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Daca nu merge vre-un link, stergeti ce se afla in parantezele urmatoare: (...feature=related) sau intre parantezele: (&feature=related).

 

The Nazi UFOs

Nazi UFOs

Nazi UFOs (German: Haunebu, Hauneburg-Ger�, or Reichsflugscheiben) are advanced aircraft or spacecraft that Nazi Germany supposedly developed during World War II and Nazi scientists continued to develop afterwards. These craft appear not only in fiction but also in various historical revisionist writings. They often appear in connection with esoteric Nazism, an ideology that supposes the possibility of Nazi restoration by supernatural or paranormal means.

Historical connections

Nazi UFO theories agree with mainstream history on the following points:

Nazi Germany claimed the territory of New Swabia, sent an expedition there in 1938, and planned others.

Nazi Germany conducted research into advanced propulsion technology, including rocketry and Viktor Schauberger's turbine work.

Some UFO sightings during World War II, particularly those known as foo fighters, were thought to be enemy aircraft.

Early references

The earliest non-fictional reference to Nazi flying saucers appears to be a series of articles by and about Italian turbine expert Giuseppe Belluzzo. The following week, German scientist Rudolph Schriever claimed to have developed flying saucers during the Nazi period.

Aeronautical engineer Roy Fedden remarked that the only craft that could approach the capabilities attributed to flying saucers were those being designed by the Germans towards the end of the war. Fedden also added that the Germans were working on a number of very unusual aeronautical projects, though he did not elaborate upon his statement.

Revisionist claims

Vril Society

A 1967 book by Louis Pauwels and Jacques Bergier made many spectacular claims about the Vril Society of Berlin. Several later writers, including Jan van Helsing, Norbert-J�Ratthofer, and Vladimir Terziski, have built on their work, connecting the Vril Society with UFOs. Among their claims, they write that the society had made contact with an alien race and dedicated itself to creating spacecraft to reach the aliens. In partnership with the Thule Society and the Nazi Party, it developed a series of flying disc prototypes. With the Nazi defeat, the society allegedly retreated to a base in Antarctica and vanished.

Terziski

Terziski, a Bulgarian engineer who bills himself as president of the American Academy of Dissident Sciences claims that the Germans collaborated in their advanced craft research with Axis powers Italy and Japan, and continued their space effort after the war from New Swabia. He writes that Germans landed on the Moon as early as 1942 and established an underground base there. When Russians and Americans secretly landed on the moon in the 1950s, says Terziski, they stayed at this still-operating base. According to Terziski, "there is atmosphere, water and vegetation on the Moon," which NASA conceals to exclude the third world from moon exploration. Terziski has been accused of fabricating his video and photographic evidence.

Ernst Z�When German Revisionist Historian Ernst Z�started Samisdat Publishers in the 1970s, he initially catered to the UFOlogy community, which was then at its peak of public acceptance. His main offerings were his own books claiming that flying saucers were Nazi secret weapons launched from an underground base in Antarctica, from which the Nazis hoped to conquer the world. Z�also sold (for $9999) seats on an exploration team to locate the underground base. Some people who interviewed Z�about this material claim that he privately admitted it was a deliberate hoax to build publicity for Samisdat, although he still defended it as late as 2002.

Miguel Serrano

In 1978 Serrano, a Chilean diplomat and Nazi sympathizer, published The Golden Band, in which he claimed that Adolf Hitler was an avatar of Vishnu and was then communing with Hyperborean gods in an underground Antarctic base. Serrano predicted that Hitler would lead a fleet of UFOs from the base to establish the Fourth Reich.

Also see:

American & Canadian made UFOs

Source & References:

www.wikipedia.com

More UFO Articles and News Items

UFO Casebook Home Page

 

Frank Edwards (writer and broadcaster)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

For other persons named Frank Edwards, see Frank Edwards (disambiguation).

Frank Edwards (August 4, 1908- June 23, 1967) was an American writer and broadcaster, and one of the pioneers in radio. Late in his life, he became well-known for a series of popular books about UFOs and other paranormal phenomena.

Contents

[hide]

�1 Biography

o1.1 Early life and career

o1.2 National radio, UFOs and controversy

o1.3 Later career

o1.4 Death

�2 Bibliography

�3 References

 

[edit] Biography

[edit] Early life and career

Born in Mattoon, Illinois, Edwards broadcast on pioneering radio station KDKA AM in the 1920s, making him one of the earliest professional radio broadcasters.

During the '30s, Edwards continued his career in radio, but also worked a variety of other jobs, including a stint as a professional golfer. He was hired by the Treasury Department during World War II to promote war bond sales.

[edit] National radio, UFOs and controversy

After WWII, the Mutual Broadcasting System hired Edwards to host a nationwide news and opinion program sponsored by the American Federation of Labor. Edwards' program was a success, and became nationally popular.

In 1948, Edwards received an advance copy of "Flying Saucers Are Real," a magazine article written by retired U.S. Marine Corps. Major Donald E. Keyhoe. Though already interested in the UFO reports that had earned widespread publicity since 1947, Edwards was captivated by Keyhoe's claims that the U.S. military knew the saucers were actually extraterrestrial spaceships.

Edwards began mentioning UFOs on his radio program, and wrote several books on the subject.

He was fired from the radio program in 1954, for reasons that remain uncertain. His interest in UFOs was believed to be a factor,[1] but Edwards' editor and friend Rory Stuart[2] wrote "[AFL President] George Meany insisted that Frank Edwards not mention any [competing labor union] CIO labor leaders on his program. He flatly refused and was fired." In spite of thousands of letters in protest of his dismissal, Edwards was not reinstated.

[edit] Later career

After being fired from Mutual, Edwards continued working in radio, mostly at smaller local stations. He created and hosted a syndicated radio program, Stranger Than Science, which discussed UFOs and other Forteana. In 1959 he published a book with the same title that was largely a collection of his radio broadcasts.

From 1955 until 1959 and 1961 and 1962 Edwards was a commentator for WTTV television in Indianapolis. He was on radio station WXLW, also in Indianapolis in 1964 and returned to television on WLWI in 1965.[3] His book "Strange People" recalls a television interview that was video taped on October 3, 1961 with psychic Peter Hurkos.[4] It is not known if any of these programs survive. During his time at WTTV his program was the subject of experiments in subliminal advertising during 1958. The movie preceding his show had the subliminal message "Watch Frank Edwards" inserted along with similar messages for bacon. Neither was a success in changing viewer habits. It is unknown if Edwards knew of the experements.[5]

Edwards made an appearance on the Johnny Carson-era Tonight Show, in October, 1966.[citation needed] The episode was guest-hosted by singers Steve Lawrence and Eydie Gorme. Although Carson saved videos of the show past about 1969, this episode is presumed lost. On that telecast, Gorme made references to the fact that she enjoyed various science-fiction shows, like Star Trek and Time Tunnel, and Edwards made various references to experts' sightings of UFOs, to promote his then-current book, "Flying Saucers--Serious Business!"

[edit] Death

It is one of the myths of ufology that Edwards died on June 24, 1967, exactly 20 years after Kenneth Arnold's famous first "flying saucer" sighting. Actually, Edwards died a few minutes before midnight, on the evening of June 23, but his death was announced at the Congress of Scientific Ufologists in New York City on June 24, 1967.

[edit] Bibliography

Books authored by Frank Edwards include:

�My First 10,000,000 Sponsors

�Strangest of All, New York: Lyle Stuart, 1956.

�Stranger than Science, New York: Lyle Stuart, 1959.

�Strange World, New York: Lyle Stuart, 1964.

�Strange People

�Flying Saucers - Serious Business, New York: Lyle Stuart, 1966.

�Flying Saucers - Here and Now!

[edit] References

1.^ Time magazine, August 23, 1954.

2.^ see Stuart's preface to the anthology The Strange World of Frank Edwards (Lyle Stuart Inc, 1977)

3.^ Frank Allyn Edwards on Answers.com

4.^ Strange People, Frank Edwards; 1961 pp 277.

5.^ Quirkology: How We Discover the Big Truths in Small Things By Richard Wiseman 2008 pp 131

�Clark, Jerome. 1998. The UFO Encyclopedia: The Phenomenon From The Beginning: Volume 1: A-K. Detroit: Omnigraphics.

�Story, Ronald: The Encyclopedia of UFOs. Garden City: Doubleday & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-385-13677-3.

 

Nazi UFOs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Please improve this article if you can. (December 2009)

 

Nazi UFO (German: Rundflugzeug, Feuerball, Diskus, Haunebu, Hauneburg-Ger�, VRIL, Kugelblitz, Andromeda-Ger�, Flugkreisel, Kugelwaffen or ironically Reichsflugscheiben) refers to claims about advanced aircraft or spacecraft Nazi Germany attempted to develop prior to World War II. Some believe that ex-Nazi or possibly American scientists continue to develop new flying saucers in secret underground bunkers in the New Swabia region of Antarctica. Probably fictional craft appear in science fiction, conspiracy theory, and underground comic book sources, although there are more than a few non-fictional documentaries on the subject available through video sharing services.

While there is no credible evidence to support the theory of Nazi spacecraft, these stories are often associated with esoteric Nazism, an ideology that supposes the unlikely possibility of Nazi restoration by supernatural or paranormal means, forever hereafter relegating all but the most plausible accounts of actual spacecraft to the shelves as religious and scientific heresy.[1]

These myths were likely inspired by historical German development of specialized engines such as Viktor Schauberger's "Repulsine" around the time of WWII.

Contents

[hide]

�1 Context

�2 Early claims

�3 Later claims

o3.1 Morning of the Magicians

o3.2 Ernst Z�#39;s marketing ploy

o3.3 Miguel Serrano's book

�4 See also

�5 References

�6 Books

o6.1 DVD

o6.2 Analysts

o6.3 Proponents

�7 External links

 

[edit] Context

Nazi UFO tales and myths very often conform largely to documented history on the following points:

�Nazi Germany claimed the territory of New Swabia in Antarctica, sent an expedition there in 1938, and planned others.[2]

�Nazi Germany conducted research into advanced propulsion technology, including rocketry, Viktor Schauberger's engine research[citation needed] and the Arthur Sack A.S.6 experimental "flying disc".

�Some UFO sightings during World War II, particularly those known as foo fighters, were discovered to be prototype enemy aircraft[citation needed] designed to harass allied aircraft through electromagnetic disruption, technology similar to today's electro magnetic pulse (EMP) weapons.[citation needed]

 

[edit] Early claims

The earliest non-fiction assertion of Nazi flying saucers appears to have been an article which appeared in the Italian newspaper Il Giornale d'Italia in early 1950. Written by Professor Giuseppe Belluzzo, an Italian scientist and a former Italian Minister of National Economy under the Mussolini regime, it claimed that "types of flying discs were designed and studied in Germany and Italy as early as 1942". Belluzzo also expressed the opinion that "some great power is launching discs to study them".[3]

The same month, German engineer Rudolf Schriever gave an interview to German news magazine Der Spiegel in which he claimed that he had designed a craft powered by a circular plane of rotating turbine blades, 49 ft (15 m) in diameter. He said that the project had been developed by him and his team at BMW's Prague works until April 1945, when he fled Czechoslovakia. His designs for the disk and a model were stolen from his workshop in Bremerhaven-Lehe in 1948 and he was convinced that Czech agents had built his craft for "a foreign power".[4][5] In a separate interview with Der Spiegel in October 1952 he said that the plans were stolen from a farm he was hiding in near Regen on 14 May 1945. There are other discrepancies between the two interviews that add to the confusion.[6]

In 1953, when Avro Canada announced that it was developing the VZ-9-AV Avrocar, a circular jet aircraft with an estimated speed of 1,500 mph (2,400 km/h), German engineer Georg Klein claimed that such designs had been developed during the Third Reich. Klein identified two types of supposed German flying disks:

�A non-rotating disk developed at Breslau by V-2 rocket engineer Richard Miethe, which was captured by the Soviets, while Miethe fled to the US via France, and ended up working for Avro.

�A disk developed by Rudolf Schriever and Klaus Habermohl at Prague, which consisted of a ring of moving turbine blades around a fixed cockpit. Klein claimed that he had witnessed this craft's first manned flight on 14 February 1945, when it managed to climb to 12,400 m (41,000 ft) in 3 minutes and attained a speed of 2,200 km/h (1,400 mph) in level flight.

Aeronautical engineer Roy Fedden remarked that the only craft that could approach the capabilities attributed to flying saucers were those being designed by the Germans towards the end of the war. Fedden (who was also chief of the technical mission to Germany for the Ministry of Aircraft Production) stated in 1945:

�I have seen enough of their designs and production plans to realize that if they (the Germans) had managed to prolong the war some months longer, we would have been confronted with a set of entirely new and deadly developments in air warfare.[7]

Fedden also added that the Germans were working on a number of very unusual aeronautical projects, though he did not elaborate upon his statement.[8]

In 1959, Captain Edward J. Ruppelt, editor of the U.S.A.F.'s Project Blue Book wrote:

�When WWII ended, the Germans had several radical types of aircraft and guided missiles under development. The majority were in the most preliminary stages, but they were the only known craft that could even approach the performance of objects reported to UFO observers.[9]

[edit] Later claims

[edit] Morning of the Magicians

Main article: Le Matin des Magiciens

Le Matin des Magiciens, a 1967 book by Louis Pauwels and Jacques Bergier, made many spectacular claims about the Vril Society of Berlin.[10] Several years later writers, including Jan van Helsing,[11][12] Norbert-J�Ratthofer,[13] and Vladimir Terziski, have built on their work, connecting the Vril Society with UFOs. Among their claims, they seem to relate that the society may have made contact with an alien race and dedicated itself to creating spacecraft to reach the aliens. In partnership with the Thule Society and the Nazi Party, it developed a series of flying disc prototypes. With the Nazi defeat, the society maybe retreated to a base in Antarctica and vanished.

Terziski, a Bulgarian engineer who bills himself as president of the American Academy of Dissident Sciences, claims that the Germans collaborated in their advanced craft research with Axis powers Italy and Japan, and continued their space effort after the war from New Swabia. He alleges that Germans may have landed on the Moon as early as 1942 and established an underground base there. When Russians and Americans secretly landed on the moon in the 1950s, says Terziski, they stayed at this still-operating base. According to Terziski, "there is atmosphere, water and vegetation on the Moon," which NASA conceals to exclude the third world from moon exploration. Terziski has been accused of fabricating his video and photographic evidence.[14]

[edit] Ernst Z�#39;s marketing ploy

Main article: Z� Nazi UFOs-Antarctica

When German Holocaust denier Ernst Z�started Samisdat Publishers in the 1970s, he initially catered to the UFOlogy community, which was then at its peak of public acceptance. His main offerings were his own books claiming that flying saucers were Nazi secret weapons launched from an underground base in Antarctica, from which the Nazis hoped to conquer the world and possibly reap the riches of the planets.[15] Z�also sold (for $9999) seats on an exploration team to locate the polar entrance to the hollow earth.[16] Some who interviewed Z�claim that he privately admitted it was a deliberate hoax to build publicity for Samisdat, although he still defended it as late as 2002.[17][18]

[edit] Miguel Serrano's book

In 1978 Miguel Serrano, a Chilean diplomat and Nazi sympathizer, published The Golden Band, in which he claimed that Adolf Hitler was an avatar of Vishnu and was then communing with Hyperborean gods in an underground Antarctic base in New Swabia. Serrano predicted that Hitler would lead a fleet of UFOs from the base to establish the Fourth Reich.[19] In popular culture, this alleged UFO fleet is referred to as the Nazi flying saucers from Antarctica.

[edit] See also

�Military disc shaped aircraft

�Ahnenerbe

�Ghost rockets

�Hollow Earth

�Nazi occultism

�Vril

�Urda (anime)

�Iron Sky

�Vaimanika Shastra

�Space Nazis

�Die Glocke

[edit] References

This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (December 2009)

1.^ Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (2002). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-3124-4.

2.^ Hitler's Antarctic base: the myth and the reality

3.^ "Flying Discs 'Old Story', Says Italian", Daily Mirror, 24 March 1950

4.^ Staff writer (1950-03-31). "Luftfahrt". Der Spiegel. http://www.naziufos.com/NEWSCL/SCHRIEV.HTM. Retrieved 2006-12-01.

5.^ Nazi Flying Saucers?:

6.^ http://www.german-discs.net/builders/schriever.php

7.^ Hitler's UFO Burlington UFO and Paranormal Research and Educational Center

8.^ Gunston, Bill. By Jupiter! The Life of Sir Roy Fedden.

9.^ Hatcher Childress, David; and Shaver Richard S.. Lost Continents & the Hollow Earth.

10.^ Pauwels, Louis; and Jacques Bergier (1967). Aufbruch ins dritte Jahrtausend: Von der Zukunft der phantastischen Vernunft. ISBN 3-442-11711-9.

11.^ Van Helsing, Jan (1993). Geheimgesellschaften und ihre Macht im 20. Jahrhundert. Rhede, Emsland: Ewert. ISBN 3-894-78069-X.

12.^ Van Helsing, Jan (1997). Unternehmen Aldebaran. Kontakte mit Menschen aus einem anderen Sonnensystem. Lathen: Ewertlag. ISBN 3-894-78220-X.

13.^ J�Ratthofer, Norbert; and Ralf Ettl (1992). Das Vril-Projekt. Der Endkampf um die Erde. (self-published)

14.^ Kevin McClure. "The Nazi UFO Mythos." Abduction Watch, accessed 2006-08-27.

15.^ Friedrich, Christof (1974). UFO's � Nazi Secret Weapon?. Samisdat Publishers.

16.^ Friedrich, Christof (1979). "Samisdat Hollow Earth Expedition". The Nizkor Project. http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/people/z/zundel-ernst/flying-saucers/expedition.html. Retrieved 2006-08-27.

17.^ "Ernst Z�#39;s Flying Saucers". The Nizkor Project. http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/people/z/zundel-ernst/flying-saucers/. Retrieved 2006-08-27.

18.^ Z� Ernst (2002-12-01). "Z�ram". The Nizkor Project. http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi/people/z/zundel.ernst/zundelgrams/ftp.py?people/z/zundel.ernst/zundelgrams//2002/zgram.021201. Retrieved 2006-08-27.

19.^ Serrano, Miguel (1978). Das goldene Band: esoterischer Hitlerismus. ISBN 3-926179-20-1.

�[1]

[edit] Books

[edit] DVD

�1988/1990: UFO - Das Dritte Reich schl� zur�UFO - The Third Reich Strikes Back?) (viewable here in German) by Norbert J�Ratthofer and Ralf Ettl

�1992: UFO - Geheimnisse des Dritten Reichs (UFO - Secrets of the Third Reich) (viewable here in German and here in English)

�2008, 'Mythos Neuschwabenland: Das letzte Geheimnis des Dritte Reiches' (The Myth of Neuschwabenland - The Last Secret of the Third Reich) by Polar Film + Medien GmbH

[edit] Analysts

�Joscelyn Godwin. Arktos: The Polar Myth in Science, Symbolism, and Nazi Survival. Adventures Unlimited Press, 1996. ISBN 0-932813-35-6.

�Christopher Partridge. UFO Religions. Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0-415-26324-7.

[edit] Proponents

�William R. Lyne. Pentagon Aliens (1993. 306 pages, Creatopia, 3rd edition, PB, 2007. ISBN-13: 978-0963746771)

�Joseph Farrell. Reich of the Black Sun: Nazi Secret Weapons and the Cold War Allied Legend

�Branton (Bruce Alan Walton) The Omega Files: Secret Nazi UFO Bases Revealed (April 15, 2000 ISBN 1-892062-09-7)

�Renato Vesco & David Hatcher Childress. Man-Made UFOs 1944-1994: 50 Years of Suppression (September, 1994 ISBN 0-932813-23-2)

�Henry Stevens. Hitler's Flying Saucers: A Guide to German Flying Discs of the Second World War (February 1, 2003 ISBN 1-931882-13-4)

�Nick Cook. The Hunt for Zero Point. New York: Broadway Books (2003)

[edit] External links

�German Disc Aircraft

[hide]

v � d � e

UFOs and ufology

 

 

Main areas of studyContactee � Crashes � Extraterrestrials � Sightings � Topics � SETI

 

 

 

InvolvementCulture � Government personnel � Government responses � Organizations � UFO religion (List of UFO religions) � Ufologists

 

 

 

Peenem�rom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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This article is about about the village and the Nazi Germany rocket centre. For the World War II Luftwaffe centre that tested the V-1 flying bomb, see Peenem�irfield.

Peenem�

 

Peenem�oordinates

54�8′0″N 13�46′0″E54.133333�N 13.766667�E

 

Administration

Country

Germany

 

State

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

 

District

Ostvorpommern

 

Municipal assoc.

Usedom-Nord

 

Mayor

Rainer Barthelmes

 

Basic statistics

Area

24.97 km2 (9.64 sq mi)

Elevation

3 m (10 ft)

Population

345 (31 December 2006)

- Density

14 /km2 (36 /sq mi)

Other information

Time zone

CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)

 

Licence plate

OVP

Postal code

17449

Area code

038371

Website

www.peenemuende.info

 

Location of Peenem�ithin Ostvorpommern district

 

 

 

RAF photo-reconnaissance picture of Peenem�est Stand VII

Peenem�German pronunciation: [peːnəˈmʏndə]) is a village in the northeast of the German (Western) part of Usedom island. It stands near the mouth(s) of the Peene river, on the easternmost part of the German Baltic coast. The area includes the 1992 commons:Historisch-technisches Informationszentrum Peenem�an Anchor Point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage. Special show-pieces are reproductions of the V-1 flying bomb and V-2 rocket, which were tested in the area during World War II.

Contents

[hide]

�1 Army Research Center Peenem�o1.1 HVP Organization

o1.2 Guided missile development

o1.3 Peenem�-2 Production Plant

o1.4 Operation Crossbow

o1.5 Evacuation

�2 After World War II

�3 In popular culture

�4 References

o4.1 Explanatory notes

o4.2 Citations

�5 External links

 

[edit] Army Research Center Peenem�ollowing earlier experiments at Kummersdorf, the Army Research Center Peenem�German: Heeresversuchsanstalt Peenem� HVP) was founded in 1937 as one of five military proving grounds under the Army Weapons Office (Heeres Waffenamt).[1]:85

On April 2, 1936, the Reich Air Ministry paid 750,000 reichsmarks to the town of Wolgast[1]:41 for the whole Northern peninsula of Usedom.[2]:17 By the middle of 1938, the Peenem�acility was nearly complete.[3] The Army Research Center (Peenem�st)[4] consisted of Werk Ost and Werk S�ile Werk West (Peenem�est) was the Luftwaffe Test Site (German: Erprobungsstelle der Luftwaffe).[5]:55

[edit] HVP Organization

Dr Wernher von Braun was the HVP technical director (Dr Walter Thiel was deputy director) and there were nine major departments:[4]:38

1.Technical Design Office (Walter J H "Papa" Riedel)

2.Aeroballistics and Mathematics Laboratory (Dr Hermann Steuding)

3.Wind Tunnel (Rudolph Hermann)

4.Materials Laboratory (Dr M�r)

5.Flight, Guidance, and Telemetering Devices (German: Bord-, Steuer- und Messger�, BSM[6] -- Ernst Steinhoff)

6.Development and Fabrication Laboratory (Arthur Rudolph)

7.Test Laboratory (Klaus Riedel)

8.Future Projects Office (Ludwig Roth)[7]

9.Purchasing Office (Mr Genthe)

The Measurements Group (Gerhard Reisig) was part of BSM,[8] and additional departments included the Production Planning Directorate (Detmar Stahlknecht),[5]:161 the Personnel Office (Richard Sundermeyer), and the Drawings Change Service.[9]

[edit] Guided missile development

Several WWII German guided missiles were developed by the HVP, including the V-2 rocket (A-4) (see test launches), and the Wasserfall (35 Peenem�rial firings),[10] Schmetterling, Rheintochter, Taifun, and Enzian missiles. The HVP also performed preliminary design of rockets for use against the United States.[citation needed] The Peenem�stablishment also developed other techniques, such as the first closed-circuit television system in the world,[citation needed] installed at Test Stand VII to track the launching rockets.

