dumnezeu ii incurca si azi pe experti Joi, 2 iunie 2011 23:46 | 12288 vizualizari | Teoria Conspiratiei In 1940, Kurt Godel, cunoscut ca matematician si ca un personaj excentric al vremurilor sale, sustinea ca a gasit dovada stiintifica a existentei lui Dumnezeu. Formula lui matematica nu a fost copiata de nimeni pana la sfarsitul anilor ’70. Godel nu a spus un cuvant despre descoperirea sa, pana cand nu a fost sigur ca va muri. Formula matematica a existentei lui Dumnezeu a fost publicata abia in 1980, la 40 de ani de cand fusese gasita. "Nu l-am vazut pe Dumnezeu, deci nu exista". Acesta este rationamentul clasic, bazat pe observatia directa. Un matematician excentric a reusit, insa, sa demonstreze stiintific ca Dumnezeu exista, fara a se baza pe observatia directa. Dupa gandirea lui Godel, formula “magica” arata ca mai jos: Godel si-a bazat argumentul pornind de la cel al Sfantului Anselm. Sfantul Anselm L-a definit pe Dumnezeu ca pe cel mai impunator lucru din Univers. Nicio fiinta mai puternica nu putea fi imaginata de mintea umana. Prin umare, daca Dumnezeu nu exista, atunci trebuie sa ne gandim la o fiinta si mai puternica decat el si care, evident, exista. Cum nu a fost posibil, prin definitie, a imagina un lucru mai impozant decat cel mai impunator lucru imaginabil, atunci, Dumnezeu trebuie sa existe. Godel a modificat un pic argumentul lui Anselm. A folosit logica modala. Logica modala face distinctia intre diferitele stadii ale supozitiilor. Unele supozitii sunt demonstrabile in cateva cuvinte, altele sunt demonstrabile numai printr-un cuvant, iar altele sunt demonstrabile in toate cuvintele. Daca sunt posibile in toate cuvintele, atunci ele sunt considerate intotdeauna “necesare”. Dumnezeu poate fie sa existe in mod "necesar", fie sa nu existe in acelasi mod "necesar". Daca Dumnezeu este o fiinta atotputernica si el exista, atunci el exista in toate cuvintele. Daca nu exista, atunci nu exista in toate cuvintele in mod necesar. Indiferent cat de mica este sansa, Dumnezeu poate exista. Asta inseamna ca Dumnezeu nu poate in mod necesar sa nu existe. Din moment ce alegerea poate fi facuta intre: “Dumnezeu exista in mod necesar” si “Dumnezeu nu exista in mod necesar”, si am eliminat posibiltatea ca el sa nu existe in mod necesar, atunci singura posibilitate este aceea ca el exista in mod necesar. (infografic) Ecuația matematică a parcării paralele Foto: captură video Potrivit unu studiu al unei universități din Marea Britanie, este determinat printr-o formulă spațiul exact de care ai nevoie pentru a parca paralel. Totul depinde de capacitatea de manevrare la virajuri a automobilului, distanța de la roata din față spre centrul mașinii cât și lățimea mașinii parcate care se va afla în spate, informează UNIMEDIA. Cei trei pași după cum urmează: 1. Te deplasezi paralel cu mașina aflată în față. Aliniezi capacul de la rezervor cu spatele mașinii din față, după care rotești volanul spre stânga până la maximum. 2. Dai în spate până când roata din dreapta spate se aliniază cu mașina din față. 3. Odată îndeplinit al doilea pas, rotești volanul până la capăt spre dreapta. Totuși de menționat că acești pași ar funcționa perfect în cazul traficului din Marea Britanie, unde mașinile se depasează pe partea stângă a carosabilului, iar volanul se află pe dreapta. În cazul traficului din Moldova, totul se face invers. Ecuația parcării laterale ar arăta cam așa: Sau, dacă sunteți mai profesionist/ă, puteți încerca acest procedeu: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 7rBAwFD2EvQ. Viktor Schauberger 20 aprilie 2012 · How to build a Schauberger Repulsine: Before we begin with construction of the Repulsine, this is what can happen if careful research and proper assembly, along with using quality materials for construction is not followed and adhered to: One: the Repulsine will shred its upper power turbine! That turbine spins at a very high rpm and can, if formed from cast metal, shatter without warning. Two: the internal thermal zone separator (wavy discs) and mechanical fluid work transmitter can shatter, as it is hollow (I will explain) and flexible and is also not capable of withstanding high centrifugal stress do to its perforated construction and wavy design. It generally will shatter first. Three: the casing of the Repulsine is formed of copper in one device (although steel can be used) as this is for heat conduction. Copper is a brittle metal under repeated stress and can crack easily. Once again, shards will be expelled onto any unprepared researcher. Four: it is capable of high temperature’s (I will explain). It can scorch and burn its surroundings or a careless researcher. That temperature can easily reach 300 to 500 degrees F. Five: it can explode if its internal vortex is suddenly quenched, venting super heated air onto any nearby observers. Six: it must be grounded. It is best operated over hot pavement (I will explain). There is no simple way to describe its power level. It is cyclic and similar to a child’s top being spun faster and faster. It can, by a very strong suction force (as it sits in the middle of a much larger external vortex) be wrenched from the ground. Seven: it can effect the external environment. It is highly recommended any researcher using it should precede to an area with no air or automobile traffic. Eight: it can set fire to any dry brush present. It must be operated in a rock quarry or concrete industrial area for maximum fire safety with a fire extinguisher standing by. Nine: it is difficult to gain the approval of a mechanical engineer with an unproved technology; however, he or she can still verify that every precaution has been taken. The vessel is subject to high internal winds approaching 100 to 300 mph; never underestimate the harm that wind can do. That wind can amount to several static pounds pressure per square inch. It is the escaping wind that is most dangerous. Ten: as air is ionized around the Repulsine, it can produce dangerous electrical phenomena. That is due to dust particle charging. Anytime air passes a chamber that is not grounded, at high speed it can induce charged particles! Be prepared for static electric build up if operating in a dry environment. See below for further information regarding safety issues. A small Repulsine can easily produce 10 to 25 horsepower; a large one, in the ten to twenty foot diameter ranges, can produce well into the thousands of horsepower. This is due to its power concentrating effect. It is in a category of windmills known as dynamic flow enhancers. That is to say its passive wind flow ratting is small and no more then any similar Darrius or Savonious type. However, once the work function has begun, it can concentrate external flow from 2 times, up to 10 times. That is, it will generate the equivalent power level of a machine ten times its own size. This is similar to windmills of the “diffusion cone†type. That refers specifically to a windmill that has a large external diffuser or cone that assists in flow pressure concentration allowing even a small turbine to generate far more then its diameter is capable of without the added diffusion cone to create a down wind low pressure pocket. The Repulsine consists of a few major parts. It has a top cone or chimney that, like the rest of the shell, must be constructed of heat conductive metal. Viktor wanted this top cone to be shaped like an elongated snail-shell. This is so external wind, in the form of a dust-devil, can enter the cone and assist the upper drive turbine’s rotation. I have found it best to use materials similar to the steel chimney pipes found in wood stove connection joints (a light steel sheet formed into a cone and riveted so that there is no turbulence on the inside of this upper chimney cone). That is the simplest part to fabricate. The taller it is; the better. It should have at least twice to five times the height of the primary plenum chamber; its upper outlet diameter is still debatable. I recommend looking at Schauberger’s water turbine arms and using that as a conical ratio. If a small aperture overly restricts the upper chimney, the flow will quench. If an oversized exit hole is used, the flow will receive too much horizontal ground wind turbulence backflow. The dynamics problem of the horizontal flow as it interferes with the vertical convection flow produced cannot be underestimated. That is the bane of all wind generator engineers who have attempted to produce energy by concentrating convection flow. That is, the horizontal wind will antagonize your Repulsine unless it has its upper cone intake aperture or snail-shell mouth directly pointed into the apparent horizontal wind. Wind is variable; it can change direction without warning, so keeping the upper snail-shell pointed can be a frustrating chore. You cannot place a guidance fin to keep the snail-shell mouth pointed, since that will break up the induced flow of the external dust-devil vortex. Viktor simply ignored the snail-shell all together and only punched a few inlet and outlet holes in a simple conic upper chimney shell. That is not to