Aerodynamic Institute

The supersonic wind tunnel at Peenem�39;s "Aerodynamic Institute" eventually had nozzles for speeds up to the then-record Mach 4.4 (1942/1943), as well as an innovative desiccant system to reduce condensation clouding (1940). Led by Dr Rudolph Hermann who arrived in April 1937 from the University of Aachen, the staff reached two hundred in 1943 and included Dr Hermann Kurzweg (University of Leipzig) and Dr Walter Haeussermann.[11]

Heimat-Artillerie-Park 11

Initially set up under the HVP as a rocket training battery (Number 444),[12] Heimat-Artillerie-Park 11 Karlshagen/Pomerania[12]:125 (HAP 11) also contained the A-A Research Command North[12]:65 for anti-aircraft rocket testing. Chemist Magnus von Braun, youngest brother of Wernher von Braun, was employed in the Peenem�evelopment of anti-aircraft rockets.[12]:66

[edit] Peenem�-2 Production Plant

In November 1938, Walther von Brauchitsch ordered construction of an A-4 Production Plant at Peenem�and in January 1939, Walter Dornberger created a subsection of Wa Pruf 11 for planning the Peenem�roduction Plant project, headed by G. Schubert, a senior Army civil servant.[13] By midsummer 1943, the first trial runs of the assembly-line in the Production Works at Werke S�e made, [14] but after the end of July 1943 when the enormous hangar Fertigungshalle 1 (F-1, Mass Production Plant No. 1) was just about to go into operation, Operation Hydra bombed Peenem�On August 26, 1943, Albert Speer called a meeting with Hans Kammler, Dornberger, Gerhard Degenkolb, and Karl Otto Saur to negotiate the move of A-4 main production to an underground factory in the Harz mountains.[2]:123[5]:202 In early September, Peenem�achinery and personnel for production (including Alban Sawatzki, Arthur Rudolph, and about ten engineers)[4]:79 were moved to the Mittelwerk, which also received machinery and personnel from the two other planned A-4 assembly sites.[15] On October 13, 1943, the Peenem�risoners from the small F-1 concentration camp[16] boarded rail cars bound for Kohnstein mountain.[15]

[edit] Operation Crossbow

See also: Bombing of Peenem�n World War II

Two Polish slave janitors[17]:52 of Peenem�39;s Camp Trassenheide in early 1943[17]:52 provided maps[18], sketches and reports to Polish Home Army Intelligence, and in June 1943 British intelligence had received two such reports which identified the "rocket assembly hall', 'experimental pit', and 'launching tower'.[2]:139

 

 

V-2 launch in Peenem�1943)

As the opening attack of the British Operation Crossbow, the Operation Hydra air-raid attacked the HVP's "Sleeping & Living Quarters" (to specifically target scientists), then the "Factory Workshops", and finally the "Experimental Station"[19] on the night of August 17/18, 1943.[20] The Polish janitors were given advance warning of the attack, but the workers could not leave due to SS security and the facility had no air raid shelters for the prisoners.[17]:82 According to an official German report,[citation needed] the raid killed 815 workers (most of them foreign prisoners of war), and Walter Thiel, the head of engine development.

A year later on July 18,[21] August 4,[6]:111 and August 25,[2]:273 the US Eighth Air Force[4]:141 conducted three additional Peenem�aids to counter suspected hydrogen peroxide production.[22]

[edit] Evacuation

As with the move of the V-2 Production Works to the Mittelwerk, the complete withdrawal of development of guided missiles was approved by the Army and SS in October 1943.[23] On August 26, 1943 at a meeting in Albert Speer's office, Hans Kammler suggested moving the A-4 Development Works to a proposed underground site in Austria.[24] After a September site survey by Papa Riedel and Schubert, Kammler designated the code name Zement (English: Cement) in December for the site,[23] and construction to blast an underground cavern into a cliff at lake Traunsee near Gmunden started in the beginning of 1944.[12]:109 In early 1944, construction started for test stands and launching pads in the Alps (code name Salamander), with target areas planned for the Tatra Mountains, the Arlberg range, and the area of the Ortler mountain.[25] Other evacuation locations included:

�Hans Lindenmayr's valve laboratory near Friedland moved to a castle near the village of Leutenberg, 10 km S of Saalfeld near the Bavarian border.[4]:293

�the materials testing laboratory moved to an air base at Anklam

�the wind tunnels moved to Kochel (then after the war, to White Oak, Maryland)[26]

�Engine testing and calibration to Lehesten[citation needed]

For personnel being relocated from Peenem�the new organization was to be designated Entwicklungsgemeinschaft Mittelbau (English: Mittelbau Development Company)[4]:291 and Kammler's order to relocate to Thuringia arrived by teletype on January 31, 1945.[4]:288 On February 3, 1945, at the last meeting at Peenem�eld regarding the relocation, the HVP consisted of A-4 development/modification (1940 people), A-4b development (27), Wasserfall and Taifun development (1455), support and administration (760).[4]:289 The first train departed on February 17 with 525 people enroute to Thuringia (including Bleicherode, Sangerhausen (district), and Bad Sachsa) and the evacuation was complete in mid-March.[1]:247

[edit] After World War II

The last V-2 launch at Peenem�as in February 1945, and on May 5, 1945, the 2nd Belorussian Front under General Konstantin Rokossovsky captured the Swinem�ort and Usedom island. Russian infantry under Major Anatole Vavilov stormed Peenem�nd found it "75 per cent wreckage" (the research buildings and test stands had been demolished.)[27] A former adjutant at Peenem�Oberstleutnant Richar Rumsch�l, and his wife were killed during the attack,[4]:285 and Vavilov had orders to destroy the facility.[27]

More destruction of the technical facilities of Peenem�ook place between 1948 and 1961. Only the power station, the airport, and the railway link to Zinnowitz remained functional. The plant for production of liquid oxygen lies in ruins at the entrance to Peenem�Very little remains of most of the other buildings and facilities.

Peenem�erved as a Soviet naval and airbase until 1952 when it was handed over to the German Democratic Republic. The port facilities were initially used by the East German Seepolizei (Sea Police) after new naval infrastructure was put into place. On December 1, 1956, the 1st Fleet (Flotilla) of the East German Volksmarine (People's Navy) was established at Peenem�The former Luftwaffe Test Site Werk West (Peenem�est) became an airfield used by the East German Air Force starting in 1958. It was home of Jagdfliegergeschwader 9 (Fighter Squadron 9) which flew the MiG-23 fighter.

Until German Reunification in 1990 the entire northern area of the island of Usedom to Karlshagen was a restricted area of the National People's Army (NVA).

The Peenem�istorical and Technical Information Centre opened in 1992 in the shelter control room and the area of the former power station and is an Anchor Point of ERIH, the European Route of Industrial Heritage.

[edit] In popular culture

�Peenem�s a setting in the novels Fatherland, Gravity's Rainbow, Moonraker, The Rhinemann Exchange, The Way the Crow Flies, Space, and Vengeance 10.

�In the novels of the Colonization series, Peenem�urvives World War II and becomes a major space launch center.

�In the second book of the "Danger Boy" time travel series, by Mark London Williams, "Dragon Sword," Peenem�s a key setting, references to which recur later in the series.

�In the movie The Cockpit, Peenem�s an atomic bomb test site.

�In the 1975 movie The Hindenburg, the countess played by Anne Bancroft is leaving Germany because her estate in Peenem�as been confiscated by the Nazis.

�In the movie Shining Through, the character Linda Voss photographs the plans of the Peenemunde base.

�In the comic Ministry of Space by Warren Ellis, Peenem�s captured by the British.

�In the game Battlefield 1942: Secret Weapons of WWII, Peenem�s a playable level.

�In the game Secret Weapons Over Normandy, Peenem�s a playable level in the main campaign.

�In the novelisation of the film Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb by Peter George, the title character is stated to have received the injuries that left him with only one hand and wheelchair-bound as a result of the RAF bombings while working at Peenem�[edit] References

[edit] Explanatory notes

Note �: A different spelling is Heeresversuchsstelle Peenem�4]:36 and Heeresanstalt Peenem�ppears on a German document with Wasserfall velocity calculations.[12]:78

[edit] Citations

1.^ a b c Dornberger, Walter (1952: US translation V-2 Viking Press:New York, 1954). V2--Der Schuss ins Weltall. Esslingan: Bechtle Verlag. pp. 41,85,247.

2.^ a b c d Irving, David (1964). The Mare's Nest. London: William Kimber and Co. pp. 17,139,273.

3.^ WGBH Educational Foundation. NOVA: Hitler's Secret Weapon (The V-2 Rocket at Peenemunde) motion picture documentary, released in 1988 by VESTRON Video as VHS video 5273, ISBN 0-8051-0631-6 (minutes 20:00-22:00)

4.^ a b c d e f g h i j Ordway, Frederick I., III.; Sharpe, Mitchell R.. The Rocket Team. Apogee Books Space Series 36. pp. 36,38,79,117,141,285,288,289,291,293.

5.^ a b c Neufeld, Michael J. (1995). The Rocket and the Reich: Peenem�nd the Coming of the Ballistic Missile Era. New York: The Free Press. p. 55,88,161,202,204-6,222,247.

6.^ a b Huzel, Dieter K. (1960). Peenem�o Canaveral. Prentice Hall. p. 37.

7.^ "Dahm, Werner Karl". Peenem�nterviews. National Air and Space Museum. http://www.nasm.si.edu/research/dsh/peenintro.html. Retrieved 2008-10-23.

8.^ McCleskey, C.; D. Christensen. "Dr. Kurt H. Debus: Launching a Vision" (pdf). http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/history/docs/pdf/debus.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-23.

9.^ Huzel. 149,225

10.^ Pocock, Rowland F. (1967). German Guided Missiles of the Second World War. New York: Arco Publishing Company, Inc.. p. 107.

11.^ Neufeld. 88

12.^ a b c d e f Klee, Ernst; Merk, Otto (1963, English translation 1965). The Birth of the Missile:The Secrets of Peenem�39;. Hamburg: Gerhard Stalling Verlag. pp. 44,65,66,78,109,117,125.

13.^ Neufeld. 119,114

14.^ Middlebrook, Martin (1982). The Peenem�aid: The Night of 17-18 August 1943. New York: Bobs-Merrill. p. 23.

15.^ a b Neufeld. 206

16.^ Neufeld. 222

17.^ a b c Garliński, J� (1978). Hitler's Last Weapons: The Underground War against the V1 and V2. New York: Times Books. pp. 52,82.

18.^ "Poland's Contribution in the Field of Intelligence to the Victory in the Second World War". http://users.rcn.com/salski/No05-06Folder/Jedd-Poland-Contribution.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-09.

19.^ "Peenemunde - 1943". Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/ops/peenemunde.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-15.

20.^ Warsitz, Lutz: THE FIRST JET PILOT - The Story of German Test Pilot Erich Warsitz (p. 63), Pen and Sword Books Ltd., England, 2009

21.^ Neufeld. 247

22.^ Irving. 273,309

23.^ a b Neufeld. 205

24.^ Neufeld. 204

25.^ Irving. 123,238,300; Klee & Merk. 109

26.^ Hunt, Linda (1991). Secret Agenda: The United States Government, Nazi Scientists, and Project Paperclip, 1945 to 1990. New York: St.Martin's Press. p. 31. ISBN 0312055102.

27.^ a b Ley, Willy (1951 - revised edition 1958). Rockets, Missiles and Space Travel. New York: The Viking Press. p. 243.

[edit] External links

�V2 Rocket site

 

[show]

v � d � e

Towns and municipalities in Ostvorpommern

 

[show]

v � d � e

Operation Crossbow during World War II

 

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peenem%C3%BCnde"

Categories: Municipalities in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern | Seaside resorts in Germany | Vergeltungswaffen sites | World War II sites | Rocket launch sites

 

09 august 2010

Churchill si Eisenhower, vinovati de secretizarea dosarelor OZN

 

Guvernul britanic, alaturi de cel american, au luat atat de in serios problema rapoartelor OZN incat au cerut secretizarea acestora pentru cel putin 50 de ani, si asta inca din deceniul cinci al secolului trecut, se arata intr-un raport din Arhivele Nationale Britanice citat de BBC.

Atat Winston Churchill, cat si Dwight Eisenhower, au fost atat de interesati de problema obiectelor zburatoare neidentificate incat au cerut serviciilor de spionaj sa trimita rapoarte saptamanale cu privire la evolutia fenomenului. Mai mult, premierul britanic a cerut imperativ ca toate informatiile sa fie catalogate drept strict secrete pentru a preveni o isterie in masa in randul populatiei.

 

Raportul descoperit in arhivele britanice sustine ca, inca din anul 1957, aparitiile OZN erau atat de comune incat se inregistra cel putin una pe saptamana. Acelasi dosar arata ca problema era atat de grava incat a fost dezbatuta, nu o data, in cadrul consiliului de razboi. Poate cel mai grav incident a fost acela in care un grup de bombardiere britanice a fost urmarit de catre un OZN la intoarcerea din misiune, pana deasupra Marii Britanii, unul dintre principalele motive pentru care s-a si cerut secretizarea acestor fenomene.

 

Desecretizarea acestor dosare a venit ca un raspuns la cererea presei si a populatiei si a capatat un caracter global, majoritatea guvernelor lumii alegand sa faca publice dosarele cu privire la aparitia OZN-urilor. Conform acelorasi rapoarte, numarul fenomenelor inexplicabile a crescut simtitor odata cu anii 90, numai in Marea Britanie, in anul 1996, inregistrandu-se peste 600 de aparitii OZN, de trei mai multe decat in precedentii cinci ani.

 

Printre cazurile dezvaluite de Arhiva Nationala Britanica se numara si :

Incidentul din anul 1995, in care pilotul unui Boeing 737 a ratat de putin coliziunea cu un OZN in apropiere de aeroportul din Manchester.

Asa numitul "Roswell galez", caz din anul 1974, in care serviciile secrete britanice au fost chemate sa investigheze ramasitele unui OZN prabusit in Berwyn Mountains, Tara Galilor.

Date despre bazele secrete britanice in care se crede ca au fost analizate urmele presupuselor creaturi extraterestre.

Imaginile filmate in anul 1964, in timpul unor teste balistice, in care se presupune ca apare imaginea unui "cosmonaut" extraterestru.

Incidentul petrecut deasupra Insulelor Hebride, atunci cand o explozie puternica, petrecuta deasupra Atlanticului, a starnit panica in randul populatiei, explozia nefiind parte a vreunui experiment efectuat de armata britanica.

Sursa: BBC

 

16 august 2010

Brazilia porneste in urmarirea extraterestrilor

 

 

Guvernul brazilian a cerut reprezentatilor fortelor aeriene braziliene sa inregistreze si sa arhiveze absolut orice fenomen ce ar avea legatura cu aparitia obiectelor zburatoare neidentificate. Decretul autoritatilor vizeaza atat pilotii militari cat si pe cei civili si chiar controlorii de trafic, in timp ce informatiile obtinute de la acestia vor fi stocate in Arhiva Nationala din Rio de Janeiro si vor vor putea fi accesate de catre absolut orice persoana interesata.

"Fortele aeriene braziliene nu detin inca tehnologia necesara pentru a intreprinde experimente stiintifice asupra acestor fenomene. Pana la acel moment, vom incerca insa sa inregistram toate fenomenele suspecte", a anuntat un oficial al guvernului brazilian.

 

In ultimele decenii au fost semnalate numeroase incidente ce au avut in prim plan obiecte zburatoare neidentificate. Un incident de notorietate este cel din anul 1986, an in care mai multe avioane de lupta au fost ridicate de la sol pentru a investiga aparitia mai multor OZN-uri deasupra orasului Sao Paolo. Fenomenul nu a fost niciodata pe deplin explicat. De asemenea, in orasul Vigia de la malul Amazonului, in anul 1977, localnicii au cerut insistent ajutorul fortelor militare, sustinand ca asezarea a fost victima unor atacuri venite din partea unor extraterestri.

 

Pasionatii fenomenelor OZN au salutat decizia guvernului brazilian si spera ca exemplul acestuia va fi preluat si catre autoritatile altor tari, in incercarea de a descifra tainele acestor fenomene misterioase.

 

Sursa: BBC

16 noiembrie 2010

Stenogramele OZN: Dovezi ale existentei extraterestrilor II

Foto (6)

In urma Disclosure Project, demarat in 1993 de Steven M. Greer in Statele Unite, peste 500 de martori, fosti demnitari, militari, ofiteri de informatii si cercetatori, s-au prezentat la National Press Club din Washington DC pentru a confirma existenta formelor de viata extraterestre si a tehnologiei UFO. Greutatea acestor marturii evidentiaza realitatea fenomenului UFO, comenta Greer, convins - in urma analizarii informatiilor adunate – ca exista motive foarte precise in spatele misterului din jurul aliensilor si a vointei autoritatilor de a nu admite oficial prezenta lor pe planeta noastra.

- Seful FBI, J. Edgar Hoover, scrie acest memo dupa incidentul de la Roswell, in 1947, ca raspuns la ordinul de guvern de a tine FBI-ul departe de afacerea OZN: "As vrea sa fac acest lucru, dar inainte de a ma conforma noi trebuie sa insistam pe accesul total la discurile recuperate. De exemplu, in cazul lui La, armata l-a sustras si nu ne-a permis nici macar un examen superficial". In 1949, intr-un document FBI se mai afirma: "OZN sunt considerate top secret de ofiterii de informatii din cadrul armatei si aeronauticii militare".

- Locotenentul Walter Haut, ofiter de la biroul de presa al Roswell Army Air Base: "Eram efectiv in posesia unui disc zburator, a fost gasit intr-un ranch la nord de Roswell. Informatia mi-a fost transmisa de colonelul Blanchard. Acoperirea a fost orchestrata foarte eficient si rapid de la Washington prin diferite canale. Trebuia sa spunem ca era totul fals, ca era doar un balon meteorologic".

- Harry S. Truman, presedinte SUA: "Pot sa va asigur ca discurile zburatoare, in ipoteza ca ele exista, nu sunt construite de nicio putere de pe Terra".

 

 

- Robert McLaughlin, responsabil cu Cercetarea Balistica a USAF si comandant al bazei White Sands din New Mexico,1949: "Discurile zburatoare nu au nicio legatura cu niciun experiment facut de cercetatorii americani sau de oricine altcineva pe Terra. Daca aceste lucruri sunt adevarate, ele provin de pe o alta planeta, unde creaturile sunt mult mai avansate decat noi in utilizarea stiintei".

- Dr. H. Marshall Chadwell, asistent-sef al Biroului de Informatii Stiintifice al CIA, 1952: "Detectarea unor obiecte inexplicabile la mare altitudine, care calatoresc cu viteze mari in proximitatea instalatiilor de aparare ale SUA sunt de o asemenea natura incat nu pot fi atribuite unor fenomene naturale sau unor tipuri de avioane cunoscute.

- Lord Hugh Dowding, ofiter, comandant al Royal Air Force in timpul celui de-al Doilea Razboi Mondial, declara in 1954 : "Cu siguranta, OZN sunt reale si sunt de origine interplanetara. Dovezile acumulate cu privire la existenta lor sunt o multime, iar eu accept realitatea existentei lor. Peste 10.000 de aparitii OZN au fost raportate, majoritatea neputand fi explicate facand apel la vreo explicatie stiintifica, si nici utilizand faptul ca au fost halucinatii, reflexii, meteoriti, roti cazute din avioane si alte asemenea. Aceste OZN au fost semnalate pe ecranele radarelor, iar vitezele observate erau de peste 14.481 km/ora (9000 mph). Sunt convins ca aceste obiecte exista si ca nu au fost fabricate de natiuni de pe Terra. Eu nu vad alta alternativa decat acceptarea faptului ca sunt de natura extraterestra."

- Allen Dulles, sef CIA, 1955: "Tema OZN este strict secreta".

- Generalul Douglas MacArthur, 1955: "Natiunile lumii vor trebui sa faca front comun, avand in vedere ca urmatorul razboi va unul interplanetar."

- Generalul Benjamin Chidlaw de la Comandamentul Apararii Aeriene (Air Defense Command): "Noi detinem o mare cantitate de rapoarte pe tema discurilor zburatoare. Le analizam cu seriozitate din moment ce am pierdut multi oameni si avioane in incercarea de a le intercepta."

 

 

- Amiralul S. Fahrney, seful Departamentului de control al proiectilelor balistice din Marina Americana, 1957: "Potrivit unor informatii din surse de incredere, in atmosfera ajung obiecte controlate de inteligente constiente. Niciun vehicul, nici in Statele Unite nici in Uniunea Sovietica, nu este in clipa de fata capabil sa atinga vitezele atribuite acestor obiecte de radare si tehnicieni. Potrivit rapoartelor, aceste obiecte zboara in formatie si fac manevre care par a indica faptul ca nu sunt complet controlate de un echipament automat. Aceste obiecte sunt incontestabil rezultatul unor cercetari indelungate si al unui ansamblu de cunostinte tehnologice exceptionale".

- William H. Ayres, membru in Congresul SUA, 1958: "Investigatiile comisiilor Congresului sunt inca ferme legat de problema OZN, una in masura sa starneasca un mare interes. Deoarece mare parte din materialul prezentat comisiilor este clasificat,s sedintele nu au fost niciodata inregistrate".

- Capitanul Kervendal, Jandarmeria Frantei: "Se intampla ceva in spatiile aeriene ce noi nu putem intelege. Daca toti pilotii civili si militari care au vazut OZN si uneori le-au urmarit au suferit de halucinatii, atunci la foarte multi piloti ar trebui sa li se interzica sa zboare."

- Inginerul Wilbert Smith, seful Proiectului Magnet, prima ancheta a guvernului canadian pe tema OZN, in anii '50: "Chestiunea OZN este lucrul cel mai secret pentru guvernul SUA, mai secret chiar decat Bomba H. Discurile zburatoare exista. Modul lor de a opera este necunoscut, dar un studiu aprofundat a fost facut de un mic grup condus de Dr. Vannevar Bush. Intreaga chestiune este considerata de autoritatile americane de o importanta enorma".

- Vice-Amiralul R.H. Hillenkoetter, Comandant al Intelligence-ului in Pacific, in timpul Celui de-al Doilea Razboi Mondial, si ulterior sef al CIA, declara in 1960: "In culise, ofiterii de rang inalt din Air Force sunt serios ingrijorati in ceea ce priveste OZN. Dar printr-o politica oficiala de secretizare si ridiculizare, multi cetateni sunt inclinati sa creada ca OZN ar fi niste prostii."

 

 

- Colonelul Joseph J. Bryan III, fondator al unui departament dedicat razboaielor psihologice in cadrul CIA, asistent special al secretarului Air Force, consultant al NATO: "Aceste OZN sunt aparate interplanetare care tin sistematic sub observatie Terra, si sunt pilotate de echipaje sau controlate la distanta."

- Barry Goldwater, senator SUA si general al Air Force Reserve: "Cu siguranta eu cred ca exista extraterestrii in spatiu, si ca ei fac cu adevarat vizite pe planeta noastra. Ei ar putea sa nu fie ca noi, iar eu cred ca sunt avansati dincolo de orice imaginatie."

- Colonelul Hayashi, comandant al Air Transport Wing din cadrul Air Self-Defense Force a Japoniei, anii '60: "Existenta OZN este imposibil de negat…e foarte ciudat ca n-am reusit sa le identificam originea dupa 20 de ani de cercetari".

- Air Marshall Nurjadin Roesmin, comandant sef al Fortelor Aeriene indoneziene in 1967: "OZN detectate in Indonezia sunt identice cu cele detectate de alte natiuni. Uneori ridica probleme in ceea ce priveste apararea noastra aeriana si intr-o imprejurare am fost obligati sa deschidem focul asupra lor."

- Generalul Lionel M Chassin, Fortele Aeriene Franceze, coordonator al Apararii Fortelor Aeriene ale tarilor membre NATO: "Numarul de persoane rationale, inteligente si educate, in deplinatatea facultatilor mintale, care au declarat ca <au vazut ceva> si au descris acel lucru creste pe zi ce trece. Noi putem in mod categoric sa spunem ca obiecte misterioase au aparut incontestabil si apar si in continuaare pe cer".

- Gerald Ford, presedinte SUA: "Recomand cu tarie constituirea unei comisii de investigare a fenomenului OZN. Cred ca le datoram oamenilor credibilizarea OZN si trebuie sa producem cat mai multe clarificari posibile pe aceasta tema."

 

 

- Jimmy Carter, presedinte SUA: "Sunt convins ca OZN exista deoarece am vazut unul. Era lucrul cel mai straniu pe care l-am vazut vreodata, era enorm, foarte luminos, si isi schimba culoarea. Un lucru e sigur: nu voi mai glumi niciodata pe seama celor care spun ca au vazut un OZN pe cer".

- Michail Gorbaciov, ultimul presedinte al URSS, 1990: :"Fenomenul OZN este real si trebuie tratat cu seriozitate".

- Ronald Reagan, 1988, urcand in avion: "Daca mi se va intampla ceva, ei bine, eu sper ca toate popoarele de pe Terra se vor uni in cazul unei invazii extraterestre".

- Lordul Hill-Norton, Ministru al Apararii Marii Britanii, Seful Comisiei militare NATO, amiral al Flotei britanice: "Am fost frecvent intrebat de ce o persoana cu background-ul meu, ministru al Apararii si sef al Comisiei Militare NATO, crede ca exista o musamalizare a faptelor privitoare la OZN. Guvernele se tem ca daca ar dezvalui aceste fapte oamenii ar intra in panica, dar eu nu cred ca acest lucru s-ar intampla. Exista o probabilitate mare ca noi sa fim vizitati de fiinte extraterestre. De noi depinde sa descoperim cine sunt, de unde vin si ce vor".

- Colonelul Philip Corso, consilier pentru Siguranta Nationala in timpul mandatului lui Eisenhower: "Razboiul impotriva OZN a continuat vreme de peste 50 de ani, pe parcursul carora am incercat sa ne aparam de invaziile lor."; "Noi - Statele Unite si URSS - stiam ca adevaratul obiectiv al SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative, "scutul stelar") erau OZN, navele extraterestre care faceau netulburate incursiuni in atmosfera noastra, distrugandu-ne sistemele de comunicatii, deregland zborurile spatiale, mutiland animale in oribilele lor experimente biologice, rapind fiinte umane in experimente medicale si de hibridizare a speciei…si ceea ce este cel mai grav este ca le-am permis sa le faca deoarece nu aveam arme pentru a ne apara".

- Paul Hellyer, fost Ministru al Apararii Canadei (intre 1963 si 1967 a participat la reuniunile cu usile inchise ale Aliantei Atlantice): "O declar public pentru prima oara: ceea ce numim obiecte zburatoare neidentificate este real, iar lumea ar trebui sa stie acest lucru, din cauza implicatiilor existentei acestora si a faptului ca ne tin sub observatie planeta de mai bine de o jumatate de secol. Intentionez sa demasc musamalizarea pusa in act de guvern cu privire la descoperirile derivate din cercetarile asupra tehnologiei extraterestre. Sunt cu adevarat ingrijorat de consecintele unui razboi intergalactic care ar putea izbucni in orice moment."