say it is un-important. He simply could not get the correct shape fabricated. The upper chimney focuses the exhaust vortex leaving the Repulsine drive turbine. Now you have the fabrication of the upper drive turbine. That turbine must be mounted on a shaft (if using a 22-inch unit) capable of at least 10 horsepower minimal load. Shafts of this type are found on all small engines in that horsepower range. One-inch diameter shafts will ensure maximum safety. Obviously, the bearing must be of a reliable type. I recommend from personal experience the bearings used in racing go-carts wheel shafts. They have a 3-bolt mounting cup, and are very reliable. The upper plate can be found on old centrifugal blowers. Yes, Schauberger’s design used multiple curves, but that is not set in stone. The cooling fins found on a two-cycle motor or lawn mower head can be substituted in a pinch. The plate from the centrifugal blower of a ruined engine can be used for the exhaust drive turbine. The air coming out is cyclonic so the plate is used in a reversed fin rotation. That is fairly obvious to any one building one...this plate cannot be constructed from plastics. It will melt! I realize plastic is safer and easier to fabricate however it is also worthless in a Repulsine exhaust turbine. Next, you require the shell. That shell is fabricated from a 22-inch diameter Barbecue Kettle lid piece. It has a flat region that is cut out for the upper exhaust hole. The exact plenum exhaust hole size on a unit is critical. Once again, if it is too large, the shell heat won’t build to a high temperature. Too small, and it will vent waste centrifugal air poorly and shut down the unit. Use Viktor’s photos. My ideal exhaust hole is 12 inches in diameter with a 22-inch plenum shell. I am still experimenting on the best diameter exhaust turbine. The Repulsine has need of two active parts; the upper exhaust turbine (or reversed centrifuge blower plate) and the inner wavy discs (that use the mechanical work from the upper turbine). Theses discs are not easy to fabricate. The best material I can find is used in fireplace screening and perforated. You must locate a source of perforated steel. That perforation is to allow airflow through the wavy discs, which also prevents back conduction of heat from the outer shell or rim region (I will explain). It will be found that Hammel, used a perforated metal cone on his devices. That is the type of shell you are after. Perforating a steel sheet of that thickness with thousands of holes is difficult and imprecise. If you place too many perforations in one area, the disc may shatter! Why do it at all? Recall that I spoke of the H-R tube. Those wavy discs serve to conduct vortex strands and transmit mechanical energy to the internal plenum chamber vortex from the upper exhaust turbine. They cannot be underestimated. They are the Repulsine...Think of the drive exhaust turbine as a simple windmill. Updrafts and convection currents power it. It is also driven off of any horizontal flow that is swirled into the upper chimney shell snail shell mouth. That is all it does! It uses waste exhaust to spin that is given maximum pressure advantage from the suction above it in the upper chimney shell vortex. There are three vortexes at work here! One, is the external shell heat vortex or outer dust-devil, Two, is the vortex in the upper snail shaped chimney shell, Three, is the mechanical work vortex inside the “Repulsine†plenum or H-R tube vortex, The novice experimenter should examine carefully the work done by vortex Wind Engineers on the web. The entire upper part of the unit is already in use at many wind turbine-generating sites! Assuming you have successfully fabricated the exhaust turbine and mounted it in a typical tri-arm mount, flush with your plenum shell, and mounted the two opposed perforated wavy discs on the long drive shaft, you now require a base shell. This shell must be as strong or stronger then the upper shell. It can be flat and still function. If it is flat steel it must be reinforced. It is always best to use shaped steel that is self-integrated structurally due to its own 3-dimensional form. For example, it can also have a wave ring shape. That is far more rigid then a simple flat piece. That is yet another reason the wavy discs are curved so they are rigid when the Repulsine tilts or lifts. This is then bolted and sealed to the upper shell. This is critical. The outer rim is subject to great pressure and heat. The bottom hole is smaller then the exhaust hole, however the relative surface area is comparable. This is because a great deal of the upper exhaust turbine plate is sealed with only a small exit region open at its circumference. The bottom shaft bearing can be tri-arm mounted as well. These hole-sizes are critical. If the bottom axle area intake hole is too small, it will not take in enough air! The exact diameter, as compared to the upper exhaust hole is still a matter of experimentation. It is between 4 and 6 inches in diameter. In other words, its diameter in surface area approximates the exhaust outlet surface area. The entire assembly is best placed on yet another Barbecue Kettle piece - the bottom hemisphere. In this use, it is placed round side up (that is its rim on the ground). Several metal posts now go to your bottom plenum. The plenum or H-R work chamber is mounted 6 to 12 inches above the inverted kettle hemisphere. Those posts will later have metal fins on them, which will be twisted to guide air into the single intake hole, placed concentric with the drive shaft. Now, with all in place, you can do a first spin test. Instead of an attached motor, you can use the pressure exhaust of a large tank-type vacuum cleaner. It requires precise aim. Place the hose near the exhaust turbine and push air against the curved blades the same direction the air is meant to leave the plenum chamber. This is a simple reaction effect. The snail-shell hole is more then large enough for you to place the start-up air jet. Recall that model pulsejets were actually started with a bicycle pump. Now your unit is spinning! What happens next? Usually, very little will happen. It will spin of course, but, until the exact exhaust ratio and intake ratio is found, you can expect no miracles. The bearing races must be low-friction units. If you do it correctly, the unit will begin to heat up at its plenum shell circumference. Why (?) - because the internal wavy perforated discs and compressions on the shell rim are spinning air centrifugally. That can be seen directly by touching the top of any large-tank vacuum cleaner with a metal flange head. In fact all centrifugal air compressors or high pressure fans heat in this manner. Inside the plenum, the air is being separated into a center, or axle region, cold-zone and outer rim region hot-zone. Mechanical work from the upper exhaust disc is being used to separate these temperature regions. This effect is no different than is seen on the H-R tube! The only difference is that air is being spun on the unit by frictional interaction with the wavy disc set. In the H-R tube, it is from the mechanical energy, released as compressed air, and is swirled into a vortex tube. The exact same thermal separation occurs. The inner region is cold, and outer region is hot. That heat now contributes to a rising updraft vortex about the Repulsine. Recall in a calorimeter experiment, paddles are spun to heat water in a closed shell . One experiment is to then spray water at various temperatures into the shell. If it is done properly, it will assist in imploding the center cold air mass and greatly increasing the RPM. of the turbine. This is a science experiment of a lifetime. Why does it work? As the work being done on the Repulsine internal plenum increases from the exhaust turbine drive shaft, the steel shell reaches a critical temperature level. At that point the rim air approaches several hundred degrees. The wavy discs prevent heat from easily moving from the rim to the center (that is one reason they are perforated and cannot be solid). The plenum will begin to alternately heat and cool as new air is drawn in at its base. If its core air trapped in between the wavy discs is cooled, the plenum velocity will increase. If it is heated by intake air, the velocity will slow. This effect is resonant and typical of the Repulsine operation. It is very hard to explain. Viktor claims, that any time you allow the core air of his Repulsine to heat and expand, it pulls the internal vortex wider apart! Next, as you intake cooler air, it snaps back together again. This is a phenomenon of thermo-mechanical resonance. Tesla coils use the very same principle. The point is that your plenum will be driven off of induced external updrafts (as if a campfire) and off of a resonance caused by changes in the core vortex temperature! That is to say, the plenum chamber is like a child’s top. Any temperature change will cause the internal vortex (a vertical axis vortex centered about the drive axle) to expand and contract. The temperature changes must work