 

 

- Acelasi Paul Hellyer, intr-o declaratie ulterioara: "OZN zboara de peste jumatate de secol in totala libertate in vazduhurile planetei, guvernul Statelor Unite dezvolta arme secrete pentru a face fata posibile atacuri provenite din cosmos, in orice moment ar putea izbucni un razboi intergalactic si adevaratul motiv pentru care NASA a primit ordinul de a realiza o baza pe Luna pana in 2020 este intentia Casei Albe de a monitoriza de aproape vehiculele extraterestre care vin si pleaca de pe Terra".

- In 2008, Paul Hellyer a revenit asupra temei OZN, declarand: "In urma cu cateva zeci de ani, vizitatori de pe alte planete ne-au avertizat cu privire la directia in care am pornit-o, si s-au oferit sa ne ajute. Insa noi, sau cel putin unii dintre noi, am interpretat vizitele lor drept o amenintare, si am decis ca mai intai sa tragem asupra lor si apoi sa punem intrebari. Rezultatul a fost ca unele dintre avioanele noastre au disparut; dar cate disparitii au fost represalii si cate au fost o consecinta a prostiei noastre este un lucru controversat."

 

Tastati http://www.youtube.com la fiecare din adresele: /watch?v=7vyVe-6YdUk;/watch?v=XlkV1ybBnHI.

 

28 noiembrie 2010

Cele mai importante 15 incidente OZN din ultimul an de zile

Foto (6)

Ultimul an de zile a fost, parca, mai condimentat in incidente OZN decat oricare altul: nu a trecut saptamana fara ca, undeva pe glob, cineva sa nu raporteze observarea unui obiect zburator neidentificat. Daca pana acum, in cadrul acestui maraton, am analizat o parte a cazurilor clasice, celebre ale cazuisticii OZN, in acest articol va propunem o recapitulare a trecutului foarte apropiat. Initial, am dorit sa prezentam acest material sub forma unui top; am ales, in cele din urma, criteriul cronologic, invitandu-va insa pe voi sa apreciati care a fost cel mai important eveniment OZN, prin sondajul de la sfarsit.

Decembrie 2009: OZN piramidal deasupra Kremlinului

Pe 18 decembrie, anul trecut, un Obiect Zburător Neidentificat (OZN), de forma unei piramide, a fost surprins in Piata Rosie, deasupra Palatului Kremlin din Moscova, cu ajutorul a doua înregistrări video, una nocturna si una diurna, care au şocat Rusia. Mii de martori au vazut acest obiect care se aseamana cu naveta spatiala Imperial Cruiser din " Razboiul Stelelor". Expertii care au analizat clipurile estimeaza ca OZN-ul este urias, avand o lungime de aproximativ 1,6 km. Clipurile au fost difuzate la toate emisiunile de ştiri ale posturilor de televiziune din Rusia, dar politia moscovita a dezmintit sec speculatia referitoare la existenta unui OZN; nu a oferit nicio alta explicatie. Citeste pe larg despre OZN-ul piramidal de la Kremlin!

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Ianuarie 2010: OSN fotografiat în timp ce ieşea din oceanul Atlantic

Mai multi locuitori din Harbour Mille, un orasel din provincia canadiana Newfoundland, au fost martorii aparitiei unui OSN - obiect subacvatic neidentificat - in seara zilei de 24 ianuarie 2010. O localnica, Darlene Stewart, care se afla pe faleza si fotografia apusul a imortalizat obiectul: acesta are forma unei rachete si se deplaseaza cu o viteza uluitoare. Alta localnica, Emmy Pardy, martora oculara, sustine ca OSN-ul a iesit din ocean, chiar din mijlocul golfului. Citeste pe larg despre OSN-ul din Atlantic!

 

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Ianuarie 2010: OZN triunghiular in Irlanda

Un nou OZN piramidal a fost surprins in noaptea de 28 spre 29 ianuarie, in timp ce zbura cu mare viteza pe deasupra raului Liffey din Dublin. "Pare a fi o nava spatiala care se misca extrem de rapid. Configuratia luminilor este diferita de a oricarui alt dispozitiv de zbor pe care l-am vazut vreodata. Este fie un prototip secret, fie o naveta extraterestra", a decarat presei expertul Nick Pope, fost analist OZN in cadrul Ministerului Apararii din Marea Britanie. Citeste pe larg despre OZN-ul triunghiular din Irlanda!

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Martie 2010: OZN-uri deasupra lacului nord-american Erie

Eugene Erlikh, un tanar in varsta de 20 de ani, declara ca a fost martorul a numeroase aparitii OZN care au avut loc in zona oraselului Euclid, situat langa lacul Erie, care desparte Canada de Statele Unite ale Americii. 5 nopti la rand, intre 2 si 7 martie 2010, tanarul a observat OZN-uri deasupra lacului, reusind sa faca fotografii si sa le filmeze. In 2007, un grup numeros de martori oculari semnalau OZN-uri in aceeasi locatie. Citeste pe larg despre OZN-ul din nordul SUA!

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Aprilie 2010: Avioane de vanatoare britanice, pe urmele unui OZN

Pe 12 aprilie, un cameraman amator a filmat, vreme de 30 de secunde, cu telefonul mobil, in regiunea britanica West Midlands, deasupra autostrazii M5, doua avioane de vanatoare aflate in urmarirea unui obiect zburator neidentificat. Expertul in ufologie Nick Pope a lansat ipoteza ca OZN-ul din imagini ar putea fi o noua drona, fapt ce ar explica prezenta avioanele militare. "Dar, de obicei, nu se testeaza proiecte secrete in timpul zilei, pe autostrada. De aceea, exista alternativa ca ceea ce vedem in film sa fie, intr-adevar, un OZN". Ministerul Apararii din Regatul Unit a refuzat sa comenteze eventimentul. Citeste pe larg despre OZN-ul urmarit de fortele aeriene britanice!

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Iulie 2010: OZN-uri filmate cu telefonul deasupra Marii Britanii

Doua turiste chineze care vizitau Anglia au filmat, pe 6 iulie, cu telefonul mobil, mai multe obiecte zburatoare neidentificate, care survolau oraselul britanic Reading, din regiunea Berkshire. Lizzie Zuown Tang si de Jo Mingijao Xue pretind ca au identificat 21 de OZN-uri deasupra orasului Reading, in intervalul orar 4:45 AM si 5:53 AM. Misterioasele obiecte zburatoare neidentificate erau de forma unor sageti indreptate spre directia de zbor, dar care se si roteau in jurul axei proprii pe masura ce avansau si erau complet silentioase. Citeste pe larg despre OZN-ul filmat cu mobilul!

 

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Iulie 2010: OZN in timpul eclipsei totale de soare din 2009

La inceputul lui iulie 2010, televiziunile din China au dat publicitatii un film vechi de 1 an de zile, care a fost realizat de oamenii de stiinta de la Observatorul Astronomic din Nanjing, pe 22 iulie 2009, cu ocazia eclipsei totale de soare din acel an. In filmarea de 40 de minute, se distinge foarte clar un OZN care se misca cu o viteza ametitoare si este capabil sa isi schimbe forma si culoarea. Citeste pe larg despre OZN-ul din timpul eclipsei!

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Iulie 2010: Un OZN a inchis un aeroport chinez

Pe 11 iulie, seara, aeroportul din Xiaoshan, un oras din estul provinciei Hangzhou din China a fost inchis urgent, dupa ce o nava aeriana de provenienta necunoscuta a fost detectata de radarele controlorilor de trafic. OZN-ul extrem de stralucitor a fost vazut si cu ochiul liber de numerosi martori civili. Pentru ca OZN-ul nu a raspuns incercarilor de comunicare radio, responsabilii aeroportului au amanat toate zborurile si au deviat restul curselor. Obiectul zburator a disparut in mare viteza de abia cand a fost interceptat de avioanele de vanatoare chinezesti. Citeste pe larg despre OZN-ul care a inchis un aeroport in China!

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August 2010: Churchill a ordonat tacere totala în legătură cu apariţiile OZN-urilor!

Fostul premier britanic Winston Churchill ordonase păstrarea secretului în legătură cu apariţia OZN-urilor în timpul celui de-al II-lea Război Mondial, pentru a evita panica în rândul populaţiei, arată un raport al Ministerului Apărării din Marea Britanie, care a fost declasificat la inceputul lunii august, 2010. Spre sfârşitul războiului, numeroase rapoarte ale pilotilor si generalilot de aviatie din Forţele Regale britanice semnalau intalnirea cu OZN-uri. "Aceste evenimente trebuie considerate strict-secrete, pentru că s-ar crea panică în rândul populaţiei şi s-ar reduce încrederea în Biserică", a decretat Churchill. Citeste pe larg despre incredibilele dosarele OZN din vremea lui Churchill!

 

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August 2010: Brazilia impotriva extraterestrilor

In mijlocul verii, guvernul brazilian a cerut fortelor aeriene braziliene sa inregistreze si sa arhiveze absolut orice fenomen care are legatura cu aparitia obiectelor zburatoare neidentificate. Decretul autoritatilor vizeaza atat pilotii militari, cat si pe cei civili, iar informatiile vor fi stocate in Arhiva Nationala din Rio de Janeiro si vor fi publice. Brazilia s-a confruntat cu incidente UFO de notorietate in ultimii 50 de ani: precum cel din 1986, cand doua escadrile de avioane de lupta au fost ridicate de la sol pentru a investiga aparitia mai multor OZN-uri deasupra orasului Sao Paolo. Citeste pe larg despre decizia Braziliei de a vana OZN-uri!

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Septembrie 2010: OZN-urile ne dezactiveaza armele nucleare de peste 60 de ani!

Un grup format din 120 de veterani ai U.S. Air Force a rupt tacerea, in septembrie 2010, sustinand in mass media ca, inca din 1948, extraterestrii au survolat zonele de lansare a rachetelor nucleare din SUA si Marea Britanie, dezactivand focoasele si chiar aterizand, la un moment dat, intr-o baza britanica. Fostul capitan american Robert Salas declara ca a fost personal martor unui astfel de eveniment, in data de 16 martie 1967, la Baza Aeriana Malmstrom, din Montana. Mai mult, adauga veteranii, guvernele musamalizeaza, inca de atunci, existenta extraterestrilor. Citeste pe larg despre dezvaluirile veteranilo U.S. Air Force!

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Octombrie 2010: Din nou, un OZN inchide spatiul aerian chinez!

Pe 5 octombrie, controlorii de trafic de pe aeroportul national Hoot din regiunea chineza Mongolia Interioara au detectat un obiect zburator neidentificat, care nu a raspuns incercarilor de contact radio. Dupa cateva minute, a disparut si a aparut in aceeasi regiune, langa localitatea Bootee - unde a fost observat de cativa martori oculari, care au descris OZN-ul "plat si tubular". Trei zboruri de pasageri au fost redirectionate, pentru a nu se intalni cu OZN-ul, iar spatiul aerian din Mongolia Interioara a fost inchis cateva ore. Citeste pe larg despre OZN-ul din China!

 

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Octombrie 2010: Incidentul de la New York

Pe 13 octombrie, sute de martori oculari au observat, in zona Chelsea din Manhattan, un obiect stralucitor misterios, care s-a desprins, ulterior, in mai multe corpuri distincte, care au survolat New York-ul. Atat politia, cat si Administratia Aviatica Federala au fost asaltate cu apeluri, in jurul orei 13:30, din partea cetatenilor alarmati. Twitter-ul a fost asaltat de mesaje conform carora un fost ofiter NORAD prezisese, inca din septembrie, aparitia unor OZN-uri, pe 13 octombrie 2010, in jurul marilor orase ale planetei. Explicatia oficiala a fost aceea ca OZN-urile nu au fost altceva decat niste baloane cu heliu, de mari dimensiuni. Citeste pe larg despre incidentul OZN de la New York!

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Octombrie 2010: Incidentul din Texas

In noaptea zilei de 21 octombrie, mai multe lumini ciudate au aparut pe cerul orasului texan El Paso. Imagini filmate de martorii oculari ilustreaza un obiect stralucitor, care se divide, ulterior, in trei corpuri distinctie. Ceea ce a uimit opinia publica este asemanarea frapanta cu incidentul new-yorkez: tiparul triunghiular, identic, prin care obiectul mare se divide. Citeste pe larg despre incidentul OZN din Texas!

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Noiembrie 2010: OZN-ul triunghiular revine!

Pe 14 noiembrie, in jurul orei 22:15, cateva zeci de locuitori ai oraselului britanic Tripton au fost martorii aparitiei unui OZN triunghiular. Conform declaratiilor, dintr-o data, pe cer au aparut trei puncte extrem de luminoase, dispuse in forma triunghiulara, care se deplasau la unison si cu viteza foarte mare. Dupa un timp, intregul obiect a devenit vizibil, fiind de aproximativ patru ori mai mare decat dimensiunea unui avion comercial de pasageri. Ufologii britanici afirma ca este a treia oara, in trei ani consecutivi, cand acest OZN apare in Marea Britanie. Citeste pe larg despre OZN-ul triunghiular din Marea Britanie!

 

Nihil sine Deo! = Nimic fara Dumnezeu (Iahweh-Tatal, Iisus Hristos-Fiul si Duhul Sfant, Trei Persoane intr-o singura Fiinta Divina)!

Sfantul Apostol si Evanghelist Ioan: "Dumnezeu este Iubire si Lumina."

Sfantul Apostol si Epistolist Pavel: "Si acum au ramas acestea trei: Credinta, Nadejdea si Dragostea. Dar cea mai mare este Dragostea."

Iisus Hristos: „Eu sunt Calea (catre Tatal), Adevarul si Viata (vesnica).”

Petre Tutea: "Intelectul e dat omului, dupa parerea mea, nu ca sa cunoasca Adevarul, ci ca sa primeasca Adevarul."

Arbeit macht Frei! = Munca te face Liber!, adica Munca rasplatita corespunzator iti ofera Libertatea! (pentru ca obtii bani cu care iti poti satisface necesitatile, caci nu te poti numi cu adevarat Liber cand suferi de foame si de frig, nu-ti poti permite sa te casatoresti, sa procreezi, sa cresti si sa asiguri educatia (mai ales patriotica, morala si crestina) pentru doi copii (pentru aceasta fiind necesare opt ore de munca la servici si nu douasprezece ore), care asigura mentinerea populatiei, dar ai "libertatea" sa strigi ca guvernarea sistemului social in care oferta locurilor de munca, numarul de ore de munca pe zi si al zilelor de munca pe saptamana si remuneratia se face dupa placul patronilor, iar sindicatele nu exista in toate profesiile si nu au putere, este o guvernare proasta, care trebuie schimbata, deoarece impune impozite mari si nu investeste in industrie si agricultura, insa daca iesi in strada cu majoritatea poporului impotriva ei, trage in majoritate cu tunuri cu apa, gloante de cauciuc, gaze lacrimogene si loveste cu bulane, uitand ca tot ea garanteaza prin Constitutie ca in democratie majoritatea hotaraste!)

Blazonul Templierilor: Simbolul Libertatii totale, sentimentul Puterii si al Dreptatii.

Sieg Heil! = Victorie deplina! (crestinismului bimilenar: ortodox, romano-catolic, greco-catolic, armean, copt, maronit)

Meine Ehre heibt Treue! = Onoarea mea se numeste loialitatea! (fata de crestinismul bimilenar: ortodox, romano-catolic, greco-catolic, armean, copt, maronit)

Kraft durch Freude! = Forta prin Bucurie! (prin practicarea culturismului, halterelor, power-liftingului si strong-manului)

Tastati http://www.youtube.com la fiecare din adresele: despre culturism: /watch?v=mzpUE8GZuDs;/watch?v=yDWbfumx2Rk;/watch?v=-5om6gbDwA8;/watch?v=k-O7CfGD75c;/watch?v=vljWc25dDJM;/watch?v=22aeFFxzVvY;/watch?v=MpmpolK9AxQ; despre cum se ridica singur o motocicleta, cat si despre de ce e mai bine sa ai motocicleta cu atas, in afara de avantajul ca are trei ocupanti: /watch?v=2ZPOD9dbMpo;tastati http://www.imz-ural.com/downloads la fiecare din adresele:/movies.htm;/cartoons.aspx;/brochures.htm; despre farfurii zburatoare: /watch?v=7vyVe-6YdUk;/watch?v=XlkV1ybBnHI;/watch?v=a_7d_cVJq3M;/watch?v=pKyNlq_97a0;/watch?v=EeX1v6IZC5g;/watch?v=ocqxlAurZCg;/watch?v=jWg42jPU-tg;/watch?v=krLAf07C-EU;/watch?v=iZ2-hQNmeeM;/watch?v=s10i1MJ9IO0;/watch?v=3IRagx-zJQo;/watch?v=MvtxjSrImHw;/watch?v=plobeztWLLo;/watch?v=29LKdm_j8fc;/watch?v=noKm-3fGcYU;/watch?v=mtZd5ciMNqs;/watch?v=92kY9zY7mHI;/watch?v=c3FhuZNYOyQ;/watch?v=33U8r8tK9hE;/watch?v=cWdD5SaqeDc;/watch?v=7u6CopX29ko;/watch?v=QUmgYm_qqcY;/watch?v=pI9bU16fa5I;/watch?v=8QWk_U31eEY;/watch?v=lhVM_Ssk7aI;/watch?v=8M81_FRbTLc;/watch?v=zPXLLz-IRAs;/watch?v=spWK1qXrtyg;/watch?v=d3oH92AZTPo;/watch?v=XMWD6lKxz64;/watch?v=qPI5aGCmX7Q; despre VW Beetle, Romania Mare intre 1 decembrie 1918 si 1940, eliberarea Basarabiei la 22 iunie 1941, inclusiv sudul ei, adica Bugeacul, cu judetele Izmail, Cahul si Cetatea Alba, cat si nordul Bucovinei, tinutul Hertei si Insula Serpilor (tastati http://ro.wikipedia.org si adugati /wiki/Insula_%C8%98erpilor), dezvaluirile unui fost rabin devenit calugar ortodox (http://www.box.net/shared/pins0b0ex4), aromanii din Cadrilater, sau Deliorman, adica judetele Durostor si Caliacra, motociclete de razboi (inclusiv cu senile) si tancuri Panzer (VI Tiger I si VI Tiger II sau Konigstiger): /watch?v=ATbFE_3Lqb0;/watch?v=rrLjYqCuNXw;/watch?v=yE3LELgqFRk;/watch?v=unBiP23skys;/watch?v=YnmdzfmHsVg;/watch?v=MMt7SpXB5ew;/watch?v=-npfzpdHZMA;/watch?v=8SPAKguPvDM;/watch?v=rJ2WJ-PNZD0;/watch?v=bnTq9SFvb4o;/watch?v=wItjXS90q5I;/watch?v=7ispoJffV1o;/watch?v=5lwR_BarBdI;/watch?v=Z1CDi5HTM7U;/watch?v=T3GBvdpj-OE;/watch?v=rup9DPT0jZw;/watch?v=RPBRthGsWN0;/watch?v=trWZSwWByHE;/watch?v=mmr0Pk1jFcQ;/watch?v=P51VrdKlR1Y;/watch?v=A8rdfZ4jodw;/watch?v=-ruJ7GcsJJ0;/watch?v=P1uv5gW_kU8;/watch?v=6V_Uah-pGqw;/watch?v=8WynaHBMkbc;/watch?v=5d-Vo2tYuBk;/watch?v=1-FY-ul7uew;/watch?v=JHevRCCyz50;/watch?v=AVB5GxUnHSM;/watch?v=rc2OhoUmTKU;/watch?v=3c0Egc2ILjQ;/watch?v=N1erTM1-cd8;/watch?v=_ClU779W6S8;/watch?v=3bCcvlAAlTE;/watch?v=yHW601koVmM;/watch?v=RrXwTCe3wFY;/watch?v=WrrS3SuNeAQ;/watch?v=anEDLsazfjo;/watch?v=1C6ZXlZw5To;/watch?v=l_cW0GUmZxw;/watch?v=ZAMTv8SZef0;/watch?v=pWxh0zqSCyc;/watch?v=oYQyqgZBJgQ;/watch?v=8tusCV9sPzo;/watch?v=IRS30A-1HD4;/watch?v=NiyY9Gl4G70;/watch?v=4LpX8ZxyiRw;/watch?v=3bCcvlAAlTE;/watch?v=Py8AjcKHOU8;/watch?v=eL9U8loheP8;/watch?v=1kHyhchE6b4;/watch?v=8Gei4HjGFuQ;/watch?v=YD64E8X1vsc;/watch?v=F3vyF7ZDtpo;/watch?v=eI1QAJW5pIE; /watch?v=1wRNhMR0Ysg;/watch?v=bcaBdGkFYzw;/watch?v=pEhzcfuhRrg;/watch?v=AFnDp1XJWz8;/watch?v=CbhSgvYZERA;/watch?v=-GiHwFkYMeY;/watch?v=TDquK_gFtVg;/watch?v=0EA1-56H0uM;/watch?v=rYmWeBaHL6s;/watch?v=XU_dVBZriXs;/watch?v=EUgjtVDiWyI;/watch?v=eFJ2z8pvwiA;/watch?v=7jS09TT_ZGE;/watch?v=7-teYDFKf5w;/watch?v=dOFFJZu-npk;/watch?v=F3vyF7ZDtpo;/watch?v=6r3jNykCNTo;/watch?v=1socOem26Aw;/watch?v=iVdKT2aVFoo;/watch?v=IpwzXRiLzTA;/watch?v=iZ2-hQNmeeM;/watch?v=HnhUX78_YuU;/watch?v=-pYVmn2LJAc;/watch?v=yL0h19ci6dw;/watch?v=3v1wwVj5H70;/watch?v=Bdl8pJ8RqTQ;/watch?v=BPWncbPPtio;/watch?v=Aj_-_svR_7w;/watch?v=K3ocpCPZBnM;/watch?v=_JpX_H2D62w;/watch?v=ipZFY4v6_3U;/watch?v=i2vtMajyZ10;/watch?v=VTxy7Vgj3kY;/watch?v=gY86ADsJvcY;/watch?v=VeBYqL8nuSw;/watch?v=INkSWBHN_Kc;/watch?v=RFH8m-_Nd2I;/watch?v=ehl6F90rj3U;/watch?v=JxiE-B6kuC8;/watch?v=n5tT3UZUre0;/watch?v=He5AiGFBROw;/watch?v=bETNsylXhuM;/watch?v=PsWl1l632N4;/watch?v=d8nfot5Mb2E;/watch?v=RwfITSdtnvQ;/watch?v=iBhSCPIZGEA;/watch?v=ul7otLd1z_o;/watch?v=EmvjJFS4L-U;/watch?v=6J5B_LLFWEs;/watch?v=_z44oANVaAc;/watch?v=H8Qyo-2GWuA;/watch?v=AMqNhYVFgNE;/watch?v=TWwnTYmUH2o; despre Mr Bean: /watch?v=P9_6lMFYVjg;watch?v=T_3e5KUVdkI;/watch?v=xLvMC1YACI4;/watch?v=II1U85lzkQ;/watch?v=zHtCNhABlLw;/watch?v=ECeRhqqVGT0;/watch?v=F1HCj34uOjg;/watch?v=RGbSAz4r0yg;/watch?v=VDWf4SzFYq0;/watch?v=A6um_vXaQOQ;/watch?v=nifdpFOY1FQ;/watch?v=IdZm-o4oJ_M;/watch?v=usj0ZCJLKiI;/watch?v=6n5oi2lmX9s;/watch?v=irpQGocO72E; despre motocicletele BMW K1200LT si K1600GTL: /watch?v=mRfcYY6YiYA;/watch?v=2cB_9H7NtT0;/watch?v=4s-V0E7WhY0;/watch?v=DZgO-wsxwvw;/watch?v=1MBYM0fUFJA;/watch?v=f7VWr67S9DM;/watch?v=TjWmtZCKbHg;/watch?v=Nv5dsPnbVcw;/watch?v=vaik_ZTcr-w;/watch?v=XYJacrgaEEg;/watch?v=q4U_m72m8Jw;/watch?v=OH4yluYwwJA;/watch?v=Xd_kMZEuwh4;/watch?v=H6G_T4lnBBA;/watch?v=Bsdzdm35lbI;/watch?v=1sP3cqKbOEs;/watch?v=nsJV6uKt-Xo. Daca nu merge vre-un link, stergeti terminatiile (daca apar) ce se afla in parantezele urmatoare: (...feature=related), (&feature=related), (...NR=1), sau (&NR=1).

 

Insula Șerpilor

De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă

Salt la: Navigare, căutare

 

Poziționare geografică

Nume:Insula Șerpilor

Amplasare:Europa de est

 

Țară:Ucraina

 

Poziția geografică: 45°15′N 30°12′E

 

Suprafața:0,17 km2

Altitudine:40 m

Lungime:662 m

Lățime:440 m

Populație:0

Mare/Mări:Marea Neagră

 

Insula Șerpilor (în limba ucraineană Острів Зміїний, în greacă antică Leuke, în greacă modernă Ofidonisi, în turcă Yilan Adasî) este o stânca/insulă din Marea Neagră care aparține Ucrainei. Ea se găsește în Marea Neagră, la 45 de km de țărmurile României și Ucrainei. Ea a fost ocupată de URSS la sfârșitul celui de-al doilea război mondial, cedată forțat de România comunistă în 1948 printr-un simplu proces-verbal secret semnat de Ana Pauker fără acceptul guvernului și fără consultarea poporului român[1], și e astăzi parte a Raionului Chilia (Кілія) al regiunii Odessa din Ucraina.

Cuprins

[ascunde]

•1 Localizare

•2 Geografia

•3 Legenda lui Achile

•4 Istoria insulei

o4.1 Situația insulei în epoca modernă

o4.2 Anexarea Insulei Șerpilor de către URSS în anul 1948

•5 Importanța strategică a Insulei Șerpilor

•6 Disputele dintre România și Ucraina

•7 Imagini recente din Insula Șerpilor

•8 Note

•9 Legături externe

 

[modifică] Localizare

Insula Șerpilor este o formațiune de roci localizată la circa 45 km la est de Delta Dunării (44.814 m de orașul Sulina), pe coordonatele 45°15'15" latitudine nordică și 30°12'12" longitudine estică.

Stânca este apropiată de partea ucraineană a Deltei Dunării. Cel mai apropiat punct de pe țărm este Insula Kubanskyi (Cobana) din Delta Chiliei, parte ucraineană a Deltei Dunării, localizată între Canalul Bâstroe și Canalul Vostocinoi. Cea mai apropiată localitate românească este orașul Sulina, aflat la 45 km. Cel mai apropiat oraș ucrainean este orașul Vâlcov, aflat la 50 km de insulă.

Stânca are forma unui X, de 662 metri pe 440 metri, acoperind o suprafață de 0.17 km2. Cel mai înalt punct de pe insulă este situat la 41 m deasupra nivelului mării.

[modifică] Geografia

 

 

Harta altimetrică a Insulei Șerpilor

 

 

Schiță a insulei

Suprafața insulei este de 170.000 m², adică 17 ha, perimetrul ei neregulat, având o lungime de 1.973 m, poate fi parcurs în circa 40 minute. Lungimea insulei, aproximativ în zona centrală, de la N la S, este de 440 m, iar de la E la V de 414 m. Urmând direcția NE-SV, inclusiv prin peninsula aflată în NE, avem cel mai lung diametru al insulei, de 662 m.

Altitudinile cresc, în general, dinspre zonele marginale către zona centrală unde se conturează un platou, relativ neted, pe care se înregistrează cota maximă de circa 40 m. Țărmurile înalte, terminate cu faleze dau insulei aspectul unei cetăți, înconjurată de ziduri înalte din piatră. Uscatul dobrogean nu poate fi zărit de pe insulă, dată fiind înălțimea redusă atât a ei, cât și a zonei continentale.

Înălțimea maximă a țărmurilor atinge 21 m, mai ales în S și E unde se termină cu faleze, având pante abrupte, prăpăstioase chiar. Atât țărmul de S, cât și cel de E are o linie sinuoasă, cu pătrunderi notabile în uscat, formând fiecare câte un golf, cu deschideri largi. Țărmul estic împreună cu cel nordic se prelungesc în mare, alcătuind în NE insulei o peninsulă, considerată a fi restul unei terase litorale, a cărei altitudine este de 12 m.

Țărmurile de N și de V sunt mult mai joase, abia dacă stâncile se ridică deasupra apelor mării. Țărmul nordic este sinuos, prezentînd un golf cu o mare deschidere, iar cel vestic are o sinuozitate foarte restrânsă, fiind aproape rectiliniu.

Adâncimile apei mării în apropierea țărmurilor sunt în general reduse: în Nord ele sunt de 5—6 m, în Sud de 13—23 m, în Est de 9—19 m, iar în Vest de 10—16 m.

Insula Șerpilor nu a avut în trecut o importanță deosebită din punct de vedere economic. Ea este formată din gresii silicoase, dure, conglomerate și cuarțite, care îi dau un aspect stâncos, la care se adaugă o vegetație de stepă și o floră sărace. În plus, nu dispune nici de surse de apa potabilă, ceea ce face imposibilă locuirea ei permanentă.

Șarpele de apă, care a dat numele insulei, avea o lungime de maximum 2 metri și era complet inofensiv, dar cu o înfățișare dezagreabilă. El a dispărut complet de pe insulă la mijlocul secolului al XX-lea, din cauza amplelor lucrări secrete desfășurate de sovietici.

Singura utilizare a Insulei Șerpilor în trecut era ca bază de pescuit. Importanța sa economică a crescut la începutul anilor 1980 odată cu descoperirea unor importante rezerve de petrol și gaze naturale în subsolul platoului continental din jurul insulei.

În noiembrie 2003, autoritățile ucrainiene au declarat Insula Șerpilor zonă de rezervație naturală, ca să demonstreze că locul poate oferi condiții pentru turism.

 

 

Eroul Achile după o sculptură de Lycomedes Borghese.

[modifică] Legenda lui Achile

Insula a fost denumită de către greci cu numele de Insula Leuce - Λευκός ("Insula Albă"). O denumire similară a fost dată de către romani care i-au spus Insula Alba, probabil din cauza faptului că au fost găsite pe insulă ruine de marmură albă.

Insula este pomenită pentru întâia oară în anul 777 înainte de Hristos. După mitologia greacă, zeița Thetis s-a rugat de Neptun (zeul mărilor) să scoată din adâncul mării o insulă pentru fiul ei Achile, erou al Troiei. În conformitate cu un poem epic despre războiul troian al lui Arctinus din Milet, rămășițele pământești ale lui Achile și Patrocle au fost aduse în această insulă de către zeița Thetis, pentru a fi puse într-un sanctuar.

Conform legendelor, în antichitate, grecii au construit aici un templu măreț în cinstea lui Ahile - erou al aheilor. De asemenea, aici ar fi fost și alte edificii în care locuiau preoții. Cercetările efectuate pe insulă în secolul al XIX-lea confirmă legendele, deoarece, în anul 1823, ruinele vestitului templu închinat lui Achile și alte vestigii din insulă au fost descoperite de căpitanul rus Kritzki. Alte descrieri ale templului le avem de la germanul Kohler. Vestigiile descoperite de cei doi au fost ulterior expuse în muzeele din țările lor.

Edificiul antic ar fi avut un diametru foarte mare, de formă pătrată, fiecare latură având 29,87 m. În partea de est a sanctuarului se afla templul închinat eroului Achile. Arhitectura templului și a altor vestigii din insulă era specifică epocii numită ciclopeană, asemănătoare celor din Tesalia și Tracia: ziduri formate din blocuri mari de piatră îmbinate fără ciment, iar calcarul din care au fost fasonate conferea construcției o culoare albă. Pe baza fragmentelor de construcție descoperite, templul lui Achille a fost un monument de artă, având lângă el mai multe camere, pentru funcționarea oracolului, precum și pentru depozitarea ofrandelor ce se aduceau eroului.

Acest templu este menționat de poetul roman Publius Ovidius Naso (care fusese exilat la Tomis) în versurile sale, precum și de geograful grec Ptolomeu și de istoricul grec Strabon. Filozoful grec Maximus din Tir (care a trăit în secolul al II-lea după Hristos), afirmă în lucrarea sa “Discuții“ că: “Achile locuiește într-o insulă drept în fața Istrului, în Marea Pontică. Acolo se află templul și altarele lui Achile...“

Geograful grec Ptolomeu (care a trăit în secolul I după Hristos) menționează în opera sa “Îndreptar geografic“ că: “Insulele situate în vecinătatea Moesiei Inferioare, în acea parte a Pontului pe care am pomenit-o, sunt: Boristene (la gurile Niprului, n.n.):57 grade, 15 minute - 47 grade, 40 minute și insula lui Achile sau Leuce (“Albă“)“.

Mai multe inscripții antice au fost găsite pe insulă, inclusiv un decret olbiopolitan (din orașul Olbia) datând din secolul al IV-lea înainte de Hristos care cere tuturor locuitorilor cetății Olbia să apere insula și să-i alunge pe pirații care locuiau pe "insula sacră".

Istoricul Gheorghe I. Brătianu (1898-1953), în lucrarea sa “Marea Neagră de la origini până la cucerirea otomană“ (2 vol., București, 1988), afirma prezența unor civilizații antice (ionieni, milesieni) pe litoralul Mării Negre. “Unul din popasurile cele mai vechi este cel din “insula Albă“, Leuke sau Achilleis, mică stâncă ce se înalță în plină mare în largul gurilor Dunării, și se numește astăzi Insula Șerpilor. Acest punct de escală al milesienilor era garnisit cu un sanctuar ridicat în cinstea lui Achile Pontarches, protectorul navigației și al comerțului. (...) Istoria lor, trasată cu ajutorul numeroaselor inscripții scoase la lumină de săpături, indică strânse contacte între aceste porturi ale litoralului, care păstrează caracterele principale ale civilizației urbane a Greciei antice și populației indigene ale hinterland-ului, geți sau sciți.“

O altă legendă se referă la faptul că în mitologia grecească Insula Leuke era considerată un loc paradisiac, o lume în care se refugiau sufletele morților. Astfel, o altă denumire atribuită de grecii antici este de Insula Makaron, adică “A fericiților“. Unii cercetători au mers și mai departe cu speculațiile, traducând termenul Atlantis prin Fericire. Această speculație a fost alimentată de faptul că nu departe de Insula Șerpilor, arheologii sovietici au descoperit impresionante ruine subacvatice atribuite atlanților, dar care, ca în multe alte părți ale Mării Negre (inclusiv în dreptul cazinoului din Constanța) sunt de fapt digurile porturilor antice, submerse de ridicarea nivelului mării[2].

[modifică] Istoria insulei

Din punct de vedere istoric, apartenența Insulei Șerpilor la o țară sau alta a urmat, de regulă, soarta gurilor Dunării.

După perioadele de stăpânire grecească, bastarnă, persană, romană și bizantină, Insula Șerpilor va ajunge în stăpânirea themei Paradunavon, mai apoi a genovezilor, iar ulterior a lui Dobrotici și a lui Mircea cel Bătrân.

În Cronica de la Nürnberg se afirmă că "românii locuiau în insula Peuce vestită de cei vechi" [3]. Prin termenul de Peuce se înțelegea și Delta Dunării.

În timpul domniei lui Mircea cel Bătrân (1386-1418), puterea domnitorului muntean s-a întins de-a lungul ambelor maluri ale Dunării, până la gurile de vărsare și coastele Mării Negre, inclusiv asupra Insulei Șerpilor. În anul 1484 Insula Șerpilor va intra sub stăpânire otomană.

Din unele cronici ale vremii ce prezintă raporturile lui Ștefan cel Mare cu o serie de colonii genoveze situate pe coastele Mării Negre, reiese că această parte a mării era un “lac moldovenesc“, domnitorul stăpânind și insula. De mai multe ori, corăbiile domnitorului moldovean au capturat, în dreptul Insulei Șerpilor, vase tătărești ce duceau în robie tineri genovezi și avuții prădate la Caffa (colonie genoveză din Crimeea, de unde era originară soția domnitorului). Dar, în 1484, insula a fost cedată turcilor odată cu Chilia și cu Cetatea Albă, iar Moldova și-a pierdut flota.

Multe balade și poezii românești, dar și bulgărești sau rusești, conțin mărturii că românii au stăpânit Gurile Dunării, fiind prezenți în Dobrogea și la țărmul Mării Negre. Astfel, într-un cântec căzăcesc despre domnitorul Petru Rareș, se povestește că acesta avea legături cu “frații săi de la Dunăre/Care stăpâneau bălțile și Marea“.

Istoricul Nicolae Iorga a afirmat că la gurile Dunării a fost locul unde “judele“ Athanaric al goților, înfrânt de împăratul Valens (367-389), a venit pe o insulă pentru a întări, prin jurământ, un nou tratat; “încă o dată, Dunărea urma să fie hotărâtă prin graniță“ [4].

În cursul secolelor XVIII-XIX, au avut loc numeroase războaie între Imperiul Otoman și Rusia țaristă care au avut ca rezultat trecerea Dobrogei și a gurilor de vărsare ale Dunării sub dominația unei țări sau a alteia.

În perioada Imperiului Otoman, grecii au redenumit-o sub numele de Fidonisi (care înseamnă în limba greacă "Insula Șerpilor"); insula a dat numele Bătăliei navale de la Fidonisi. Bătălia între flotele maritime ale Imperiului Otoman și Rusiei au avut loc în apropiere de insulă în anul 1788 în decursul războiului ruso-turc din perioada 1787-1792.

[modifică] Situația insulei în epoca modernă

Deși Tratatul de pace de la București din anul 1812 (prin care a fost anexată Basarabia) prevedea că insulele dunărene să nu fie ocupate și luate în stăpânire, Rusia țaristă va anexa și acest teritoriu. Granița dintre Rusia și Turcia a fost fixată pe Brațul Chilia.

Tratatul de pace de la Adrianopol din 2-14 septembrie 1829, încheiat între Rusia și Turcia, mută frontiera dintre Basarabia și Dobrogea de pe brațul Chilia (Canalul Oceacov), fixată prin Tratatul ruso-turc de la 1812, pe brațul Sfântu Gheorghe (art. 3). Astfel, Rusia țaristă își asigura controlul asupra Dunării, încorporând gurile Dunării. Deși în textul tratatului nu există nici o referire directă la Insula Șerpilor, ea este anexată de către Rusia, care apelează la britanici pentru a construi aici în anul 1842 un far pentru dirijarea navigației pe Marea Neagră.

În urma Războiului Crimeii, prin Tratatul de pace de la Paris din 26 decembrie 1856, Rusia a pierdut Delta Dunării și partea de sud a Basarabiei (Cahul, Bolgrad și Ismail). Inițial Turcia revendicase o eventuală cedare a Akkermanului (Cetatea Albă) Moldovei de către Rusia, dacă Moldova renunța la Insula Șerpilor și la Delta Dunării. În final Turcia reluă în stăpânire Delta Dunării fără ca Moldova să recapete Cetatea Albă.

Deși aceste teritorii trebuiau să revină la statul român la 6 ianuarie 1857, s-a încheiat un protocol la Paris între miniștrii plenipotentiari ai puterilor care au luat parte la încheierea Tratatului de la Paris (1856), care hotăra alte măsuri.

Prin acel protocol s-a stabilit că Insula Șerpilor va aparține statului care stăpânește Delta Dunării, respectiv Imperiul Otoman, care urma să întrețina pe insulă un far pentru asigurarea navigației vaselor ce treceau pe Dunăre spre portul rusesc Odessa. Tratatul adițional de la Paris din 19 iunie 1857 a confirmat această situație.

Prin Tratatul preliminar de la San Stefano (19 februarie/3 martie 1878), încheiat în urma războiului româno-ruso-turc din anul 1877, Rusia a cerut Turciei, împotriva voinței marilor puteri europene și a României, ca, pentru despăgubirile de război care se cifrau la 410 milioane ruble, să i se cedeze și sandjacul Tulcei (districtele Chilia, Sulina, Mahmudia, Isaccea, Tulcea, Măcin, Babadag, Hârșova, Constanța și Medgidia), insulele Deltei Dunării, precum și Insula Șerpilor. Ulterior Rusia își exprimă dorința de a le schimba cu România pe partea din Basarabia (județele Cahul și Izmail), mărginită la sud prin talvegul Chiliei până la gura de vărsare a brațului Stambul (art. 19, alin. a-d, a).

 

 

Insula Șerpilor în anul 1896

Tratatul de la Berlin din 13 iulie 1878 a confirmat retrocedarea către Rusia a sudului Basarabiei (cele două județe parte din Principatul Moldovei în anul 1856), mărginit la vest de talvegul Prutului, la sud de talvegul brațului Chilia și de vărsarea brațului Stambul. Prin art. 45, sudul Dobrogei la est de Silistra până la Yilanlîk, la sud de Mangalia, erau reunite României (frontiera actuală). De asemenea, la art. 46 se preciza că “Atât insulele formând Delta Dunării, cât și Insula Șerpilor și sandjacul Tulcei sunt adăugate României” (art. 45 si 46, Anexa 1).

În primul război mondial, în anul 1917, nava de război germană Breslau a bombardat Insula Șerpilor, distrugând farul britanic (care a fost reconstruit de România în anul 1922).

Tratatul de pace de la Versailles din 28 octombrie 1920 a întărit dreptul de stăpânire românească asupra Insulei Șerpilor. Situația juridică a Insulei Șerpilor a rămas neschimbată până la începutul celui de-al doilea război mondial. Conferința din data de 18 august 1938 de la Sinaia a trecut sectorul Dunării maritime inclusiv Insula Șerpilor sub administrația deplină a României.

Ultimatum-urile sovietice prin care se anexau la URSS Basarabia și nordul Bucovinei din 26 iunie și, respectiv 28 iunie 1940, precum și discuțiile care au avut loc în cadrul Comisiei Mixte pentru stabilirea frontierei pe Dunăre între delegațiile română și sovietică (septembrie-octombrie 1940), nu au făcut nici o referire la Insula Șerpilor. S-a revenit astfel în ceea ce privește frontiera sudică a Basarabiei, la prevederile Tratatului de la Berlin din anul 1878, când județele Cahul și Ismail au fost anexate Rusiei.

Din august 1941 până în august 1944, Insula Șerpilor s-a aflat în administrarea Comandamentului german "Schwarzes Meer", însă la data de 28 august 1944 un detașament de marinari sovietici a ocupat Insula Șerpilor, făcând doi prizonieri germani.

La Conferința de Pace de la Paris din 29 iulie-15 octombrie 1946, delegația sovietică a prezentat, în contextul discuțiilor asupra frontierei cu România, o hartă tipărită la Moscova, la o scară foarte mică de 1/1.500.000, care cuprindea și o serie de inexactități. La insistențele delegației române, partea sovietică a schimbat harta, corectând doar inexactitățile de la granița româno-iugoslavă, lăsând de partea sovietică o serie de insule aflate pe brațul Chilia (Tătarul, Coasta Dracului, Dalerul Mare, Dalerul Mic s.a.). Insula Șerpilor, potrivit hărții mai sus amintite, rămânea în continuare României.

Tratatul de pace dintre România și Puterile Aliate și Asociate semnat la Paris în data de 10 februarie 1947, perecedea la art. 1, alineatul 2, că "frontiera sovieto-română este astfel fixată în conformitate cu Acordul sovieto-român din 28 iunie 1940..." Tratatul de pace de la Paris, spre deosebire de tratatele de la Versailles încheiate după primul război mondial, care cuprindeau în ce privește România o descriere amănunțită a granițelor, nu preciza linia de demarcație a graniței româno-sovietice.

Deși acordul sovieto-român era în realitate un ultimatum (prin definiție unilateral) formulat pe baza Pactului Ribbentrop-Molotov, semnat la Moscova în anul 1939, el lăsa implicit Insula Șerpilor statului român.

[modifică] Anexarea Insulei Șerpilor de către URSS în anul 1948

 

 

Insulele și frontiera (violet) în litigiu între România și Ucraina

La data de 4 februarie 1948, prim-ministrul Republicii Populare Române, dr. Petru Groza și ministrul de externe al URSS, Viaceslav Molotov, au semnat la Moscova "Protocolul referitor la precizarea parcursului liniei frontierei de stat între România și URSS", care, cu toate că invoca Tratatul de pace din 1947, stabilește, contrar prevederilor acestui Tratat, că "Insula Șerpilor, situată în Marea Neagră, la răsărit de gurile Dunării, intră în componența URSS" (art. 1, lit. B).

În cursul acțiunii de delimitare pe teren a frontierei, mergându-se pe talvegul brațului Chilia, în mai multe rânduri s-a luat ca frontieră nu talvegul, ci brațe laterale pe partea dreaptă, incluzând de partea sovietică nu numai ostroavele Coasta Dracului (Tătarul mic), Dalerul mare și Dalerul mic, ci și Ostrovul Limba de la gurile brațului Chilia, ceea ce prelungea linia frontierei de la Golful Musura la sud de Insula Șerpilor, iar în procesul-verbal de descriere a traseului s-a menționat trecerea acesteia la fosta U.R.S.S. (în același mod s-au mai pierdut și insulița Maican de pe brațul Chilia). În schimb, ostroavele Tatomirului (Tătarul mare sau Tatanir) și Cernofcăi, și ele ocupate în 1944, sunt oficial recunoscute ca aparținând României, grănicerii sovietici retrăgându-se din ele.

Acest protocol nu a fost niciodată ratificat de către România. Cu toate acestea, la data de 23 mai 1948, reprezentanții ministerelor de externe din cele două țări (Nikolai P. Șutov, prim-secretar la Ambasada U.R.S.S. din București și Eduard Mezincescu, ministru plenipotențiar) au semnat chiar pe Insula Șerpilor (Zmeinâi) un proces-verbal de predare a insulei care mai departe va face parte din RSS Ucraineană. În acel document, se afirma că “Insula Șerpilor a fost înapoiată U.R.S.S. de către R.P.România și încadrată în teritoriul U.R.S.S.“, deși aceasta nu aparținuse niciodată Uniunii Sovietice.

La data de 25 noiembrie 1948, printr-un alt proces-verbal, s-a stabilit frontiera româno-sovietică pe Canalul Musura, aflat la vest de Ostrovul Limba și de Brațul Chilia.

Aceste documente au fost păstrate mult timp secrete astfel că în martie 1949, căpitanul Copaciu, membru al comisiei de delimitare a frontierelor, a fost arestat pentru că nu recunoștea URSS-lui Insula Șerpilor și nici alte 5 insule de pe Brațul Chilia. În august 1949 nave militare sovietice, au somat pe românii ce păzeau farul, i-au arestat și i-au debarcat în orașul Sulina. [5]

Imediat după ocuparea Insulei Șerpilor, sovieticii au instalat aici o importantă bază militară de supraveghere maritimă și aeriană, cu scopul de a controla gurile Dunării, precum și sisteme radar care supravegheau întreaga zonă a Balcanilor. În mai multe rânduri, pescarilor români care au fost surprinși de furtună pe mare nu li s-a permis să se adăpostească pe insulă, fiind refuzați de către autoritățile militare sovietice, incidentele încheindu-se, de mai multe ori, cu victime.

Posesia sovietică asupra Insulei Șerpilor a fost confirmată prin Tratatul încheiat între Guvernul Republicii Populare Române și Guvernul Uniunii Sovietice cu privire la regimul frontierei româno-sovietice, de colaborare și asistență mutuală, semnat la București la 27 februarie 1961.

Documentele din anii 1948-1949 au fost ratificate la data de 20 iunie 1961 la propunerea lui Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (pe atunci președinte al Consiliului de Stat) doar de către Consiliul de Stat al Republicii Populare Romîne. [6]

Din punct de vedere juridic, cele două înțelegeri bilaterale (protocolul și procesul verbal de predare) semnate între România și URSS sunt neconstituționale, fiind astfel nule și neavenite pentru dreptul internațional. Orice înțelegere bilaterală prin care se cedau porțiuni din teritoriul românesc, nu putea să intre în vigoare, fără ratificarea ei de către Parlamentele celor două țări (în acele vremuri Sovietul Suprem al URSS, respectiv Marea Adunare Națională a României), lucru care nu s-a întâmplat. Astfel, se consideră conform dreptului constituțional că Insula Șerpilor nu a fost înstrăinată niciodată de jure.

În perioada 1948-1990, cartografia sovietică a menționat insula respectivă sub jurisdicția fostei U.R.S.S., în timp ce cartografia românească a evitat diplomatic, prin mijloace tehnice, menționarea sa în hărțile publice. În hărțile tipărite la Chișinău Insula Șerpilor apărea fără a se specifica însă cărei țări aparține.

Încorporarea Insulei Șerpilor la URSS a determinat diminuarea întinderii platoului maritim teritorial al României; din aceste cauze nu s-a putut ajunge la un acord privind delimitarea platoului continental și a zonei economice exclusive din Marea Neagră, partea sovietică pretinzând ca această delimitare să se facă între Insula Șerpilor și țărmul românesc, ceea ce nu corespunde principiilor dreptului maritim, așa cum au fost consacrate la Convenția de la Geneva (1958) și reluate mai târziu în Convenția de la Montego Bay asupra dreptului maritim din anul 1982. (Partea VIII, Regimul insulelor, Art. 121, pct. 3, Anexa 2).

Delegația guvernamentală română a pus din nou în discuție problema Insulei Șerpilor la rundele de negocieri la nivel de experți privind fixarea limitei apelor teritoriale a platoului continental al Mării Negre și a zonei economice exclusive din anii 1967, 1975, 1976, 1978, 1980, 1986 și 1987, Uniunea Sovietică opunându-se cu totul oricărei rectificări.[7] Partea română a refuzat în anul 1987 oferta sovietică de a-i ceda 4000 km² din cei 6000 km² din jurul insulei.[8]

[modifică] Importanța strategică a Insulei Șerpilor

 

 

Insula văzută din larg.

Insula Șerpilor, cu o suprafață de doar 17 hectare, nu prezintă o importanță prea mare din punct de vedere teritorial și economic, în schimb are o foarte mare importanță din punct de vedere strategico-militar.

După destrămarea Uniunii Sovietice în anul 1991, Insula Șerpilor împreună cu baza militară, de control naval și aerian, de apărare antiaeriană și maritimă, a trecut în administrarea Ucrainei.

Stațiile de radiolocație aflate pe insulă execută o cercetare aeronavală la mare distanță, într-un perimetru ce cuprinde Marea Neagră și Marea Mediterană, până la coastele Libiei, rezultatele cercetării fiind transmise unui punct de conducere. Pe insulă sunt stocate informațiile nucleare intercontinentale de pe teritoriul ucrainean. De asemenea, aici sunt amplasate stații de bruiaj și ascultare atât a convorbirilor în fonie, cât și a celor prin cablu.