in resonant fashion. Think of the child’s top being spun faster and faster, as they plunge its push rod up and down. This resonant expanding and contracting vortex bounces off the wavy rings much as ball bounces on a floor. Each time a little more energy is added. It is like stretching and contracting a rubber band around your fingers. When thermal mechanical vortex resonance is achieved, the implosion motor takes off. This is not an out-dated centrifugal air compressor. It is a chamber where any intake air is being converted into rotary motion. As the air vortex enlarges, it strikes the rim and cools. This causes it to bounce and return like a wave, to the center of the chamber (much like an echo reflecting off a hard surface). This compresses the center cold air and heats it, causing the wave front to once more expand. That is why the wavy perforated discs are so important. They guide this echoing vortex band as it bounces from the rim to center and back again. To see what Schauberger saw, go to a circular water bath or tank (it must be a perfect circle). Put a Styrofoam disc at its center with a stick attached. Start to resonantly plunge the disk up and down. If you time it right, the wave crest will work with your plunges in harmony, as it bounces off the tank’s wall. This is exactly why those disks are wavy and perforated. They allow the vortex bounces to build up energy. Yes, you can argue that it wastes power. Actually it does not. The heat leaving the rim feeds back into the exhaust turbine updraft. You are amplifying this echo effect. Now the skeptic will begin to squirm in their seat. What good is this resonance effect? Sure, a Tesla coil makes a big spark, but that uses up electrical power even at high Q. What makes a two-cycle motorcycle tail pipe exhaust expansion chamber work? Echo! That is correct. The principle that helps back pressure a two-cycle motorcycle engine is the exact same principle that feeds back energy in a Schauberger Repulsine implosion motor. It makes no difference. We can get mechanical work either way! A Sterling engine obtains mechanical work on both its cold cycle and hot cycle! We now have two defined reservoirs; a cold rim reservoir and a hot central intake reservoir. These reservoirs are maintained by external wind and sunlight. This is not a guess; it is a fact! A Stirling engine uses a displacer to shuttle an air mass between a hot and cold reservoir! Go to the fine Japanese Stirling engine pages found all over the web and you will soon understand this principle. In the Repulsine, it is accomplished by the natural vortex echo inside of the chamber. This echo builds up our RPM. That is why the wavy discs are perforated. They must help spin the vortex but never stop its wave front echo. Think of that as a natural air displacer. Striking the rim cools the vortex and reaching the center heats it. The center bottom is hot from intake air ramming. Think of it this way before you stop reading this material. The echo bounce places our vortex over the center and then the rim region. That takes the place of the Stirling engine displacer. The vortex acts like a flywheel that stores the bounce energy. In effect, it is a simple Stirling engine hybrid that uses the expanding and contracting vortex as both a piston and a displacer, at the same time. This is not difficult to understand. The Schauberger Repulsine is a new class of Stirling, atmospheric-feedback, hot-air motor. Schauberger’s genius removed the complex piston and displacer. They are replaced by a bouncing and expanding vortex and contracting vortex ring. If the reader takes away nothing more about the “Repulsineâ€, consider the following. IT is not a centrifugal air compressor. It is a new class of Stirling hot air engine, that converts a captive vortex into a piston and displacer that therefore shuttles between a hot center region, and a cold outer shell. This vortex also forms the Stirling Engine hybrid’s flywheel. In one simple gesture, Viktor removed the flywheel - the displacer and the piston - of a Stirling hot air engine - its closest thermo-mechanical cousin. By combining all of these elements, he simplified the Stirling engine, and, allowed it to directly feed back energy to an updraft. In other words, its own waste heat assists in increasing a natural external flow. No Stirling engine does that! A final purpose of the wavy internal discs is to help "bounce" the vortex. It is similar to the 90-degree phase drive rod that activates the displacer. It forces the vortex wall back out to the