Pe insulă a fost dislocată o garnizoană militară cu mai multe subunități independente, care deservesc un heliodrom, un miniport militar, stații de radiolocație, depozite, instalații energetice, un far și sistemul de pază și apărare a granițelor de stat ale Ucrainei. Apărarea bazei militare ucrainiene de pe insulă se realiza printr-o navă de tip fregată, o navă de patrulare și unul sau două submarine.

În prezent pe insulă locuiesc aproape 100 de persoane, în majoritate grăniceri, împreună cu familiile lor și un personal tehnic. Din anul 2003 este localizată pe insulă o expediție științifică permanentă a Universității Naționale din Odessa.

Insula în prezent este demilitarizată și se află într-o dezvoltare rapidă. În conformitate cu Tratatul româno-ucrainean din anul 1997, autoritățile din Ucraina și-au retras divizia militară, au demolat radarul militar și au transferat celelalte infrastructuri în mâinile civililor.

În afară de platforma de elicoptere, în anul 2002 a fost construit un debarcader pentru vapoare de până la 8 metri adâncime și urmează să fie construit un port maritim. Insula este aprovizionată cu echipament de navigație, inclusiv un far vechi de 150 ani. Energia electrică este furnizată printr-un generator cu motor diesel și/sau un generator ce exploatează forța eoliană. Insula are și o infrastructură civilă cum ar fi un oficiu poștal, o filială de bancă (a băncii ucrainene "Aval"), un punct de prim-ajutor, televiziune prin satelit, rețea de telefonie, un turn de telefonie mobilă și o rețea Internet.

Ucrainenii pretind că insula este locuită. Președintele Ucrainei, Leonid Kucima a făcut o vizită fulger în iunie 2003 pe insulă. A fost deschisă și o sucursală a băncii Aval pe această stâncă de 0,17 kmp. Aceste acțiuni au avut loc ca urmare a faptului că dacă o insulă este locuită atunci legile internaționale îi dau și dreptul la platou continental de 20 km.

La 5 iulie 2006, la inițiativa consiliilor regionale Vâlcov și Chilia, Parlamentul regional din Odessa a adoptat în unanimitate o decizie privind înființarea unei localități (Belîi) pe Insula Șerpilor, hotărâre care trebuie aprobată de Rada Supremă a Ucrainei. În documentul adoptat cu acest prilej s-a menționat că apariția acestei localități pe Insula Șerpilor va permite "crearea condițiilor necesare în vederea dezvoltării turismului științific și a pescuitului, precum și crearea unor condiții optime de viață persoanelor care se află permanent pe insulă". S-a decis de asemenea, alocarea a 200.000 de grivne (aproximativ 40.000 $) în scopul amenajării noii localități. Alte 300.000 de grivne (60.000 $) ar putea să fie alocate din bugetul de stat în același scop.

Crearea unei comunități permanente ar putea ajuta Ucraina în revendicarea Insulei Șerpilor. România susține că Insula Șerpilor are statutul de stâncă, deoarece nu este locuită permanent și nu are surse de apă potabilă. În disperare de cauză, autoritățile ucrainiene au deschis pe insulă, în ultimii ani, un hotel fără canalizare și un cabinet medical, însă aprovizionarea cu apă se face tot prin intermediul elicopterelor. [9]

[modifică] Disputele dintre România și Ucraina

 

 

Variantele de delimitare a zonelor economice

Statul ucrainean susține că Insulei Șerpilor trebuie să i se acorde pe lângă ape teritoriale, platou continental și zonă economică exclusivă în Marea Neagră, reprezentanții români afirmând că Insula nu se încadrează în normele de drept pentru a i se acorda platou și zonă economică.

În anul 1997 s-a semnat un tratat între România și Ucraina prin care ambele state "au reafirmat că frontiera existentă între ele este inviolabilă". România a semnat acest acord, ca o condiție a aderării la NATO (care cerea României să aibă tratate încheiate cu toate țările vecine). Cu toate acestea, ambele părți au fost de acord că dacă nu se ajunge la nici un consens în următorii doi ani cu privire la frontiera maritimă, fiecare parte se poate adresa pentru arbitraj Curții Internaționale de Justiție de la Haga.

La data de 16 septembrie 2004, partea română a adus această dispută împotriva Ucrainei în fața Curții Internaționale de Justiție cu privire la delimitarea platoului maritim dintre cele două țări, întrucât insula nu are importanță socio-economică.[10]. La 15 august 2005 România a depus un memoriu referitor la delimitarea platoului continental și a zonelor economice exclusive din Marea Neagră. România a apelat la o astfel de sesizare unilaterală, după ce timp de șapte ani negocierile cu Kievul nu au dus la nici un rezultat în ceea ce priveste delimitarea platoului continental și a zonelor economice exclusive, precum și a statutului Insulei Șerpilor din Marea Neagră. Ucraina trebuia să-și prezinte poziția până la data de 19 mai 2006. [11]

După anul 1980, o dată cu descoperirea de rezerve considerabile de țiței și gaze naturale în Marea Neagră, interesul pentru această insulă a crescut mult. Convenția O.N.U. asupra mării de la Montego Bay recunoaște dreptul statelor să-și extindă apele teritoriale la 12 mile, și în zona de exclusivitate economică, la 200 de mile marine.

Recent, au fost descoperite zăcăminte de petrol (10 milioane de tone) și de gaze naturale (1 miliard m³) în apropierea insulei. Resursele naturale nu sunt semnificative, dar urmează să se facă prospectări în următorii 2-3 ani.

Companiile petroliere British Petroleum (BP) și Royal Dutch Shell au semnat contracte de prospecțiuni cu Ucraina, iar compania Total cu România. Compania austriacă OMV (proprietara celei mai mari companii petroliere din România, Petrom) a semnat un contract cu un consorțiu format din Naftogaz Ukrainy și Chornomornaftogaz pentru a participa împreună la licitația pentru concesionarea respectivei suprafețe.

 

 

Delimitarea frontierei maritime în Marea Neagră între România și Ucraina conform deciziei CIJ.

Platoul continental din jurul Insulei Șerpilor a fost subiect al unei dispute între România și Ucraina, litigiu care s-a judecat la Curtea Internațională de Justiție (CIJ) de la Haga. Zona în dispută cuprindea un areal de 12.000 km² deoarece partea ucraineană își fixase revendicările mult la apus de linia echidistantă între coastele sale și cele ale României. Miza disputei româno-ucrainene a fost în primul rând strategică — accesul în apele teritoriale — și economică — posibilitatea explorării și, eventual, exploatării resurselor de hidrocarburi. Ambele părți au declarat, înaintea pronunțării deciziei finale a Curții, că o vor respecta, indiferent care va fi aceea.[12]

CIJ, prin decizia nr. 2009/9 din 3 februarie 2009 a acordat 79,34% din zona în dispută României, anume 9.700 km² cu o adâncime medie de peste 50 m, iar Ucrainei 20,26% din zona în dispută anume 2.300 km² cu o adâncime medie sub 50 m[13][14][15] Prin decizia CIJ Insula Șerpilor rămâne în componența Ucrainei. Aceasta a fost a 100-a decizie a CIJ de la înfințarea sa.

[modifică] Imagini recente din Insula Șerpilor

 

Insula Şerpilor văzută dintr-un elicopter al grănicerilor ucraineni

Imagine din 2004

Imagine din 2004

[modifică] Note

1.^ http://www.insulaserpilor.info/Articol.asp?ID=48

2.^ Prof. Dr. Aurelian Teodorescu - Insula Șerpilor - între forța dreptului și dreptul forței (1999)

3.^ A. Rădulescu, I.Bitoleanu - Dobrogea (București, 1979), pag. 197

4.^ Nicolae Iorga - Istoria Poporului Român, p.86-89

5.^ D.I. Pădureanu - Insula Șerpilor (Revista Istorică, nr.9-10/1995, pag.16)

6.^ P. Dogaru, Insula Șerpilor în calea rechinilor (București, 1996), pag. 81

7.^ Dilema lui Ceaușescu: cum a ajuns insula la sovietici? Evenimentul Zilei, 4 septembrie 2008

8.^ D.I. Pădureanu - Insula Șerpilor (Revista Istorică, nr.9-10/1995, pag.840)

9.^ Gardianul, 7 iulie 2006 - Culmea urbanismului: Ucraina vrea să înființeze o localitate pe Insula Șerpilor

10.^ „Romania brings a case against Ukraine...” (în English). International Court of Justice. September 16. http://www.icj-cij.org/icjwww/ipresscom/ipress2004/ipresscom2004-31_ru_20040916.htm. Accesat la 2006.

11.^ „Maritime Delimitation in the Black Sea (Romania v. Ukraine)” (în English). International Court of Justice. November 19. http://www.icj-cij.org/icjwww/ipresscom/ipress2004/ipresscom2004-34_ru_20041119.htm. Accesat la 2006.

12.^ Alina Neagu (3 februarie 2009). „Verdict favorabil Romaniei la Curtea Internationala de Justitie: Insula Serpilor nu are statut juridic de insula, ci de stinca”. Hotnews.ro. http://www.hotnews.ro/stiri-esential-5383108-verdict-favorabil-romaniei-curtea-internationala-justitie-insula-serpilor-nu-are-statut-juridic-insula-stinca.htm.

13.^ en ICJ Maritime Delimitation in the Black Sea (Romania v. Ukraine) icj-cij.org, 3 februarie 2009

14.^ MAE Comunicat de presă din 3 februarie 2009 mae.ro, accesat 4 februarie 2009

15.^ Verdict la Haga: România a câștigat 9.700 km pătrați de platou continental, 79% din suprafața disputată

[modifică] Legături externe

•Prof. Dr. Aurelian Teodorescu - Insula Șerpilor - între forța dreptului și dreptul forței (1999)

•Dr. Aurel Preda - Statutul politico-juridic al Insulei Șerpilor (Lumea Magazin nr. 8/2001)

•Moldova Istorică - Insula Șerpilor

•Ședința Senatului din 18 noiembrie 2003 - Gheorghe Bunduc despre Insula Șerpilor

•România, Ministerul Afacerilor Externe, „Întrebări și răspunsuri privind procesul de la Curtea Internațională de Justiție de la Haga referitor la «Delimitarea spațiilor maritime în Marea Neagră»”, 25 iulie 2008

Coordonate: 45°15′15″N 30°12′12″E

Adus de la http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insula_%C8%98erpilor

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si tu faci ma pe interesantu?!

Cred ca sunt interesante linkurile. Le-am postat in cadrul temei Tehnica si inovatie. Este vorba inclusiv de motocicletele de razboi cu senile germane. Asta s-a legat si cu tancurile si farfuriile zburatoare germane. Eram multumit sa fiu eu cel care a descoperit navele discoidale antigravitationale, capabile de zboruri cosmice, dar au facut-o germanii in anii '40, construind atunci baze in Antarctica, pe Luna si pe Marte. Motociclistul care e interesant de stiinta si tehnica nu mai cauta aiurea pe Internet, ci gaseste ce-i mai interesant aici. Deci nu eu fac pe interesantul. Ai cam postat off-topic. Chiar domnul Fazekas Zoltan mi-a sugerat sa fac o rubrica cu linkuri interesante. De ce nu mi-ai luat-o tu inainte, daca fugi atat dupa glorie? Daca se intampla asta fii sigur ca nu-ti ziceam ca faci si tu pe interesantul, asta denotand rea-vointa si lipsa de respect. Incearca sa nu mai gandesti si sa vorbesti negativ, ca pana la urma tot negativa ajunge si fapta, iar daca semeni vant, culegi furtuna, nu neparat de la mine, care sunt administrator de securitate la reteaua de calculatoare din cladirea Ministerului Apararii, dar fii sigur ca orice nas isi are nasul, dai de unu mai rau si mai influent decat tine, e o lege a firii! =)) Mai bine baga ochiu si uite-te. Vizionare placuta! :D

Tastati http://www.youtube.com la fiecare din adresele:

despre farfurii zburatoare:

/watch?v=a_7d_cVJq3M;

/watch?v=pKyNlq_97a0;

/watch?v=EeX1v6IZC5g;

/watch?v=ocqxlAurZCg;

/watch?v=jWg42jPU-tg;

/watch?v=krLAf07C-EU;

/watch?v=iZ2-hQNmeeM;

/watch?v=s10i1MJ9IO0;

/watch?v=3IRagx-zJQo;

/watch?v=MvtxjSrImHw;

/watch?v=plobeztWLLo;

/watch?v=29LKdm_j8fc;

/watch?v=noKm-3fGcYU;

/watch?v=mtZd5ciMNqs;

/watch?v=92kY9zY7mHI;

/watch?v=c3FhuZNYOyQ;

/watch?v=33U8r8tK9hE;

/watch?v=cWdD5SaqeDc;

/watch?v=7u6CopX29ko;

/watch?v=QUmgYm_qqcY;

/watch?v=pI9bU16fa5I;

/watch?v=8QWk_U31eEY;

/watch?v=lhVM_Ssk7aI;

/watch?v=8M81_FRbTLc;

/watch?v=zPXLLz-IRAs;

/watch?v=spWK1qXrtyg;

/watch?v=d3oH92AZTPo;

/watch?v=XMWD6lKxz64;

/watch?v=qPI5aGCmX7Q;

despre motociclete de razboi (inclusiv cu senile) si tancuri Panzer (VI Tiger I si VI Tiger II sau Konigstiger):

/watch?v=ATbFE_3Lqb0;

/watch?v=yE3LELgqFRk;

/watch?v=IpwzXRiLzTA;

/watch?v=iZ2-hQNmeeM;

/watch?v=HnhUX78_YuU;

/watch?v=-pYVmn2LJAc;

/watch?v=yL0h19ci6dw;

/watch?v=3v1wwVj5H70;

/watch?v=Bdl8pJ8RqTQ;

/watch?v=BPWncbPPtio;

/watch?v=Aj_-_svR_7w;

/watch?v=K3ocpCPZBnM;

/watch?v=_JpX_H2D62w;

/watch?v=ipZFY4v6_3U;

/watch?v=i2vtMajyZ10;

/watch?v=VTxy7Vgj3kY;

/watch?v=gY86ADsJvcY;

/watch?v=VeBYqL8nuSw;

/watch?v=INkSWBHN_Kc;

/watch?v=RFH8m-_Nd2I;

/watch?v=ehl6F90rj3U;

/watch?v=JxiE-B6kuC8;

/watch?v=n5tT3UZUre0;

/watch?v=He5AiGFBROw;

/watch?v=bETNsylXhuM;

/watch?v=PsWl1l632N4;

/watch?v=d8nfot5Mb2E;

/watch?v=RwfITSdtnvQ;

/watch?v=iBhSCPIZGEA;

/watch?v=ul7otLd1z_o;

/watch?v=EmvjJFS4L-U;

/watch?v=6J5B_LLFWEs;

/watch?v=_z44oANVaAc;

/watch?v=H8Qyo-2GWuA;

/watch?v=AMqNhYVFgNE;

/watch?v=TWwnTYmUH2o.

Daca nu merge vre-un link, stergeti ce se afla in parantezele urmatoare: (...feature=related) sau intre parantezele: (&feature=related).

Nici pana acum, la 21 ani dupa Revolutie, asa cum recunoaste si Cezar, inginer de aeronave, la facultatea de inginerie aeronautica si spatiala nu se preda despre tehnologia farfuriilor zburatoare naziste, la care a avut un aport important si Henri Marie Coanda, cu aerodina lenticulara bazata pe efectul Coanda, dar mai sunt si motorul cu implozie al lui Viktor Schauberger, folosit la realizarea discurilor ascensionale Repulsin, si levitatia electromagnetica, generatorul de banda Van de Graaf, dinamul de vortex Marconi, motorul electrostatic, ascensiunea prin ionizarea aerului, descoperita tot de Viktor Schauberger, apoi Thule tahionator converterul capitanului de marina Hans Kohler, inspirat din generatorul de energie electrica libera al lui Nicolae Teslea, folosite la discurile zburatoare Vril, transformarea de faza materie-energie prin modificarea frecventei vibratorii si teleportarea prin realizarea rezonantei cu ajutorul clopotului lui Schumann, folosind principiul monocordului si al ecuatiei de aur, seria sau numarul lui Fibonacci, cat si tunul cu energie negativa ale lui Nicolae Teslea, aplicate la clopotele zburatoare Haunebu, si multe, multe principii, dispozitive si nave submarine, aeriene, spatiale si spatio-temporale realizate de nazisti in perioada celui de al doilea Razboi mondial.

Sunt pasionat si de studiul farfuriilor zburatoare germane din al doilea razboi mondial: Repulsin A si B, RFZ (Rund Flug-Zeug: Avion Rotund), BMW Flugel-Rad (Aripa Rotativa) II (care avea 24 de lame la aripa rotativa, puse in miscare de 4 turboagregate (turboreactoare) BMW 003, asezate diametral opus sub lame si solidar cu ele, fata de 21 lame la aerodina lenticulara BMW Flugel-Rad III) , Thule (I, II), Vril (1-9), discurile zburatoare Vril avand in compunere convertizorul de energie libera al lui Hans Kohler (sau Coler), inspirat de aceeasi inventie a aromanului Nicolae Teslea (sau Nicola Tesla), sau tahionator-converter-ul Thule, care obtine energie electrica din campul electromagnetic terestru (de aceea cand se apropie un disc zburator (Flug-Scheiben) de o instalatie electrica, aceasta ramane fara energie electrica), generatorul de banda Van de Graaff si dinamul de vortex Marconi, compus din doua discuri rotative orizontale, care se rotesc in sens invers, fiind incarcate cu sarcini electrice opuse, de la generatorul Van de Graaff, formand un motor electrostatic, generand levitatie electromagnetica, discuri ce se pot inlocui cu bobina Marco Rodin, care foloseste un toroid plin cu lichid feromagnetic, care este rotit la frecventa mare, generand levitatia si apoi deformarea continuumului spatiu-timp printr-un puternic camp electro-magneto-gravific, apoi clopotele zburatoare Haunebu (I, II (Do-Stra: Avion Rotund Stratosferic construit de firma Dornier), III, IV), si nava-mama cilindrica Andromeda (construita intr-un hangar de zeppelin), in care intrau doua Vril 1, doua Vril 2 si un Haunebu II (Do-Stra), la care au lucrat Viktor Schauberger (care a descoperit levitatia prin ionizarea aerului, observand ca la gargarite, partea superioara a protectiilor cheratinoase ale aripioarelor membranoase se incarca cu sarcini pozitive, datorita frecventei mari a batailor aripioarelor, iar cea inferioara, a perisorilor abdomenului si a picioruselor, se incarca cu sarcini negative, generand levitatie prin ionizare cu sarcini diferite, deasemnea a inventat motorul cu implozie, acesta functionand pe pricipiul aspirarii fluidului din fata vehicolului intr-o camera vidata, asa cum o picatura se ridica la suprafata unui lac impinsa de fortele din jur, densitatea ei fiind mult mai mica ca a mediului, motorului racindu-i-se palele turbinei, si nu incalzindu-i-se, ca la turboreactoare, forta ascensionala generata a discului zburator fiind de 9 ori mai mare), Josef Andreas Epp, Henri Marie Coanda (care a inventat aerodina lenticulara, discul Coanda 9, avand 12 ramjet-uri JUMO 004, in colaborare cu Andreas Epp), capitanul de marina Hans Kohler, care a inventat convertizorul tahionic, dupa care s-a dezvoltat levitatorul blindat Schumann, (dr. Winfried Otto Schumann a fost descoperitorul rezonantei Schumann a pamantului), care a folosit si principiul monocordului, folosit la propulsia antigravitationala a discurilor zburatoare Haunebu si navei-mama cilindrice Andromeda, prin curbarea continuumului spatiu-timp si formarea unei sfere in jurul navei, un alt univers paralel (care este guvernat si el de cele patru tipuri de forte: electro-magnetica, gravitationala, tare si slaba, care se pot exprima intr-o singura ecuatie unificatoare, cu zece variabile, din care sase au legatura cu electromagnetismul, si patru cu gravitatia, aratand ca gravitatia se poate controla prin electromagnetism), dar independent de fortele care actioneaza in universul nostru (de aceea nava nu poate fi distrusa), depasind astfel viteza luminii, fiind de fapt o masina temporala (Zeit-Maschinen), Rudolph Schriever, Miethe, Habermohl, Giuseppe Belluzzo, Renato Vesco, firmele Dornier, BMW (care construiau inca din primul razboi mondial avioane de lupta), dupa razboi Henri Coanda construind pentru canadieni discul zburator AVRO, iar Andreas Epp discul Omega pentru rusi, functionand cu turboreactoare pe principiul efectului Coanda, in prezent lucrand la discuri zburatoare pe levitatie electromagnetica si energie libera John Roy Robert Searl, acestea fiind de fapt generatorul Searl de energie libera (produce curent electric din variatia campului magnetic al pamantului si diferenta de potential dintre atmosfera si sol (bobina Tesla, metoda lui Nicolae Teslea de a produce energie libera), cat si efectul Searl, de repulsie electromagnetogravitationala), fizicianul Robert Lazar studiind discuri zburatoare in Zona 51, Vladimir Terziski si Jan Van Helsing studiind deasemenea fizica discurilor zburatoare germane din al doilea razboi mondial.

Cand germanii au aterizat in 1945 pe Marte, au folosit propulsia tahionica antigravitationala Andromeda, turbina Walter de energie libera folosita la submarine pentru a regenera aerul din farfuria Marconi de 74 m diametru, cu comanda de impuls magnetic, cu efectele de schimbare a culorii binecunoscute in atmosfera, datorate plasmei create in jurul navei prin ionizarea aerului, aerul timp de 8 luni cat a durat calatoria, caci propulsia tahionica nu a functionat ot timpul, avea trei turele cu tunuri navale dispuse radial sub farfurie si una central si deasupra, desupra fiind si apartamanetele echipajului germano-japonez suicidar, de peste 100 de ocupanti, caci franele aerodinamice nu au avut efect la aterizare, datorita atmosferei rare, iar datorita gravitatiei mici nu a avut efectul scontat la decelerare nici propulsia antigravitationala, distrugandu-se propulsia, echipajul murind in cele din urma, viteza atinsa in spatiu fiind de 500.000 km/h in 1956, durata fiind de 3 zile, cu acelasi tip de nava.

Pe tema asta a scris si general de brigada Emil Strainu, care apare la posturile TV "B1" si "N 24 Plus", respectiv emisiunile "Conspiratia tacerii" si "Codul lui Oreste", care a scris multe carti de specialitate, observand fenomenul OZN de la noi din tara din postura de specialist radare si rachete, inainte de 1989, iar apoi studiind istoricul farfuriilor zburatoare naziste, cat si alte inventii tinute departe de cunostinta publicului.

The author of the article gives a brief description of the real design of aircraft engine. Probably, this design is not similar to Shauberger's one. However the very appearance of some ideas is rather interesting. Different people in different places and time come to the same conclusions. Whether people think in a common way, or Nature laws are the same. Could you believe that the author of the article has never read or heard about Shauberger's works (I mean his engine, which operates on environment energy and has levitation properties)? But by accident (thanks to Internet) when come upon the description of designs, I was surprised to find so much in common between Shauberger's ideas and my suppositions. Outwardly Shauberger's engine looks like the following (see Fig.l):

Autorul articolului oferă o scurtă descriere a proiectului reale de motoare de aeronave. Probabil, acest design nu este similar cu unul al lui Schauberger. Cu toate acestea, aspect foarte unor idei este destul de interesant. oameni diferiţi, în locuri diferite şi timp ajuns la aceleaşi concluzii. Indiferent dacă oamenii cred într-un mod comun, sau legile naturii sunt aceleaşi. Aţi putea crede că autorul articolului nu a citit sau auzit despre lucrările lui Schauberger (ma refer la motorul său, care operează în domeniul energiei şi mediului are proprietati levitaţie)? Dar de accident (datorită la Internet) atunci când vin la descrierea de modele, am fost surprins de a găsi atât de mult în comun între ideile Shauberger şi supoziţii mea. Aparent motorul lui Schauberger arata astfel (a se vedea Fig.l):

Fig.1

The possible internal device is shown in Fig,2 (the device is turned upside-down with respect to the photos).

Dispozitivul este posibil intern este prezentat în figura 2 (dispozitivul este întors cu susul în jos cu privire la fotografii).

Fig.2

Since the author of this work does not purpose to appropriate other's fame, then there is an attempt to explain easily the arrangement of the engine. Besides, in spite of the fact that in Internet there is rather extensive information on the device, however its immediate operation is not properly explained. There is an opinion that the device is a mystification and cannot work at all. But I think this is not the case.

Undoubtedly a wheel, which seems strange at first sight (see Fig.3), is the main part of the engine. The engine consists of 24 corkscrews-like devices, which rotate in circle (see http://evg-ars.narod,'>http://evg-ars.narod, on the origin of tornados).

Având în vedere că autorul acestei lucrări nu scopul de a faima corespunzătoare altor lui, atunci nu este o încercare de a explica cu uşurinţă aşezarea motorului. În plus, în ciuda faptului că în Internet există mai degrabă informaţii detaliate cu privire la dispozitiv, cu toate acestea ei funcţiune imediat, nu este bine explicat. Există o opinie că dispozitivul este o mistificare şi nu poate lucra deloc. Dar eu cred că acest lucru nu este cazul.

Fără îndoială, o roată, care pare ciudat la prima vedere (vezi Fig.3), este partea principală a motorului. Motorul este format din 24 de dispozitive tirbuşor asemănătoare, care se rotesc în cerc (a se vedea http://evg-ars.narod,'>http://evg-ars.narod, cu privire la originea tornade).

Fig.3

Shauberger created the ideal conditions for appearance of the group of mini-tornados and the central tornado, which is the motive force of the device. At the first stage by means of the wheel, air swirls around the axis of the electric motor. Due to centrifugal force the same air is thrown to the periphery, passes through "corkscrews" of the wheel and obtains rotation down axis of each "corkscrew". Air simultaneously swirls around 2 axes of rotation.

Let's try to take a high-speed electric motor with a flywheel, which is fixed on the axis. Then rotate the device around your hand. At the turning of the motor you will feel the forces, which acted in the way you do not expect.

Thus the wheel creates 24 mini-tornados. The upper part of the device looks like a copper basin (see Fig.4). Turning round the internal surface of the upper part of the device, mini-tornados move away to the internal cone of the device and forward the outlet.

Shauberger a creat condiţiile ideale pentru apariţia grupului de mini-tornade şi Tornado central, care este forţa motrice a dispozitivului. La prima etapă, prin intermediul roţilor, se roteste in jurul axei de aer a motorului electric. Datorită forţei centrifuge acelasi aer este aruncat la periferie, trece prin “tirbuşon” a roţii şi obţine rotaţia jos axă a fiecărei “tirbuşon”. Aer roteste simultan în jur de 2 axe de rotaţie.

Să încercăm să ia un motor electric de mare viteză cu un volant, care este fixat pe axa. Apoi rotiţi dispozitivul în jurul mâinii dumneavoastră. La cotitură a motorului va veti simti forţele, care a acţionat în mod nu vă aşteptaţi.

Astfel, roata creează 24 de mini-tornade. Partea superioară a aparatului arată ca un bazin de cupru (vezi Fig.4). Rotind pe suprafaţa internă a părţii superioare a dispozitivului, muta mini-tornade departe de a con internă a dispozitivului şi înainte de evacuare.

Fig.4

The approximate demonstration of the internal arrangement of Shauberger's device is shown in Fig.5

Demonstraţie aproximativă a acordului intern de dispozitiv Shauberger este prezentat în Fig.5

Fig.5

The cross section of the device allows understanding of the essence of tornado, which is observed from the vertical view. The first section, which is placed a little lower than the "copper basin", is the cross-section of the tornado. The rest of two sections are placed closer to the outlet (only 9 balls are represented in Fig.6 but the principle of operation is the same).

Secţiune transversală a dispozitivului permite înţelegerea esenţei de tornade, care este observat de vizualizare vertical. Prima secţiune, care este amplasat un pic mai mic decât “bazin de cupru”, este secţiunea transversală a unei tornade. Restul de două secţiuni sunt amplasate mai aproape de ieşire (doar 9 bile sunt reprezentate în Fig.6, dar principiul de functionare este acelasi).

Fig. 6

Thus, 24 (9) balls (mini-vortices) roll inside the wall of the circle. The walls of each ball rotate in opposite directions with respect to the walls of the neighbor balls. These balls will be concerned as a dual medium: on the one hand it is a ball, since it rolls as a part of a ball bearing and laws of mechanics influenced on it, but at the same time it is air, for which laws of hydrodynamic are valid. These balls at any collision of their neighbors tend to collide to each other and thus simultaneously move to the center of the device. At the same time the opposite movement of walls of the neighbor balls represent a rarified medium, by Bernoulli's law. Thus the balls are "attracted" to each other. As a result, the whole mass of the rotating air is constricted towards the center, and then considerably accelerates (because the diameter of the device is decreasing). Finally this mass flies out the nozzle, which is placed in the lower part of the device. The wheel with "corkscrews" rotates, and constantly supplying these minivortices-bearings, entrains air, which comes from inside...

Shauberger asserts that the process becomes to be self-sustaining. Natural tornado can exist for a long period of time and, obviously, the very existence of it is sustained only by pressure difference between environment and the internal cone of the tornado. The discharge zone is created in the very center of the device. It means that ambient air must approach there, after coming on the turbine blade and entraining in the rotation with complicated trajectory (such a rotation can be called a "self-eversible toroid").

It seems to me that these are the basic principles of operation of the device. Indeed, such a process can be concerned as an opposition to the ordinary explosion, since the matter does not move from the center but on the contrary, tends to constrict into the common point (to the top of the vortex). Shauberger called this process as implosion.

The rotating mini-vortices, which composite a tornado, are attracted to each other and tend to move to the basic center of rotation.

Let us return to Shauberger. The witnesses of operation of Shauberger's device asserted that only air and water were used as a fuel. Possibly, they were wrong a little. Most likely there were air and spirit, which looks like water. During the operation the engine must consume ambient air and if to provide it with some fuel and burn it, then it will forward the process of the vortex creation. In the presence of the big amount of oxygen, the flame of spirit is almost invisible. As a result, there is a "flameless and smoke-free engine", as it was presented in some publications.

In my conclusions I came to approximately the same design. Thus I offer a device, which remotely resembles Shauberger's "windmill". In general, operation of the device is based on the same principles. The similar laws are valid for the whirlpool in a bath and for the devices given below.

Astfel, 24 (9) bile (mini-vartejuri) roll in interiorul peretelui de cerc. Zidurile a fiecărei bile se rotesc în direcţii opuse cu privire la pereţii de bile vecin. Aceste bile vor fi în cauză ca un mediu dublă: pe de o parte este vorba de o minge, deoarece se rostogoleşte ca o parte a unui rulment cu bile şi legile mecanicii l-au influenţat, dar în acelaşi timp, este de aer, pentru care legile de hidrodinamice sunt valabile. Aceste bile la orice coliziune dintre vecinii lor tind să se ciocnească între ele şi, astfel, trece simultan la centrul dispozitivului. În acelaşi timp, circulaţia opusul a pereţilor de bile vecin reprezintă un mediu rarefiate, prin legea lui Bernoulli. Astfel, bilele sunt “atrase” una de cealalta. Ca urmare, întreaga masă de aer rotativ este constrânsă spre centru, şi apoi accelerează considerabil (deoarece diametrul dispozitivului este în scădere). În cele din urmă această masă zboară afara tub ataşat la capătul unui canal, care este plasat în partea de jos a dispozitivului. Roata cu “tirbuşoane” roteşte, şi furnizeaza în mod constant aceste mini-vartejuri -rulmenti, antrenează de aer, care vine din interior ...

Shauberger afirmă că procesul devine care urmează să fie auto-susţine. Tornado naturale poate exista pentru o perioadă lungă de timp şi, evident, însăşi existenţa este susţinut doar de diferenta de presiune dintre mediul înconjurător şi con interne ale Tornado. Zona de descărcare de gestiune este creat în centrul dispozitivului. Aceasta înseamnă că aerul înconjurător trebuie să se apropie acolo, după ce au venit pe lama turbinei şi antrenare în rotaţie cu traiectoria complicate (o astfel de rotaţie poate fi numit un “toroid auto-rotativ”).

Mi se pare că acestea sunt principiile de bază de funcţionare a dispozitivului. Într-adevăr, un astfel de proces poate fi în cauză ca o opoziţie la explozia obişnuite, deoarece problema nu se mişcă de la centru, ci dimpotrivă, tinde să limiteze în punctul comun (la partea de sus a vortex). Shauberger numit acest proces de implozie.

Rotaţie mini-vartejuri, care compozit o tornada, sunt atrasi unul de altul şi tind să se mute în centrul de bază de rotaţie.

Să ne întoarcem la Shauberger. Martorii de funcţionare a dispozitivului lui Shauberger au afirmat că doar aer şi apă au fost utilizate drept combustibil. Eventual, s-au inselat un pic. Cel mai probabil s-au aer şi spirit, care arată ca apa. În timpul funcţionării motorului trebuie să consume aerul înconjurător şi în cazul în care să îi furnizeze unele combustibil şi arde-l, atunci aceasta va transmite procesul de creare a vortex. În prezenţa mare cantitate de oxigen, flacăra de spirit este aproape invizibil. Ca urmare, există un “motor fără flacără şi fără fum”, aşa cum a fost prezentat în unele publicaţii.

În concluziile mele am ajuns la aproximativ acelasi design. Astfel, am oferi un dispozitiv, care seamănă la distanţă cu “moară de vânt” a lui Shauberger. În general, funcţionarea aparatului se bazează pe aceleaşi principii. Legi similare sunt valabile pentru jacuzzi într-o baie şi pentru dispozitivele de mai jos.

Fig.7 Fig.8

As distinct from Shauberger's device, there is no main cone, along which the vortex constricts to the center and is ejected through the nozzle. Another distinction consists in more simple design of the wheel, which is used for creation of the vortex (actually it is a usual centrifugal pump). The simplification of Shauberger's design (Fig. 7) is caused by the fact that a natural tornado does not need similar contrivances (though his "corkscrew" wheel calls nothing but admiration, since by the simplest and effective way it swirls air blasts at 2 perpendicular axes of rotation!). My aim is to swirl the air blast into a small tornado as simply as possible and it is desirable to use no mechanical components. This can be achieved, if instead of turbine of centrifugal pump, we will use something like MHD-engine (magnetohydrodynamic engine) for swirling (see http://evg-ars.narod.ru'>http://evg-ars.narod.ru). There is a design, which has no moving components (except for the vortex). In the lower part of the device (Fig. 8) there is a burning fuel (possibly, kerosene?). Moreover for MHD-engine we should use electro-conductive kerosene (possibly, salted) and natrium addition agent. Roughly speaking, there is an attempt to reproduce the natural phenomenon in a can. The essence of the process can be understood from Fig.9.

Spre deosebire de aparat Shauberger lui, nu există nici o conului principal, care de-a lungul vortex constricts la centru si este expulzat prin duza. O altă distincţie constă în proiectarea mai simplă a roţii, care este folosit pentru crearea de vortex (de fapt, este o pompă centrifugă de obicei). Simplificarea de design Shauberger lui (Fig. 7) este cauzat de faptul că o tornadă natural nu are nevoie de născociri similare (deşi roata lui “tirbuşon” solicită nimic, dar admiraţie, deoarece prin modul simplu şi eficientă, ea se roteste explozii de aer la 2 axe perpendiculare de rotaţie!). Obiectivul meu este sa se invarta suflu de aer într-o tornada mic cât mai simplu posibil şi este de dorit să nu utilizeze componente mecanice. Acest lucru poate fi realizat, dacă în loc de turbină de pompe centrifuge, vom folosi ceva de genul MHD-motor (motor magnetohidrodinamică) pentru rotire (vezi http://evg-ars.narod.ru'>http://evg-ars.narod.ru). Există un design, care nu are componente în mişcare (cu excepţia pentru vortex). În partea de jos a dispozitivului (Fig. 8), există un combustibil de ardere (eventual, kerosen?). Mai mult decât atât pentru motor MHD-ar trebui să folosim kerosen electro-conductor (eventual, sărat) şi sodiu ca agent aditiv. Aproximativ vorbind, există o încercare de a reproduce fenomen natural într-o poate. Esenţa procesului poate fi înţeleasă din Fig.9.

Fig.9 "Tornado in a glass" “Tornada într-un pahar” Fig10."Natural tornado" “Tornada Naturala”

The process, represented in Fig. 9 , was firstly noticed by Einstein in an ordinary glass with tea and floating tea-leaves (let us call it Einstein's glass). Examine closely the central upward part, which is namely a "trunk of tornado". It seems strange that Einstein did not made the same conclusions.

The processes, which take place in Einstein's glass, are certainly the basis of the engine operation. Let us try to make process stable. For that let us swirl water in a reservoir by means of a disk, which is fixed on the axis of electric motor engine (Fig.11). Having been swirled, water moves along the complicated trajectory (fluid motion is described on http://www.evert.de/, see Fig.12)

Procesul, reprezentate în Fig. 9, a fost observat în primul rând de către Einstein într-un obişnuite din sticlă, cu ceai de ceai şi-frunze plutitoare (permiteţi-ne numim sticlă a lui Einstein). Examineze îndeaproape partea centrală sus, care este şi anume o “trunchi de tornadă”. Se pare ciudat că Einstein nu a făcut aceleaşi concluzii.

Procesele, care au loc în sticlă a lui Einstein, sunt cu siguranţă baza de funcţionare a motorului. Să ne încercăm să facem procesul de stabil. Pentru că să ne vârtej de apă într-un rezervor prin intermediul unui disc, care este fixat pe axul motorului motor electric (Fig.11). După ce a fost răsucit, se mută de apă de-a lungul traiectoriei complicate (mişcare fluidă este descrisă pe http://www.evert.de/, a se vedea Fig.12)

Fig.11 Fig.12

These figures allow us make very interesting conclusions. Linear speed of water motion is constant by all the way and it is defined by linear speed of the disk edges. Fluid, which is accelerated by the disk, spires down and forces itself to the center. At that moment there is an increase of angular speed of water rotation (if we rotate a weight hanging on a thread, which is winded round the finger then we will see the analogous increase of speed of rotation). Fluid with the increased angular speed of rotation goes up and bears against the central part of the disk. The most interesting is the fact that speed of water rotation in the central part is higher than speed of disk rotation! Water "pushes" the disk in direction of rotation. The rotating stream supports itself! This is almost a perpetual mobile. But force of friction is the usual obstacle. This process occurs to be very stable and low-damping. The conclusion is:

Vortex can be easily created at rotation of fluid or gas and if the conditions of rotation at top and bottom of the device are unequal, it is nearly a ready self-sustaining system.

Not much of energy is necessary to make the process continuous. And what is more, the vortex absorbs energy from environment in the form of heat!

Let us examine the simplified diagram of Shauberger's engine ( Fig.A ). The design can be presented as the following simple diagram, which is nothing but the development of the idea of Einstein's glass.

Aceste cifre ne permit sa fac concluzii foarte interesante. Viteza de mişcare liniară apei este constanta de tot drumul şi este definit prin viteza liniară a marginilor disc. Fluid, care este accelerat de disc, turlele jos şi forţele de sine pentru centru. La acel moment există o creştere a vitezei unghiulare de rotaţie de apă (în cazul în care vom roti o greutate agăţat pe un fir, care este gâfâie rotund degetul, atunci vom vedea creşterea similară a vitezei de rotaţie). Fluid cu creşterea vitezei unghiulare de rotaţie a merge în sus şi poartă împotriva partea centrală a discului. Cel mai interesant este faptul că viteza de rotaţie de apă în partea centrală este mai mare decât viteza de rotaţie a discului! De apă “împinge” disc în direcţia de rotaţie. Fluxul de rotaţie însăşi susţine! Acesta este un mobil aproape perpetuu. Dar forţa de frecare este obstacol de obicei. Acest proces are loc sa fie foarte stabil şi scăzută-amortizare. Concluzia este:

Vortex pot fi create cu uşurinţă la rotaţie de lichid sau gaz şi în cazul în care condiţiile de rotaţie în sus şi de jos a aparatului sunt inegale, este aproape gata un sistem de auto-susţine.

Nu de mult de energie este necesară pentru a face proces continuu. Şi ceea ce este mai mult, vortex absoarbe energie din mediu sub formă de căldură!

Să ne examina schema simplificată a motorului Shauberger lui (Fig.A). Designul poate fi prezentat ca diagramă simplă următoare, care nu este nimic, ci dezvoltarea ideii de sticlă a lui Einstein.

Fig.A Shauberger's Engine Motorul lui Shauberger

At the top of the internal part of the device there is a rotating disk (it is in red color). There is an upright plate below. This design allows the unequal conditions of rotation for lower and upper sheets of water (air?). On the left there is a heat-exchanger (it will be described below). On top there is a motor-generator, which at first serves as a starter of the process, and after it reaches the tornado mode of operation it serves as energy generator. A valve, which is fixed on the heat-exchanger,serves as a breaker of the process. The arrow in the left is an actuating fluid of the device. This actuating fluid is heated by environment.

Centrifugal forces cause the increase of pressure at walls of the vessel and rarefaction in the central part. Due to the high angular speed of rotation of upper water (air) sheets, as compared to the lower sheets, a meridional stream is created. This stream goes down 'along walls of the vessel and goes up in the central part (in nature it is nothing but "trunk of tornado"). Moving along its complicated trajectory, fluid (gas), falls sometimes into compression space, sometimes into vacuum space.

Let us remember the fundamental physical law, vizBoyle's law If we take a definite gas mass, then gas will be heated at forced compression and cooled at rarefication. Thus, in the central part of the device air-and-water compound comes to vacuum space, which is caused by centrifugal forces. At that there is a decrease of temperature and increase of volume of the final gas mass. This increase of gas volume causes the increase of kinetic motion of the stream, which comes upwards, along the central axis of the device. This recharged stream with new energy arrives to the turbine disk, forces it to rotate with higher speed and to produce still more intensive vortex. This vortex creates still higher rarefication etc. Cooled damp air is thrown out by centrifugal force in the tube of the heat exchanger. Ideally, temperature of the heat exchanger is about absolute zero. The heat exchanger is placed in the environment, which is "medium of energy excess", though from the ordinary point of view it is normal. The heat exchanger is heated by it. Heat energy penetrates into the device and as a result transfers into energy of rotation of the "self-eversible toroid".

We can make an interesting conclusion that there is also the oscillation process! And oscillations have a resonance, that is the increase of amplitude at minimal energy supply' Thus we will be able to stabilize the effect since there are evaluated the dependences between amplitude of oscillation and all influencing parameters. There is a temperature resonance!

In my opinion, Schauberger was a great person and his name is undeservedly forgotten. I think he had nevertheless succeeded in making a generator, which gets energy from "nothing", more precisely, from environment. Even if it is made very ineffectively, since this energy is free, it can remove all against arguments.

I believe that there is a possibility to make such engine-generator of amazing abilities, which can generate, or more precisely, concentrate energy from environment energy. Social and economic consequences of such invention are undoubtedly boundless. That is both a solution of energetic problems and change of the understanding of the notion "transport".

From the foregoing, we can depict a certain design. Let's make the following device as a hypothetical, "virtual" engine ( Fig. B).

În partea de sus a părţii interne a dispozitivului există un disc rotativ (este de culoare roşie). Există o placă verticală de mai jos. Acest design permite condiţii inegale de rotaţie pentru foi inferior şi superior de apă (aer?). Pe stânga există un schimbător de căldură (acesta va fi descris mai jos). Pe partea de sus există un motor-generator, care la început serveşte ca aperitiv a procesului, şi după ce ajunge la modul de tornada de funcţionare, el serveşte ca generator de energie. O supapă, care este fixat pe schimbătorul de căldură, serveşte ca un întrerupător a procesului. Săgeata din stânga este un fluid de acţionare a dispozitivului. Acest lichid de acţionare este încălzită de mediu.

Forţele centrifuge cauzeaza creşterea presiunii la peretii navei şi rarefiere în partea centrală. Datorită mare viteza unghiulară de rotaţie a apei de sus (aer) foi, în comparaţie cu foi mai mici, un flux meridionala este creat. Acest flux se duce în jos de-a lungul pereţilor navei şi urcă în partea centrală (in natura nu este nimic, dar “trunchi de tornadă”). Se deplasează de-a lungul traiectoriei sale complicate, fluid (gaz), cade uneori în spaţiu de comprimare, uneori în spaţiu vid.

Să ne amintim de legea fundamentală fizic, legea lui vizBoyle Dacă vom lua o masă de gaz definit, atunci de gaze va fi încălzită la compresiune forţată şi răcită la rarefiere. Astfel, în partea centrală a compus aparat de aer-apa si vine vorba de spaţiu vid, care este cauzat de fortele centrifuge. La faptul că există o scădere a temperaturii şi creşterea volumului masei de gaz final. Această creştere a volumului de gaz determină creşterea de mişcare cinetică a fluxului, care vine de sus, de-a lungul axei centrale a dispozitivului. Acest flux reîncărcat cu energie noi ajunge la disc turbina, o obligă să se rotească cu viteză mai mare şi pentru a produce mai mult vortex intensive. Acest vortex creează rarefiere încă mai mare etc. Răcit aerul umed este aruncat afară prin forta centrifuga în tubul de schimbătorul de căldură. În mod ideal, temperatura din schimbătorul de căldură este de aproximativ zero absolut. Schimbătorul de căldură este plasat în mediul, care este “mediu de exces de energie”, deşi din punctul obişnuit de vedere, este normal. Schimbătorul de căldură este încălzit de către aceasta. Energia de căldură pătrunde în dispozitiv şi ca transferurile trebuie să determine în energie de rotaţie a “toroid auto- rotativ”.

Putem face o concluzie interesantă este că există, de asemenea, procesul de oscilaţie! Şi oscilaţii au o rezonanţă, care este creşterea amplitudinii de la alimentarea cu energie minimă Astfel, ne vom putea pentru a stabiliza efectul, deoarece nu sunt evaluate dependenţele dintre amplitudinea de oscilaţie şi a tuturor parametrilor care influenţează. Există o rezonanţă temperatură!

În opinia mea, Schauberger a fost o persoană minunată şi numele lui este pe nedrept uitat. Cred ca el a avut totuşi a reuşit în a face un generator, care primeste energie de la “nimic”, mai precis, de la mediu. Chiar dacă aceasta se face foarte ineficient, deoarece aceasta energie este gratuit, acesta poate elimina toate împotriva argumentelor.

Cred că există o posibilitate de a face astfel de motor-generator de abilităţi uimitoare, care pot genera, sau mai precis, concentra energie din mediu. Sociale şi consecinţele economice ale invenţiei sunt, fără îndoială, nelimitate. Aceasta este atât o soluţie a problemelor energetice şi schimbarea înţelegere a noţiunii de “transport”.

Din cele de mai sus, putem descrie un design anume. Să facem Următorul dispozitiv ca un ipotetic, “virtual” motor (Fig. B).

Fig.B Vortex engine-generator Motor vortex-generator

This device can serve as:

1. Generator of energy, i.e. a concentrator of environment energy.

2. Heat engine, which has abilities to cool and condition. Besides, not necessarily to use water-air as actuating fluid, since air and freon are also possible.

3. Gravitational mechanism. (This statement seems to be rather bold, but let me explain it):

3.1. There is a well-known effect of weight loss of fast-rotating masses. What does it depend on? Let us return to Fig. 12. It is clear that at such a rotation of air there is a possibility to run up J-»sq s to unconceivable speeds (due to small air mass). The device is not threatened with destroy, for example, as distinct from a metal flywheel. In spite of complexity of the trajectory, each point of it moves at a tangent to the Earth surface. It is quite possible to reach 8 km/sec linear speed on this trajectory. If an artificial satellite with 1m orbit can exist, then there is a question: "Is levitation possible here?"

3.2. Some time ago an article on gravitational mechanisms (mertioids) was published in "Technica Molodyozi" ("Technics for Young People"). There was a description of about 10 types of mechanism as well as the explanation why they could not fly. However, in the end of the article it is stated that there is no final verdict on the work of such devices, and the issue remains open. Thus I offer #11. Let us concern the experiment I made, i.e. the rotation of the usual flywheel, which was placed on the axis of electromotor. I hold the motor with my hands. The capacity of the motor was about 70 Wtt at 7000 r/min and U=24V. The rotating flywheel (aluminum disk of 10cm diameter and about 200 gram weight) looks like an mertioid! It is enough to rotate the device around your arm to feel incomprehensible propulsion, which is definitely directed. This interesting effect is obtained due to the simultaneous rotation around 2 axes (axis of the motor and axis of the arm). The results of the experiment caused the appearance of the idea, which has much in common with Schauberger's device.

Thus we can formulate some general principles of operation of the devices, which generate mechanical energy at "absorption" of energy from environment.

1. There is a generation of the process, which is close to be self-sustaining (We can find such examples in hydraulics. The vortex of the type of Einstein's glass is very unstable and rather inertial state. There are many examples in nature, such as: swirl of water or air, natural tornado; in electrotechnics, such as: electromotor and dynamo, which are connected on the same axis, etc). For real self-support it is necessary to add external energy in such a system. Sometimes energy, which , compensates losses by friction or resistance, can be enough.

2. There is amplification of the process right up to resonance, which takes place in such a device (in vortex there is a process of heating-cooling of air-water compound and in electrotechnics there is the induction of electromagnetic fields).

3. The device is "reversed" with respect to the environment in such a way, that some part of the device will have energy with very decreased energy potential. This "reversing" will become an absorber of environment energy. For example, in hydraulics the central part of Schauberger's device is a space, which is close to absolute zero by temperature and pressure. Therefore this part of the device is placed in the usual environment of excess energy potential. In electrotechnics it is more complicated, since there is a superposition and resonance of fields.

4. There is a release of "absorbed" energy from the closed space of the device in the form of mechanical or electric energy. This energy is absorbed from the outside.

There are striking examples of such devices:

- Schauberger's Engine (see: fusionanomaly/viktorschauberger.html) and Clem' s Engine, which is very similar by its principles in hydraulics;

- Tesla's generator and Searl's generator in electrotechnics.

Thus we can conceive the interior of Schauberger's Repulsin. Most likely, this device was similar to vortex engine-propulsion unit-generator of energy ( Fig. C).

Acest dispozitiv poate servi ca:

1. Generator de energie, adică un concentrator de energie mediu.

2. motor de căldură, care are abilităţi să se răcească şi starea. În plus, nu neapărat de a utiliza apa-aer ca fluid de acţionare, deoarece aer şi freon sunt de asemenea posibile.