rim. I realize that I said the rim is hot and it is. That is because it is constantly relieving itself of heat from the internal bouncing vortex. It is also cooled by the swirling external vortex. Without that, it is no longer a useful reservoir. In effect we have discovered a dynamic feedback Stirling Engine suited to extracting energy from a stationary external tornadic convection cell. This is not free energy...but I feel it is neglected physics. Only time and a little faith in Schauberger’s genius and commitment to relieving the suffering of mankind will tell. In the “Phillips Technical Review Notes†we found references to an Air Core Betatron containing only a few kilograms of active magnetic flux material. That is to say the Phillips engineers had found a way to avoid the entire heavy iron superstructure used on a Betatron. It relied instead, like a Tesla coil, on resonance in heavy cables. To add, therefore to the list of things to avoid when constructing a Repulsine, I must now in all fairness add the Air Core Betatron effect. This means very simply, your Repulsine is capable of hard X-ray production from an internal current imploded with the thermo-mechanical rim resonance vortex bounce. To put it simply; the Repulsine at full resonance is a radiation source. It is possible that 50 thousand to 10 million electron volt-level radiation by-products, in the form of hard X-rays, will be present during operation. Any time you contract a charged electron cloud so that its magnetic field is cut, you can, and will accelerate electrons in the defined nature of a Betatron Particle Accelerator! It can and will emit high-energy particle radiation of the class known as High Energy Electrons and Hard X-rays. The Phillips’ Air Core Betatron proves a large ferromagnetic induction mass is not required for electron volt energy levels up to 9 MEV. Prolonged X-ray exposure is a certified tissue destroying process. For those “would’be†Nuclear Physicists out there, any doubts that the Repulsine is capable of Betatron particle acceleration will be quashed after reading about the “Phillips T.R. papers on their 9 MEV “Air Core Betatronâ€â€. The final piece of the puzzle; The Repulsine's rim is resonantly cooled by thermally induced downdraft feedback, as the internal plenum flow expands for its re-coil or implosion echo. It is a surface effect. Hot internal centrifugal air induces a cold downdraft pulse that is in effect the capacitive analogy to our thermo-mechanical vortex resonance, taking place in the unit. Hot always attracts cold ...remember that! The Repulsine is unpredictable and dangerous, and, in an evacuated condition, is capable of Hard X-ray production. It is NOT a toy. It is best left in the hands of certified engineers and physicists! Fibonacci De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă Leonardo Fibonacci Statuia lui Fibonacci. Camposanto, Pisa Născut c. 1170 Pisa Decedat c. 1250 Pisa (?) Naționalitate italian Domeniu matematică Cunoscut pentru Numere Fibonacci Număr prim Fibonacci Identitatea Brahmagupta–Fibonacci Polinom Fibonacci Număr pseudoprim Fibonacci Cuvânt Fibonacci Constanta reciprocă Fibonacci Introducerea notației numerice în Europa Perioada Pisano Număr practic Religie Catolic modifică Leonardo Pisano Bogollo, (c. 1170 - c. 1250) [1] cunoscut și sub numele de Leonardo din Pisa, Leonardo Pisano, Leonardo Bonacci, Leonardo Fibonacci, sau pur și simplu Fibonacci, a fost un matematician italian considerat de unii drept "cel mai talentat matematician din Occidentul Evului Mediu" [2] Fibonacci este cel mai bine cunoscut lumii moderne pentru: [3] Răspândirea sistemului de numărare hindu-arab în Europa, prin publicarea în primul rând la începutul secolului al 13-lea a cărții sale denumită Cartea de calcul , sau Liber Abaci. Un șir de numere, care i-a purtat ulterior numele, și anume șirul lui Fibonacci, pe care el nu l-a descoperit, dar pe care l-a folosit ca un exemplu în cartea sa, Liber Abaci. [4] Cuprins [ascunde] 1 Biografie 2 Activitate științifică 2.1 Liber Abaci 2.2 Șirul lui Fibonacci 3 În cultura populară 4 Cărțile scrise de Fibonacci 5 Vezi și 6 Note 7 Bibliografie 8 Legături externe Biografie[modificare | modificare sursă] Leonardo Fibonacci s-a născut în jurul anului 1170, tatăl lui fiind Guglielmo Fibonacci, un negustor italian înstărit. Guglielmo deținea un post de conducere în cadrul comercial (din varii motive a fost consultant pentru Pisa) în Bugia, un port la est de Alger, în sultanatul dinastiei Almohad din Africa de Nord (în prezent Bejaia, Algeria). În