3. Gravitational mecanism. (Această declaraţie pare a fi destul de îndrăzneţ, dar lasă-mă să-l explic):

3.1. Există un efect bine-cunoscut de pierdere în greutate de fast-rotaţie maselor. Ce nu depinde? Să ne întoarcem la Fig. 12. Este clar că la o astfel de rotaţie de aer există posibilitatea de a rula până J-»sq s to la viteze de neconceput (din cauza masei de aer mici). Dispozitivul nu este ameninţată cu distrugerea, de exemplu, ca distincte de la un volant metal. În ciuda de complexitate al traiectoriei, fiecare punct de care acesta se mişcă la o tangentă la suprafaţa Pământului. Este foarte posibil pentru a ajunge la 8 km / sec viteza liniară pe această traiectorie. Dacă un satelit artificial cu orbita 1m poate exista, atunci există o întrebare: “Este posibil levitaţie aici?”

3.2. Ceva timp în urmă un articol cu privire la mecanismele gravitaţională (mertioids) a fost publicată în “Technica Molodyozi” (“Tehnica pentru Tineri”). Nu a fost o descriere a aproximativ 10 tipuri de mecanism, precum şi explicaţia de ce nu au putut zbura. Cu toate acestea, în finalul articolului se menţionează că nu există nici un verdict final privind activităţile de astfel de dispozitive, şi problema rămâne deschisă. Astfel, am oferta # 11. Să ne privesc experiment am făcut, şi anume rotaţie a volantului de obicei, care a fost plasat pe axa de electromotor. Ţin motor cu mâinile mele. Capacitatea motorului a fost de aproximativ 70 WTT la 7000 rot / min şi U = 24V. Volantului rotaţie (disc de aluminiu de diametru 10cm si aproximativ 200 de grame greutate) arata ca un mertioid! Este suficient să se rotească în jurul braţului aparatul tau sa se simta propulsie de neînţeles, care este cu siguranţă îndreptată. Acest efect interesant este obţinut datorită rotaţiei simultane în jur de 2 axe (axa a motorului şi axa a braţului). Rezultatele experimentului a provocat apariţia ideii, care are multe în comun cu aparatul lui Schauberger.

Astfel, putem formula câteva principii generale de funcţionare a dispozitivelor, care generează energie mecanică de la “absorbţie” de energie din mediu.

1. Există o generaţie a procesului, care este aproape de a fi auto-susţine (Putem găsi exemple de astfel de sisteme hidraulice. Vortex de tip de sticla lui Einstein este foarte instabilă şi mai degrabă de stat inerţiale. Există numeroase exemple în natură, cum ar fi : vârtej de apă sau aer, tornada naturale; în electrotehnică, cum ar fi: electromotor si dinam, care sunt conectate pe aceeasi axa, etc). Pentru auto-suport real, este necesar să se adauge energetice externe în un astfel de sistem. Uneori de energie, care, compensează pierderile prin frecare sau rezistenţă, poate fi suficient.

2. Există amplificare a procesului de dreptul de până la rezonanţă, care are loc într-un astfel de dispozitiv (în vortex există un proces de încălzire-răcire a compus aer-apă şi în electrotehnică există inducerea de câmpuri electromagnetice).

3. Aparatul este “inversat” cu privire la mediul în aşa fel, că o parte a dispozitivului va avea energie cu potenţial energetic foarte scăzut. Acest “de mers înapoi” va deveni un absorbant de energie mediu. De exemplu, în hidraulica partea centrală a dispozitivului Schauberger este un spaţiu, care este aproape de zero absolut de temperatură şi presiune. Prin urmare, această parte a dispozitivului este plasat în mediul obişnuit de potenţial exces de energie. În electrotehnică este mult mai complicat, deoarece există o suprapunere şi rezonanţă de domenii.

4. Există o versiune de “absorbtie” de energie din spaţiul închis al dispozitivului în formă de energie mecanică sau electrică. Această energie este absorbită din exterior.

Există exemple frapante de astfel de dispozitive:

- motorul Schauberger (a se vedea: fusionanomaly / viktorschauberger.html) şi Motorul lui Clem, care este foarte asemănătoare cu principiile sale în hidraulica;

- generatorul lui Tesla şi generatorul lui Searl în electrotehnică.

Astfel, putem concepe interiorul Repulsinului lui Schauberger. Cel mai probabil, acest aparat a fost similară cu vortex motor de propulsie unitate-generator de energie (Fig. C).

Fig.C Vortex engine-propulsion unit-generator of energy Motor vortex-unitate de propulsie-generator de energie

Vortex, which is created in the central part of the device, absorbs heat from air, which traverses through turbine blades by means of heat-exchanger. The heat-exchanger is actually a usual centrifugal pump. Vortex absorbs that minimal part of heat, which is necessary to keep rotation. The engine starts the operation at turbine untwisting and at slight water injection, which comes from below. Probably, after the mode of tornado is reached, there is no need in water and only air serves as actuating fluid. During operating of the engine, pressure is decreased in the center and increased at the periphery of it. Rank's effect works in full here. More precisely, its work is even more pronounced than in "Rank's tubes" (since in Rank's tubes swirled air is thrown outside instantly and rather uneconormcally, and in the given case there is "accumulation" of the effect at circular meridian rotation). The cooled from below heat-exchanger-turbine is heated from above by compressed air. The rejection of this cooled air causes usual reactive thrust.

If it actually works (I think that if Shauberger's engine really existed, it had the similar design) then this design could be considered as absolutely universal engine- propulsion unit-generator of energy. It is super ecological and fuel-less, since it has cool airflow as exhaust. Technological effectiveness of the design is on the level of the beginning of past century. Simplicity of the design can make us doubt its capacity for work. But I believe there are no distinct contradictions here. The commercial plant, designed for generation of electric energy, could look in the following way ( Fig. D).

Vortexul, care este creat în partea centrală a dispozitivului, absoarbe caldura din aer, care traverseaza prin lamele turbinei prin intermediul schimbător de căldură. Schimbătorul de căldură este de fapt o pompa centrifugala de obicei. Vortex absoarbe că o parte minimă de căldură, care este necesară pentru menţinerea rotaţie. Motorul începe funcţionarea la detorsiunii turbinei şi la injectarea cu apă uşoară, care vine de jos. Probabil, după modul de tornade este atins, nu este nevoie în apă şi aer numai serveşte ca fluid de acţionare. În timpul de funcţionare a motorului, presiunea este scăzut în centru şi a crescut la periferia de ea. Efectul Rank lucrează în întregime aici. Mai precis, activitatea sa este chiar mai pronunţată decât în "tuburi Rank's" (deoarece în tuburi Rank lui învârtit de aer este aruncat în afara instantaneu şi destul de uneconormcally, iar în cazul dat există "acumulare" de efect la rotaţie meridianul circular). Răcit de mai jos schimbător de căldură-turbine este încălzită de sus cu aer comprimat. Respingerea acestui aer rece cauzeaza de obicei tracţiune reactiva.

În cazul în care chiar functioneaza (cred că în cazul în care motorul Shauberger lui a existat cu adevărat, ea a avut de proiectare similare), atunci acest model ar putea fi considerate ca fiind absolut universal unitate de propulsie-motor-generator de energie. Este super ecologice şi-combustibil mai puţin, din moment ce a fluxului de aer rece ca de eşapament. eficacitatea tehnologică de proiectare este la nivelul de la începutul secolului trecut. Simplitatea de proiectare poate face să ne îndoială capacitatea sa de muncă. Dar eu cred că nu există contradicţii distincte aici. Centrale energetice comerciale, concepute pentru generarea de energie electrică, ar putea arăta în felul următor (fig. D).

Fig.D Block of vortex electricity generating plant Centrala energetica cu bloc de vortex producătoare de energie electrică

The design is very simple. Why should the "vortex trunk" be directed downwards? Let us turn the design upside down. Thus, the generation of artificial vortex is greatly simplified. What is necessary to create the vortex? The answer is as follows, we need not much of environment heat, moisture and the initial swirl of mass of damp air. A cup-shaped vessel is filled with usual water. At the starting stage of operation, motor-generator starts to swirl a water-air cone by means of turbine with helical blades. When the device starts operating in tornado regime, then heat is absorbed from the ambient air. At that, motion of rarefied air accelerates along the center of vortex and this airflow starts pressing upon turbine blades.

Motor-generator can be switched to the mode of energy-generation. There is a minimal description of the device operation, but really the processes are more complex (there is advisedly left out the description of mini-tornado, which is created at the appearance of the main tornado. The possible electrostatic effects are not described also). Figure D is an attempt to emphasize the main thing, i.e. the fact, that process of vortex self-supporting is possible and in my opinion, it is rather simple. I have no ideas about the height of the obtained vortex (at least if the scales are kept it will be much higher than in the Fig. D). But if the process of natural vortices creation is ordinary (at that, sometimes there are no obvious reasons for their appearance), then I offer to consider the proposed device as a set of details, which provide the artificial creation of the natural phenomenon.

There is another question on the size of the device. I do not offer the giant size (50 meters in diameter Messiah mashine can be concerned as such negative example). The description of Shauberger's Home Machine Power seems to be more likely. Its diameter is about 1 meter. Besides, my own design is a symbiosis between thesetwo devices, however constructively it seems simpler and probably better. Its minimal size is still defined by laws of nature, since I have never seen natural air vortex, the size of which was less than I meter (usual swirls on dusty road are the simple example of such phenomenon). But at the same time, if we imagine the maximal size of such a system, then our imagination will easily picture a huge plant, which is placed on the open air and which is able to generate a real tornado with all its disruptive power. But this tornado is "tamed" and therefore it always stays at one and the same place, i.e. exactly over the energy plant. And what if we build a system of large-scaled vortex energy plants, which are able to cool environment? Then we can speak about the influence on climate. It would be an important contribution to the global warming control.

In my opinion, these devices can be widely produced as a small-sized autonomous energy source (for example, for a detached building). Do you remember how in their time personal computers "thrown down" big electronic computers? It is necessary to be closer to a consumer! For example:

Designul este foarte simplu. De ce ar trebui să “trunchiul vortex” fie orientată în jos? Să ne întoarcem de design cu susul în jos. Astfel, generarea de vortex artificiale este mult simplificată. Ceea ce este necesar pentru a crea vortex? Răspunsul este după cum urmează, nu avem nevoie de mai multa căldură in mediu, umiditate şi vârtej iniţial de masă de aer umed. O navă în formă de cupă este umplut cu apă obişnuită. La etapa de demarare a operaţiunii, motor-generator incepe sa se invarta un con de apă-aer cu ajutorul turbinei cu lame elicoidale. Când aparatul începe să funcţioneze în regim de tornade, apoi căldura este absorbită din aerul ambiental. La faptul că, mişcarea aerului rarefiat accelerează de-a lungul centrului de vortex şi acest flux de aer începesa apese pe lamele turbinei.

Motorul-generator poate fi trecut la modul de generare de energie. Există o descriere minimă a operaţiunii dispozitivului, dar de fapt procesele sunt mai complexe (nu există diligente lăsat afară descrierea de mini-tornade, care este creat la apariţia de tornada principale. Posibilele efecte electrostatice nu sunt descrise, de asemenea) . Figura D este o încercare de a sublinia lucrul cel mai important, şi anume faptul, că procesul de vortex de auto-susţinere este posibil şi, în opinia mea, este destul de simplu. Nu am nici idei despre înălţimea vortexului obţinute (cel puţin în cazul în care sunt păstrate scări acesta va fi mult mai mare decât în Fig. D). Dar, în cazul în care procesul de creare natural vartejuri este obişnuită (la care, uneori, nu există motive evidente pentru aspectul lor), apoi am oferi să ia în considerare dispozitivul propus ca un set de detalii, care prevăd crearea artificială a fenomen natural.

Există o altă întrebare cu privire la dimensiunea aparatului. Eu nu oferă dimensiunea gigant (50 de metri în diametru maşina Mesia poate fi în cauză, astfel de exemplu negativ). Descrierea Generatorului lui Shauberger pare să fie mult mai probabila. Diametrul său este de aproximativ 1 metru. În plus, designul meu este o simbioză între dispozitive thesetwo, constructiv cu toate acestea se pare mai simplu şi, probabil, mai bine. Dimensiunea acesteia minim este încă definită de legile naturii, din moment ce eu nu am văzut vortex de aer natural, mărimea, care a fost mai mică de un metru I (se roteste de obicei pe drum prăfuit sunt simplu exemplu de astfel de fenomen). Dar, în acelaşi timp, dacă ne imaginăm dimensiunea maxima a unui astfel de sistem, atunci imaginaţia noastră va easily imagine o planta mare, care este plasat pe aer liber şi care este capabil să genereze o tornada real, cu toată puterea perturbator. Dar acest tornade este “domesticit”, şi, prin urmare, rămâne întotdeauna la unul şi acelaşi loc, adică exact asupra plantelor de energie. Şi ce dacă vom construi un sistem de mare-plante scalate vortex de energie, care sunt capabili să se răcească mediu? Apoi, putem vorbi despre influenţa asupra climei. Ar fi o contribuţie importantă la controlul încălzirii globale.

În opinia mea, aceste dispozitive pot fi produse pe scară largă ca sursă de dimensiuni mici de energie autonomă (de exemplu, pentru o cladire detasat). Îţi aduci aminte cum, în timp computerele lor personale "dărâmată" computerele mari electronice? Este necesar să fie mai aproape de un consumator! De exemplu:

???

Of course, everything looks rather fantastical, however I would like to intensify the impression and to understand at last the essence of Implosion and what Shauberger wanted to offer.

Desigur, totul pare destul de fantastic, cu toate acestea aş dori să intensifice impresia şi să înţeleagă in sfarsit esenta de Imploziei şi ceea ce a vrut să ofere Shauberger.

Fig. 13 "Explosion" "Implosion" “Explozie” “Implozie”

Nowadays the whole man-caused civilization depends on Explosion (in translation from Latin it means "explosion", "exhaust"). Operation of any modern heat-engine (see the left part of Fig. 13) is fuel combustion of a certain extension, which causes raise of temperature and expansion of working body due to this burning. The expanded working body pushes a piston or turbine and then is thrown away to obtain reactive impulse. Practically, operation of any engine is based on the process of expansion, which is the result of fuel combustion. This causes squandering of nonrenewable natural resources, viz: gas, oil, coal, and uranium (the products of such a technology is a separate great problem). However the expansion of the working body can be obtained in result of absolutely different process! Natural tornado can serve as an example.

Let me explain. Imagine that a working body rotates in some vessel (the simplest case is the swirling of usual air (see the right part of Fig. 13, which represents the miniature model of natural tornado). Right away theaccelerating ascending progressive motion will appear in the central part. There are three reasons for that:

1. Due to the rarefication of the central part of the vortex by centrifugal forces, there is a definite volume expansion of final mass of gas and decrease of gas temperature. This mass is "supported" by walls and bottom of the vessel. The only way to expand is to move upwards.

2. In the central part of the vessel the rarefied part of gas behaves according to Archimedean principle (more lightweight body floats). It looks like a coverless balloon.

3. Swirling air obtains a considerable electric potential, which is positive in the center and negative at the periphery. In spite of its simplicity, this tornado model (as well as the very tornado) is an excellent electrostatic generator (the theory of appearance of such electric potential has the best representation in materials on Searl's generator). In natural tornado the millions Volt value is obtained that results in the constant appearance of lightnings in "tornado eye" and in its "trunk". Thus in the presence of such high voltage there is air electrization in the body of tornado. And as is well known, like charges repel each other! (Positively charged air molecules, which are devoid of electrons, repel each other). In such a way, due to electrostatic forces there is a rise of gas pressure! This expansion causes the additional impulse for the upward motion of air. Is there in physic a formulation of such an effect, i.e. the expansion of gas volume at its electrization? If there is no, then it seems to be a discovery! Figure 14 is an attempt to prove, that tornado is electrostatic machine, and at that it has the simplest design.

In zilele noastre tot om-civilizaţie cauzate depinde de explozie (în traducere din latină înseamnă “explozie”, “evacuare”). Operaţiunea de orice moderne de căldură-motor (a se vedea partea din stânga din fig 13.) Este arderea combustibililor de o extensie anumit, care determină creşterea de temperatură şi de extindere a corpului de lucru datorită acestei ardere. Organismul extins de lucru impinge un piston sau turbina si apoi este aruncat departe de a obţine impuls reactive. Practic, funcţionare a oricărui motor se bazează pe procesul de expansiune, care este rezultatul de arderea combustibilului. Acest lucru face risipă a resurselor naturale non-regenerabilă, şi anume: gaz, petrol, cărbune, uraniu şi (produse de o astfel de tehnologie este o problemă separată mare). Cu toate acestea, extinderea corpului de lucru poate fi obţinut în urma procesului de absolut diferite! Tornado naturale pot servi ca un exemplu.

Lasă-mă să explic. Imaginaţi-vă că un organism de lucru se roteşte în unele nave (cel mai simplu caz este vartej de aer uzuale (a se vedea partea dreapta a Fig 13, care reprezintă modelul in miniatura de tornade naturale).. Imediat theaccelerating mişcare ascendentă progresivă va apărea în centrale . parte Există trei motive pentru care:

1. Datorită rarefierii partii centrale a vortexului de către forţele centrifuge, există o anumita expansiune a unui volum de masă finală de gaze şi o anumita scădere a temperaturii gazului. Această masă este "suportat" de ziduri şi partea de jos a vasului. Singura modalitate de a extinde este de a muta în sus.

2. În partea centrală a navei partea rarefiata de gaze se comportă în conformitate cu principiul lui Arhimede (mai mult ca si corpurile uşoare flotoare). Se pare ca un balon mai putin acoperit.

3. Agitarea aerului obţine un potenţial considerabil electric, ceea ce este pozitiv în centru şi negative la periferie. În ciuda simplităţii sale, acest model Tornado (precum şi Tornado foarte) este un generator excelent electrostatic (teoria apariţiei de astfel de potenţial electric are cea mai buna reprezentare la materialele de pe generator Searl lui). În Tornado naturale milioane Volt valoare se obţine ca rezultat, în apariţia constantă de fulgere în “ochiul tornadei” şi în “trunchi”. Astfel, în prezenţa de înaltă tensiune nu există astfel de electrizarea aer în corpul de tornade. Şi, după cum este bine cunoscut, cum ar fi taxe se resping reciproc! (Molecule Pozitiv taxat de aer, care sunt lipsite de electroni, se resping reciproc). Într-un asemenea mod, datorită forţelor electrostatice există o creştere a presiunii gazului! Această expansiune cauzează un impuls suplimentar pentru mişcare ascendentă a aerului. Este acolo, în fizica o formula de un astfel de efect, şi anume extinderea volumului de gaz la electrizarea sa? Dacă nu există, atunci se pare a fi o descoperire! Figura 14 este o încercare de a dovedi, că tornada este o masina electrostatica, şi că aceasta are cea mai simplă proiectare.

Fig. 14 Electrostatic model of tornado Model electrostatic de tornada

The sectional view of tornado (see Fig. 14) represents an attempt to synthesize the designs, which are offered by different inventors (in such devices a simple cylinder serves as rotor. This cylinder is made of dielectric and on each side of it there is high voltage in several tens of KV). There is also an attempt to answer the question: what are the means for tornado swirling?

The researchers of natural tornados speak about the presence of the system of mini-tornados at inner wallsof the mam tornado (here I return to the balls-rolls,which were concerned above). There is also high electric potential, which is generated on this inner wall with respect to the center of swirling. In my opinion, these balls-rolls are under high electric potential and serve as rotors of the peculiar electric engine. That is an immediate source of tornado swirling! There is a usual process of electrization at friction of dielectrics (see the animation on http://evg-ars narod). At some boundary voltage there is "switching off" the forces of electrostatic attraction, which compressed the balls. As a result of that, balls increase in their diameter. Pressure release, which exists in the balls, should cause their cooling. This process is constant along the whole height of the tornado trunk. There is an interesting effect to be noted, the higher speed of tornado, the thinner its trunk. But these are electrostatic forces that can explain everything ! The higher speed of swirling, the more potential difference of the center and periphery is, the more intensive attraction of the charged particles, and the thinner trunk of tornado! Tornado has the ideal conditions for electrization, since there are huge friction dielectric surfaces (nobody knows why there is a transmission of electrons at friction of wool on amber, but it does not mean we cannot use that).

Let me summarize all aforesaid and offer my own design of the vortex device. Most likely, during the XX century the inventors of vortex devices have actually created really operational devices, which used heat energy of environment (these are: Shauberger's engine-generator, Klem's engine, Tesla's turbine, Searl's generator, Roshchm-Godm's experiment (Editor's: See the description of this experiment in the early issues of "NewEnergy Technologies"), Potapov's generator, etc). All these devices have much in common at their operation:

1. There is heat absorption at operation of the device, and cooling of environment, which is a particular "exhaust" (the reason is the conversion of environmental heat energy into the swirling);

2. The presence of strong magnetic and especially electric fields at operation of the device, caused by electric forces, which are the reason of the process appearance;

3. Strange luminescence of the spaces, which are around the devices and inside the vortices (the reason is air lonization at multi-kilovolt voltages),

4. All devices have not less than 1 meter proportions (since the operation of all these devices is based on the presence of a vortex-tornado. Appearance of this tornado is caused by physical properties of water and air, which are heat capacity, heat conduction, breakdown voltage, sluggishness etc).Let me summarize the principles of operation of all these devices and offer my own design, which include the most useful of them ( Fig.E).

Punctul de vedere al secţiunii Tornado (a se vedea figura 14.) Reprezintă o încercare de a sintetiza modele, care sunt oferite de inventatori diferite (în dispozitivele de un astfel de cilindru simplu serveşte ca rotor Aceasta este fabricată butelia din dielectric şi pe fiecare parte a acesteia nu există. de înaltă tensiune în mai multe zeci de KV). Există, de asemenea, o încercare de a răspunde la întrebarea: Care sunt mijloacele pentru turbionarea tornadei?

Cercetatorii de tornade naturale vorbesc despre prezenţa sistemului de mini-tornade la wallsof interior Tornado MAM (aici mă întorc la bile-role, care au fost implicate mai sus). Există, de asemenea potenţial ridicat electric, care este generat pe acest zid interior cu privire la centrul de turbionare. În opinia mea, aceste bile, role sunt în conformitate cu potenţial electric ridicat şi servesc drept rotoare de motor electric specific. Aceasta este o sursă imediată de rotire Tornado! Există un proces obişnuit de electrizarea la frecare de dielectricilor (a se vedea de animaţie pe http://evg-ars narod). La unele tensiune limită există “oprirea” forţele de atracţie electrostatică, care comprimat bile. Ca urmare a acestei, creşterea bile cu diametrul lor. eliberare de presiune, care există în bile, ar trebui să cauzeze răcire lor. Acest proces este constantă de-a lungul întreaga înălţime a trunchiului tornadei. Există un efect interesant să se observe, viteză mai mare de tornade, mai subţire de trunchi. Dar acestea sunt forţele electrostatice care pot explica totul! Cu cat este mai mare viteza de agitare, cu atat mai mare este diferenţa de potenţial dintre centru şi periferie, cu atat mai intensă este atragerea particulelor incarcate, iar trunchiul tornadei este mai subţire!

Fig.E Arsentyev's Engine-tornado Motorul-tornada al lui Arsentyev

The device generates local natural tornado. There is an attempt to elaborate the principles, which are in the basis of the electrostatic model of tornado (see Fig. 14). In its principle of operation the device has very much in common with well known from school electrostatic generator (do you remember 2 rotating in opposite directions plexiglass disks covered with foil and a lightning, appearing at breakdown between two metal balls, which take the potential form these discs?). In our case the whole device is rolled up in a cone. Rotating inner rotor, which is made of maximum possible lightweight material (e.g. thin-walled plastic), creates spiral and swirling on their axes air bunches. These very air bunches are charge suppliers (they are not presented at Fig.E).

The device operates in the following way: the plates are positively charged on rotor and negatively on stator (metallized black straps can be applied on the cone of rotor-stator by galvanoplastics method). Engine-generator works as a motor until the plates reach breakdown voltage. Then there appears a charge between pairs of rotor-stator plates that causes appearance of impulses, promoting acceleration of rotation. Inflow of "fresh" air from below provides self-sustaining of rotation. Motor-generator turns to the oscillating mode. Water, is pumped from below and promotes intensification of air electrization (there is an effect of intensive electrization at splashing of water drops in air, e.g. waterfall streams). It is well known that tornado is strongly "attracted" by ponds. That is the principle of operation in general. The only energy sources are water and a huge amount of air, transmitted through the device. Lightweight thin-walled plastic with galvanoplastic metallization can be used as a material for rotor-stator (the usage of glued foil is also possible). The device must have not less than 1 meter diameter, since it is very important for the successful operation (there was a failure of Roshchm-Godin's experiment with the device, which had 20 cm. diameter, whereas the device with 1 meter diameter worked).

Do not forget to ground metal parts of motor-generator!

Here is the project of the generator. There are no elaborated design drawings and everything should be tested. However, if it is able to operate, then the similar commercial plant can be easily produced, especially since the simpler device, the more effective it is.

At this stage the author focused attention on generation of energy, while creation of aircraft is the further step in development of the project.