tinerețe, Leonardo obișnuia să călătorească cu tatăl său pentru a-l ajuta și astfel el a învățat limba arabă și despre sistemul numeral hindus-arab [5] Numele de Fibonacci derivă din Leonardo filius Bonacci Pisano. După unii istorici, se numea Bighelone, cuvânt sinonim cu Bonacci. Recunoscând că aritmetica cu ajutorul cifrelor hindu-arabe este mai simplă și mai eficientă decât cea cu cifrele romane, Fibonacci a călătorit prin mai toate țările de pe țărmul Mării Mediterane (Egipt, Siria, Bizanț, Sicilia și Provența) pentru a studia cu profesori de seamă de origine arabă din acele vremuri. Face cunoștință și cu algebra lui Al-Khwarizmi. Leonardo s-a întors din călătoriile sale în jurul anului 1200. În 1202, la vârsta de 32 ani, el a publicat ceea ce a învățat în Liber Abaci (Cartea lui Abacus sau Cartea de calcul) și astfel a introdus cifrele hindu-arabe în Europa. Leonardo a devenit un oaspete de seamă al împăratului Frederic al II-lea, căruia îi plăceau matematica și științele exacte. În 1240 Republica din Pisa l-a onorat pe Leonardo, cunoscut sub numele de Leonardo Bigollo, [6] acordându-i un salariu în acest sens. În secolul al 19-lea, a fost ridicată o statuie a lui Fibonacci care a fost dezvelită în orașul Pisa. Astăzi statuia este găzduită de galeria occidentală din Camposanto din cimitirul istoric situat în Piazza dei Miracoli. [7] Activitate științifică[modificare | modificare sursă] Unul din marile merite ale lui Fibonacci constă în introducerea aritmeticii în sistemul comercial european. Astfel, a dat importanță cifrei zero și a recunoscut superioritatea sistemului de numerație arab față de cel roman. La Fibonacci apar operații cu numere fracționare, procedeul de aducere la același numitor, procedee de rezolvarea a problemelor de aritmetică comercială, împărțirea în părți proporționale, probleme de amestecuri, operații cu numere iraționale, relații de recurență, problema păsărilor etc. A propus un șir de numere naturale în care fiecare termen este egal cu suma celor doi precedenți, numit ulterior șirul lui Fibonacci. În probleme de algebră, tratează teoria ecuațiilor de gradul al doilea, progresii, sume de serii. A interpretat numerele negative și le-a introdus în algebră. A stabilit valoarea lui π ca fiind 864/275. Liber Abaci[modificare | modificare sursă] Articol principal: Liber Abaci. În cartea Liber Abaci ("Cartea abacului", 1202), Fibonacci introduce așa-numitul modus Indorum (metoda indiană), metodă cunoscută astăzi sub numele de cifrele arabe (Sigler 2003; Grimm, 1973). Cartea descrie o enumerare cu cifre cuprinse de la 0 la 9 cărora le conferă câte o valoare separată. Cartea a relevat importanța practică a noului sistem de numărare, folosind multiplicarea structurală și fracțiile egiptene, prin aplicarea sistemului în evidența contabilă la conversiile greutăților și a măsurilor, la calculul dobânzii, la schimbul valutar, precum și la alte aplicații de acest gen. Cartea a fost bine primită în întreaga Europă de către oamenii educați și a avut un impact profund asupra gândirii europene. Cartea Liber Abaci a ridicat și a rezolvat, de asemenea, o problemă care privea creșterea populației ipotetice a iepurilor, în baza unor presupuneri idealiste. Soluția, generație de generație, a dus la o secvență de numere, cunoscută mai tarziu ca șirul lui Fibonacci. Șirul de numere era cunoscut matematicienilor indieni încă din secolul al 6-lea, însă cartea Liber Abaci a lui Fibonacci a fost cea care a introdus această secvențialitate în occident. La scrierea acestei cărți, s-a folosit de o lucrare a lui Abraham bar Hiyya, scrisă în ebraică și tradusă în latină de Platon din Tivoli. Șirul lui Fibonacci[modificare | modificare sursă] Articol principal: Numerele Fibonacci. În șirul de numere al lui Fibonacci, fiecare număr reprezintă suma a două numere anterioare, începând cu 0 și 1. Astfel, șirul incepe cu 0,1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610 etc Cu cât este mai mare valoarea unui număr din cadrul acestui șir, cu atât mai mult se apropie de corelația supremă două "numere Fibonacci" consecutive din șir, numere care se împart prin ele însele (aproximativ 1 : 1,618 sau 0,618 : 1). Corelația supremă a fost folosită pe scară largă în timpul Renașterii, în picturi. Despre șirul lui Fibonacci a tratat și matematicianul român Miron Nicolescu în 1933. În cultura populară[modificare | modificare sursă] Vezi și: Fibonacci numbers in popular culture Numele Fibonacci a fost adoptat de o formație de muzică rock din Los Angeles numită Fibonaccis, care a cântat între anii 1981-1987. Oamenii de la bursă studiază frecvent "Evoluția numerelor lui Fibonacci" atunci când fac estimări privind prețul acțiunilor viitoare. Un tânăr Fibonacci este unul dintre personajele principale din romanul Cruciadă în blugi (1973). În 2006 a existat și o versiune pentru film, dar filmul nu a mai fost făcut. În Codul lui Da Vinci șirul lui Fibonacci a fost folosit ca un cod, dar și pentru a introduce confuzia asupra personajelor din carte. Cărțile scrise de Fibonacci[modificare | modificare sursă] 1202: Liber Abaci, o carte de calcule (traducerea în limba engleză de Laurence Sigler, Springer, 2002), 1220: Practica Geometriae, un compendiu de geometrie și trigonometrie. Flos (1225), soluții la problemele ridicate de Johannes din Palermo 1225: Liber Quadratorum, ( "Cartea pătratelor") despre ecuațiile Diophantine, dedicată împăratului Frederick al II-lea. A se vedea, în special, Brahmagupta-identitatea Fibonacci. Această carte a fost republicată deBoncompagni sub titlul: Tre scritti inedite de Leonardo Pisano, publicati da Baltassare Boncopagni, secondo la lezione din un codice delle biblioteca Ambrosiana din Milano la Florența în perioada 1854 - 1856. Di minor guisa (despre aritmetica comercială; carte dispărută) Comentariu cu privire la Cartea X cu privire la Elementele lui Euclid (carte dispărută) Vezi și[modificare | modificare sursă] Lista de subiecte numită după Fibonacci Numerele Fibonacci Identitatea Brahmagupta-Fibonacci Principiul de unduire al lui Elliott Expansiunea Engel Tehnica de căutare Fibonacci Corelația perfectă Hylomorphism (informatică) Perioada Pisano Numărul practic Secvența primului număr liber Verner Emil Hoggatt, Jr. Note[modificare | modificare sursă] ^ http://library.thinkquest.org/27890/biographies1.html ^ [3] ^ Howard Eves. O prezentare a istoriei matematicii. Brooks Cole, 1990: ISBN 0-03-029558-0 (6-a ed.), P 261. ^ Leonardo Pisano - pagina 3: "Contribuții la teoria numerelor". Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2006. Accesat 18 septembrie 2006. ^ Parmanand Singh. "Acharya Hemachandra și (așa-numitul) Șirul lui Fibonacci". Math. Ed. Siwan, 20 (1) :28-30, 1986. ISSN 0047-6269] ^ http://www.maths.surrey.ac.uk/hosted-sites/R.Knott/Fibonacci/fibBio.html ^ [7] ^ A se vedea incipit de Flos: "Incipit flos Leonardi bigolli Pisani ..." (citat în Surse documentul MS Word, în matematică de recreere: o bibliografie adnotată de David Singmaster, 18 martie 2004 - adăugat), în limba engleză: "Aici începe "floarea" de Leonardo căutătorul din Pisa ..." Sensuri de bază ale "bigollo" care par a fi "bunr de nimic" și "călătorul" (așa că ar putea fi tradus prin "vagabondul", "derbedeul" sau "golanul"). A.F. Horadam conține o conotație a termenului de "bigollo" însemnând "absent" (a se vedea prima notă de subsol din "Tânăr de opt sute de ani"), care este asemenea conotației din limba engleză a cuvântului "rătăcitor". Traducere "Wanderer", în citatul de mai sus încearcă să combine conotațiile diferite de cuvântul "bigollo" într-un singur cuvânt în limba română. ^ Fibonacci Statuia din Pisa Bibliografie[modificare | modificare sursă] Goetzmann, William N. și Rouwenhorst, K. Geert, Originile valorii: inovațiile financiare care au creat piețele de capital moderne (2005, Oxford University Press Inc, SUA), ISBN 0-19-517571-9. Grimm, RE, "Autobiografia lui Leonardo Pisano", Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol.. 11, No. 1, februarie 1973, pp. 99-104. A.F. Horadam, "Tânăr de opt sute de ani," Profesorul australian de matematică 31 (1975) 123-134. Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă] Fibonacci Biografie Cine a fost Fibonacci? de Knott de Ron. Goetzmann, William N., Fibonacci și Revoluția financiară (23 octombrie 2003), Yale School of Management din Centrul International de Finante Working Paper No. 03-28 [1] Charles Burnett, Leonard din Pisa (Fibonacci) și arabă aritmetică - Atmosfera medievală privitoare la munca lui Fibonacci Fibonacci la Convergence wallstreetcosmos.com, numerele lui Fibonacci și materialul de analiză a pieței de acțiuni, (2008). O'Connor, John J și Robertson, Edmund F. "Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci - 1170 - 1250 ", în Istoria MacTutor de arhivă matematică. Universitatea din St Andrews site-ului, Scoția, 1998. Liber Abaci și a metodele fracțiilor egiptene Categorii: Naşteri în secolul XII Decese în 1250 Matematicieni italieni Specialişti în teoria numerelor Romano-catolici italieni Matematicieni ai secolului al XIII-lea
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