Let us return to Shauberger's Repulsine, the electrostatic model of his device assumes the following approximate form ( Fig. F, G, H)

Aparatul genereaza tornade naturale locale. Există o încercare de a elabora principiile, care sunt în baza modelului electrostatice de Tornado (a se vedea Fig. 14). În principiu de funcţionare a dispozitivului foarte mult în comun cu bine cunoscut de la şcoală generator electrostatic (nu vă amintiţi, 2 discuri rotative în direcţii opuse plexiglas acoperite cu folie şi un fulger, care apare la defalcarea între două bile de metal, care iau forma potenţialul aceste discuri?). În cazul nostru întregului sistem este rulat într-un con. Rotirea interior rotor, care este fabricat din materiale usoare maxim posibil (de exemplu, din plastic cu pereţi subţiri), creează spirala şi agitând pe ciorchini lor aer axe. Aceste ciorchinilor foarte aer sunt furnizori de încărcare (ele nu sunt prezentate la Fig.E).

Dispozitivul funcţionează în modul următor: plăcile sunt încărcate pozitiv şi negativ asupra rotorului pe stator (bretele negru metalizat pot fi aplicate pe conul de rotor-stator prin metoda galvanoplastie). lucrări Engine-generator ca un motor până când plăcile ajunge tensiunii de strapungere. Apoi, apare o taxă între perechi de plăci rotor-stator care determină apariţia de impulsuri, promovarea accelerare de rotaţie. Afluxul de "proaspete" de la aer de mai jos oferă autonome de rotaţie. Motor-generator se transformă în modul oscilant. De apă, este pompata de jos şi promovează intensificarea electrizarea aer (există un efect de electrizarea intensiv la stropi de picături de apă în aer, de exemplu, fluxuri de cascada). Este bine cunoscut faptul că tornada este puternic “atrasa” de iazuri. Acesta este principiul de funcţionare, în general. Singurele surse de energie sunt de apă şi o cantitate mare de aer, transmise prin intermediul aparatului. Pereti-subţiri uşori de plastic, cu pereţi cu metalizare galvanoplastice pot fi utilizate ca material pentru rotor-stator (utilizarea de folie lipite este, de asemenea, posibil). Dispozitivul trebuie să aibă nu mai puţin de un diametru de 1 metru, deoarece este foarte important pentru funcţionarea cu succes (a existat o încălcare a experimentului Roshchm-Godin cu dispozitivul, care had 20 cm diametru, întrucât dispozitivul cu diametrul de 1 metru a lucrat).

Nu uitaţi de părţile metalice catre sol ale motorului-generator!

Aici este proiectul de generator. Nu sunt elaborate desene de proiectare şi tot ceea ce ar trebui să fie testate. Cu toate acestea, în cazul în care acesta este capabil să funcţioneze, atunci generatoarele comerciale similare pot fi produse, mai ales că cu cat dispozitivul este mai simplu, cu atat este mai eficient.

În această etapă autorul concentrat atenţia pe producerea de energie, în timp ce crearea de aeronave este pas mai departe în dezvoltarea proiectului.

Să ne întoarcem la lui Repulsine Shauberger, modelul electrostatică a dispozitivului său presupune aproximative formularul de mai jos (Fig. F, G , H)

Fig.F,G,H Possible electrostatic model of Shauberger's engine-generator by E. Arsentyev Posibil model electrostatic al motorului-generator Shauberger de catre E. Arsentyev

Most likely, in Shauberger's engine "supply" air proceeds from below and from above (i.e. there is a vortex chamber on top of the device just as it is). Two mirror vortices have common "tornado eye". During operation there is constant electrization of the flow inside the device. Negatively charged ring is created in the center of toroidal space (according to the suggested electrostatic theory of tornado). In principle, framework of the device can acquire positive potential. However to make sure, it is better to ground the framework. At electric breakdown of water-air compound there is cooling and twisting of tornado cords inside the device. That is a motive force of the device. Air ionization is possible around the framework (in the absence of grounding). At the first stage it is offered to use classic Shauberger's turbine as turbine of the device (corkscrews allow to obtain required twisting of water and air flows inside the device). It is also possible to use a usual doubled centrifugal turbine. The device can be made of metal (as Shauberger's one) or of dielectric (for example, plastic) that is more interesting from the modern point of view. Diameter of the whole device is about 1 meter. Water-air cords, which are generated by the corkscrews (or by blades in the second case) have 3-5 cm diameter.

There are many publications on Koand effect, which appears during the operation of Shauberger's engine. For some reason in these works Koand effect is always described as an explanation of wing lift. But Koand effect is a phenomenon of absolutely another kind! It is the adherence of gas or fluid flow to the surface along which they move! Obviously, the problem is m the erroneous understanding of Shauberger's notes about the presence of such effect during the operation of the device. In my opinion, using Koand effect we can make a rotor wheel, which has no blades or corkscrews. This rotor wheel can have the form of doubled hyperbolic cone. At hyper-high speeds of rotation of such a turbine, water-air compound will be involved in tornado swirling exactly by means of Koand effect, i.e. by means of adhesion of particles to the surface of the rotating cone. (See cover page, Fig. H). By its design this turbine is very simple, since only maximal lightness and durability are demanded, Plastic seems to be the best material, hence the design represents a rotor-thin-walled plastic "whirligig". All electrostatic effects and other principles of operation are valid here (See Fig.H).

Let us now move away from Shauberger's principles and formulate the following problem- to achieve stability of the process by modernization of the device, i.e. by removing of all mechanically movable parts.

Can you imagine fireworks, which are the rotating wheels with burning rockets on the rims? These rims gradually accelerate and turn into the burning ring. It looks very effectively but absolutely useless, at first sight. Speed of rotation is very high but nevertheless it is definite. What is the limit for this speed of rotation? Have you ever thought why usual electro-motor is no table to rotate with the speed, which is higher than some maximal one, and no matter how long you will apply voltage to the device? Everything is limited by moment of inertia, existing for gyrating masses. This moment of inertia is denned by the weight of rotating body and by weight distribution on the axis of rotation. Therefore massive rotor of electric motor or of rotating turbine can never be rotated up to super speeds. Nowadays aircraft turbines have the highest speed of rotation (about 150 thousand rot/mm). Why should we need to rotate a heavy turbine or rotor? What if we will rotate air or, more precisely, combustion products? Roughly speaking, I offer to stop rotation of the firework wheel and force rotation of air or combustion products along some inner rim. Therefore we will obtain a burning ring, which will get required reactive force at rejection of incandescent gases in proper direction. Let us consider the problem from this point.

Operation of rocket engine is based on the expansion reaction, which takes place in some closed space (at combustion of fuel + oxidant in the chamber) and also the emission of combustion products in the same direction. At that, a body moves in the opposite direction.

Cel mai probabil, în motorul lui Shauberger “furnizarea” de aer purcede de jos şi de sus (de exemplu, există o cameră vortex pe partea de sus a dispozitivului aşa cum este). Două vartejuri oglinda au comun “ochiul tornadei”. În timpul funcţionării există electrizarea constantă a debitului în interiorul dispozitivului. Inel perceput negativ este creat în centrul spaţiului toroidale (conform teoriei electrostatice sugerat de tornade). În principiu, cadrul aparatului poate dobândi potenţial pozitiv. Cu toate acestea pentru a vă asigura, este mai bine să punem cadrul in contact cu solul. La defalcare electric compus din apă-aer nu este de răcire şi răsucirea de cordoane tornade în interiorul dispozitivului. Aceasta este o forţă motrice a aparatului. Ionizarea aerului este posibilă în jurul cadrului (în absenţa de împământare). La prima etapă este oferit de a folosi turbine clasice Shauberger ca turbina a dispozitivului (tirbuşor permite să obţină răsucirea necesară a fluxului de apă şi a aerului din interiorul aparatului). De asemenea, este posibil să se utilizeze o turbina de obicei dublat centrifugal. Aparat pot fi realizate din metal (ca unul Shauberger) sau dielectric (de exemplu, din plastic), care este mai interesant din punct de vedere modern. Diametru al întregului sistem este de aproximativ 1 metru. cordoane de apa-aer, care sunt generate de tirbuşor (sau de lame, în al doilea caz), au 3-5 cm diametru.

Există multe publicaţii pe efect Koand, care apare în timpul funcţionării motorului Shauberger lui. Pentru unii motiv, în aceste lucrări efect Koand este întotdeauna descrisă ca o explicaţie de ridicare aripa. Dar efectul Koand este un fenomen absolut de altă natură! Este aderarea de gaz sau flux de lichid la suprafaţa de-a lungul careia se mişcă! Evident, problema este m înţelegerea eronată a notelor Shauberger despre prezenţa unor astfel de efect în timpul funcţionării dispozitivului. În opinia mea, folosind Koand efect putem face o roata rotor, care nu are nici lame sau tirbuşor. Această roată rotor poate avea formă de con hiperbolice dublat. La viteze hiper-ridicat de rotaţie a unei astfel de turbine, de apă-aer compus va fi implicat în tornadă vartej exact prin intermediul efectului Coanda, adică prin intermediul particulelor de adeziune de la suprafata a conului rotativ. (A se vedea pagina de gardă, Fig. H). Prin designul său, această turbină este foarte simplu, deoarece numai luminozitate maximă şi durabilitatea sunt cerute, plastic pare a fi cel mai bun material, prin urmare, designul reprezinta un rotor-cu-pereţi-subţiri din plastic “titirez”. Toate efectele electrostatice şi alte principii de funcţionare sunt valabile aici (a se vedea Fig.H).

Să ne trece acum departe de principiile Shauberger şi formula următoarea problemă, pentru a atinge stabilitatea procesului de modernizare a dispozitivului, şi anume prin eliminarea tuturor părţilor mecanic mobile.

Vă puteţi imagina focuri de artificii, care sunt roţile rotative cu rachete ardere pe jante? Aceste jante accelera treptat şi se transformă în ring de ardere. Se pare foarte eficient, dar absolut inutil, la prima vedere. Viteza de rotaţie este foarte mare, dar cu toate acestea, este clar. Care este limita pentru această viteză de rotaţie? Te-ai gândit vreodată de ce de obicei electro-motorul nu este nici o masă să se rotească cu viteză, care este mai mare decât una maximă, şi nu contează cât timp va aplica tensiune la aparat? Totul este limitat de momentul de inerţie, existent pentru masele rotative. Acest moment de inerţie este denned de greutatea corpului de rotaţie şi de distribuţia greutăţii pe axa de rotaţie. Prin urmare, rotor masiv de motor electric sau de rotaţie turbina nu poate fi rotit până la viteze super. In zilele noastre turbine aeronave au cea mai mare viteză de rotaţie (aproximativ 150 de mii rot / mm). De ce ar trebui să avem nevoie pentru a roti o turbina grele sau rotor? Ce se întâmplă dacă vom roti de aer sau, mai precis, produsele de ardere? Aproximativ vorbind, am oferta pentru a opri rotaţia de roată de artificii şi rotaţia vigoare a produselor de aer de combustie sau de-a lungul unor RIM interior. Prin urmare, vom obţine un inel de ardere, care va primi necesare vigoare reactivă la respingerea de gaze incandescente în direcţia corectă. Să ne considerăm problema din acest punct.

Funcţionarea motorului racheta se bazează pe reacţia de expansiune, care are loc în unele spaţiu închis (de la arderea combustibililor + oxidant în camera) şi, de asemenea, emisiile de produsele de ardere în aceeaşi direcţie. La care, un organism se mişcă în direcţia opusă.

Fig 15

Let us fill a cup with fuel and burn it (see Fig.15). Fuel expands at combustion and as a result of natural convection the combustion products go up. In the real rocket engine there is a forced injection of fuel and oxidant into the cup that causes more intensive motion of combustion products, than in our case. Let us modernize the cup and make a hole in its center (see Fig. 16).

Să ne umple un pahar cu combustibil şi arde-o (a se vedea Fig.15). De combustibil se extinde la ardere şi, ca urmare a convectie naturala produse de combustie merge în sus. În motorul racheta real există o injecţie forţată de combustibil şi oxidant în paharul pe care cauzează mişcare mai intensă a produselor de combustie, decât în cazul nostru. Să ne moderniza cupa şi să facă o gaură în centrul său (a se vedea Fig. 16).

Fig. 16

Thus, portions of air can inflow from below and sustain combustion. Expanding consumption products repel themselves from inclined walls of the combustion chamber and therefore their raise is more justified.

Astfel, porţiuni ale fluxului de aer poate de mai jos şi susţine combustie. Extinderea consumului de produse se respinge de la pereţii înclinaţi ai camerei de ardere şi, prin urmare, creşterea lor este mult mai justificată.

Fig. 17

Let us place several similar chambers one after another (Fig. 17). If we concern each chamber individually, then combustion products at their expansion repel themselves from inclined walls of the chamber and obtain some impulse. At that, the process appears in the lower chamber and then becomes more intensive in the second and all subsequent chambers. Thus combustion products are gradually accelerated. There is a process of kinetic energy storage. In order to make the process of storage to be continuous, we should coil everything up.

Let us examine operation of the following device, which can be made of a metal tin (see Fig. 18). The arrows symbolize burning fuel, which obtains an impulse at the expansion. This diagram is not connected with attraction as the presented above figures of cups. It is caused by the fact that centrifugal forces come into force, i.e. fuel is pressed to the rim and portions of air are delivered by centrifugal force through the hole in the center of the device (see the top view on Fig. 18).

Să ne loc mai multe camere similare unul după altul (Fig. 17). Dacă ne privesc fiecare camera individual, apoi produse de combustie la expansiunea lor se resping de la pereţii înclinaţi ai camerei şi de a obţine unele impuls. La faptul că, procesul apare în camera inferioară, apoi devine mai intensă în a doua şi toate camerele ulterioare. Astfel, produsele de combustie sunt accelerate treptat. Există un proces de stocare a energiei cinetice. În scopul de a face procesul de depozitare care urmează să fie continuu, ar trebui să bobinam totul sus.

Să examinam funcţionarea dispozitivului de mai jos, care poate fi făcut dintr-o cutie de metal (vezi figura 18.). Săgeţile simbolizează arderea combustibilului, care obţine un impuls la expansiune. Această diagramă nu este conectat cu atracţie ca cifrele prezentate mai sus, din cupe. Aceasta este cauzată de faptul că forţele centrifuge intra în vigoare, adică de combustibil este presat până la marginea şi porţiuni de aer sunt livrate prin forta centrifuga prin gaura din centrul dispozitivului (a se vedea vedere de sus în figura 18.).

Fig.18

In the center there can be placed a motor-generator to release energy (see Shauberger's device). The presented design has 4 combustion chambers and most likely, the vortex will be swirled of 4 rotating cylinders. Shauberger's device has 24 cylinders at 1-meter diameter of the construction. Such proportions can be justified in physical sense. In the same way we can take the required number of chambers. Then the vortex is contracted to point as in the aforesaid description of balls-rolls.

The operation of the device is presented in Fig. 19 (view from within). There is a toroid, which has self-support of combustion reaction. The toroid draws air by means of centrifugal force and throws up combustion products. Speed of rotation of the toroid can be very high since its small mass. At the same time, at superhigh speed of rotation of this tore, some new and still unknown phenomena can become apparent. If this engine really works, then there is no necessity of production accuracy and of high technologies, which are required for making of aircraft turbines and rocket engines. The only essential requirement is heat resistance of the device. Such an engine could be made at the appearance of ceramic stuff, i.e. far earlier than modern era.

În centru nu poate fi plasat un motor-generator pentru a elibera energie (vezi dispozitiv Shauberger lui). Design a prezentat are 4 camere de ardere şi cel mai probabil, vortex va fi răsucit de 4 cilindri de rotaţie. dispozitiv Shauberger are 24 de cilindri de la diametru de 1 metru de construcţie. Astfel de proporţii poate fi justificată în sens fizic. În acelaşi fel putem lua numărul necesar de camere. Apoi vortexul este contractat la punct ca în descrierea menţionata mai sus de bile-role.

Funcţionarea dispozitivului este prezentată în Fig. 19 (vedere din interior). Există un toroid, care auto-suporta reacţia de combustie. Toroidul atrage aerul prin intermediul fortei centrifuge şi aruncă produse de combustie. Viteza de rotaţie a toroid poate fi foarte mare, deoarece masa sa mici. În acelaşi timp, la viteza de rotaţie a superhigh acestei rupt, unele fenomene noi şi încă necunoscute pot deveni evidente. În cazul în care acest motor functioneaza cu adevarat, atunci nu există nici o necesitate de precizie de producţie şi a tehnologiilor de înaltă, care sunt necesare pentru a face de turbine de aeronave şi motoarele pentru rachete. Singura cerinţă esenţială este rezistenta la caldura a dispozitivului. Un astfel de motor putea fi fabricat la apariţia de obiecte ceramice, adică mult mai devreme decât era modernă.

Fig 19

Now there is another "technological nonsense". I offer to make the simplest air-reactive engine, which has no movable parts. Certainly, many readers have used to observe benzine or another inflammable substance burning in a metal bucket or barrel. From time to time, tongues of flame create rising swirled vortex, which disappears at once, since there are no special reasons for its existence. What if we help the flame and spend for rotation all energy, which is generated in result of expansion of combustion products? Progressive motion will be the consequence of this process.

Acum, acolo este un alt “nonsens tehnologic”. Am oferta de a face cel mai simplu motor cu aer-reactive, care nu are parti mobile. Desigur, mulţi cititori au folosit pentru a observa benzină sau o altă substanţă de ardere inflamabile într-o găleată de metal sau butoi. Din când în când, limbi de flăcări a crea creştere vortex învârtit, care dispare la o dată, deoarece nu există motive speciale pentru existenţa sa. Ce se întâmplă dacă vom ajuta flacără şi cheltui pentru rotaţie toata energia, care este generata în urma expansiunii produselor de combustie? Mişcarea progresivă va fi consecinta acestui proces.

Fig. 20

The device (see Fig. 20) represents a bucket with legs and a hole in its lower part. To support the reaction, air inflows from below. The plate-made, corona-like part of the device coils up combustion products. Then under the influence of centrifugal forces combustion products go up along walls of the bucket. New portions of air aredrawn in the device from below and at once react with each other (the more intensive combustion, the more portions of air are drawn into swirling that in its turn promotes combustion). The only aim is to forward all energy output to swirling. This device is a miniature model of typhoon-tornado-spout, i.e. a naive attempt to reproduce a natural phenomenon in a simple leaky bucket. But there is still undecided question: what is the reason for limitation of speed of swirling and therefore speed of the flow, which goes from below?

Dispozitivul (a se vedea Fig 20.) Reprezinta o galeata cu picioarele şi o gaură în partea de jos. Pentru a sprijini reacţie, aerul din intrările de mai jos. Placa de-a făcut, ca parte corona-a dispozitivului de colaci de pana produse de combustie. Apoi, sub influenţa produselor de ardere forţele centrifuge merge de-a lungul zidurilor de găleată. porţiuni noi de aer aredrawn în aparatul de mai jos şi la o dată reactioneaza cu fiecare alte (ardere mai intensa, mai porţiuni de aer sunt atrase în vartej care, la rândul său promovează ardere). Scopul este doar de a transmite toate ieşire de energie la vartej. Acest dispozitiv este un model în miniatură de taifun-Tornado-cioc, adică o încercare naivă de a reproduce un fenomen natural într-o găleată neetanşe simplu. Dar există încă nehotărât întrebarea: Care este motivul pentru limitarea vitezei de agitare şi, prin urmare, viteza de curgere, care merge de mai jos?

Fig.21

One more Shauberger's device is presented at Fig. 21. There are some changes along the section A-A. Combustion products are drawn to the center of swirling and then they are divided in two flows: the first flow goes upward, creating the vortex, and the second goes downward, making the motive force of the device. Motor-generator is placed on the upper part of the device. It operates as a starter of the process at first and as generator of energy, after it reaches regime of tornado. Let me remind of the fact that this engine uses energy, which is generated as a result of fuel combustion (i.e. in any case, a kind of liquid fuel is required). Shauberger asserts that it is sufficient to use air and water as fuel. I am not sure it is a realistic assertion, but later on I will try to offer my own suggestion on the point, since from respect of energy consuming, natural vortex has no need in something else.

Inca un dispozitiv Shauberger este prezentat la Fig. 21. Există unele modificări de-a lungul secţiunea AA. Produsele de combustie sunt trase la centrul de agitare şi atunci ele sunt împărţite în două fluxuri: fluxul prima merge în sus, crearea vortex, iar a doua merge în jos, făcând forţa motrice a dispozitivului. Motor-generator este amplasat pe partea superioară a aparatului. Acesta funcţionează ca un starter a procesului de la început şi ca generator de energie, după ce ajunge la regimul de tornade. Permiteţi-mi amintesc de faptul că acest motor utilizeaza energie, care este generat ca urmare a arderii combustibilului (de exemplu, în orice caz, un fel de combustibil lichid este necesar). Shauberger afirmă că este suficient să se utilizeze aerul şi apa drept combustibil. Eu nu sunt sigur că este o afirmaţie realista, dar mai târziu voi încerca să ofer propria mea sugestie la obiect, deoarece din respect in ce priveste consumul de energie, vortexul natural nu are nevoie de altceva.

A-A section Secţiune A-A

Let me say several words about fuel for the device. It is evident that at the initial stage of operation the device has lack of air. Therefore, fuel should have oxidant in its compound (something like napalm, which can burn by itself). But, quite possible, I am wrong and usual aviation spirit is enough. Later on I will try to develop this idea and modernize the design. The main point will be the same, i.e. how to make engine, which has no movable parts. There are so many new ideas on the variants of engines that I am hardly able to describe them, not to mention about making. If you will decide to make something similar, please, write (mailto:evg-ars@narod.ru) but let me get notice that everything is submitted in Internet without diagrams and calculations.

To be continue...

What do you think about? Best regurds for all from Evgeny ArSEntyEV.

Some other pages that related to this page

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Another Related Schauberger page

Vortex energy page

An idea for a vortex windmill

Permiteţi-mi să spun câteva cuvinte despre combustibil pentru dispozitiv. Este evident că la etapa iniţială de funcţionare aparatul a lipsei de aer. Prin urmare, de combustibil ar trebui să aibă în oxidant compus sale (ceva de genul napalm, care pot arde de la sine). Dar, foarte posibil, am spirit de aviaţie greşit şi de obicei este de ajuns. Mai târziu voi încerca să dezvolte această idee şi să modernizeze designul. Principalul punct va fi acelaşi, şi anume modul de a face motor, care nu are parti mobile. Există atât de multe idei noi pe variante de motoare pe care eu sunt abia în măsură să le descrie, ca să nu vorbim despre a face. Dacă va decide să facă ceva similar, vă rugăm, scrie (mailto: evg-ars@narod.ru), dar lasă-mă să observaţi că totul este prezentat în Internet fără diagrame şi calcule.

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VIKTOR SCHAUBERGER REPULSIN A & B

(1940-1945)

By Rob Arndt

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Viktor Schauberger, an Austrian forester who observed the effects of nature- especially of water, privately met Adolf Hitler in 1934 to discuss the fundamental principals of agriculture, forestry, and water engineering. While Hitler was impressed by Schauberger’s radical ideas for utilizing water power in new and dynamic ways, he was also displeased that Schauberger was not willing to participate in work for the Third Reich.

Subsequently and unfortunately for Schauberger this meant that once Austria was annexed in 1938 and war broke out in 1939 the SS would come searching for him and his ideas based on his patents for an “air turbine”, “procedure for lifting liquids and gases” from 1935, and the “warm-cold” machine built for Siemens in 1937 which was, however, destroyed in an unauthorized test.

In 1940, Schauberger began construction of the Repulsin(e) discoid motor in Vienna with help of the Kertl company. He patented his idea on March 4, 1940 in Austria under patent 146,141. But very soon afterwards he was reported by the Viennese Association of Engineers to the SS who placed Schauberger in a mental hospital in Mauer-Ohling. Schauberger was then forced to work with Messerschmitt on liquid vortex cooling systems and Heinkel concerning applications of water towards aircraft engines. At this point Heinkel received reports on the early Repulsin A.

Early Heinkel "T" (Taifun/Typhoon) flying cigar design study for possible use with Schauberger Repulsin vortex motor.

Note lack of detail of engine except for 'turbine" description.

No prop engine nor centrifugal/axial-flow turbojet either... just a gaping inlet, ring turbine and fuselage-wide open shaft to exhaust port.

At Mauthausen, under orders from Heinrich Himmler himself, Schauberger was to carry out research and development for the Third Reich war effort. He was given approximately 20-30 prisoner engineers to proceed with his research into what was termed “higher atomic energies”. For this Schauberger was given special dispensations from the SS for both himself and fellow engineers.

Early design of Forelle submarine utilizing Schauberger vortex technology for propulsion

The construction and perfection of the Repulsin A model discoid motor continued until one of the early test models was ready for a laboratory test that ended in disaster. The model was 2.4 meters in diameter with a small high-speed electric motor. Upon initial start-up the Repulsin A was set in motion violently and rose vertically, quickly hitting the ceiling of the laboratory, shattering to pieces. The SS were not pleased and even threatened Schauberger’s life, suspecting deliberate sabotage.

Replacement models were built, but by 1943 a more improved design, the Repulsin B model was constructed with the SS objective of developing this motor for an odd SS bio-submarine which Schauberger named the “Forelle” (Trout) due to its configuration of a fish with a gaping mouth!

The Repulsin models operated in the following way:

When the main electric engine is started, the Coanda effect begins to create a differential aerodynamic pressure between the outer and inner surface of the primary hull. At a higher speed, the vortex chamber becomes a type of high electrostatic generator due to the air particles, in high speed motion, acting as an electrical charge transporter. The Repulsin A will begin to glow due to strong ionization effect of the air. Now we have all the ingredients for a continuous and strong Aether flow along the main axis from the top to the bottom of the craft. The radial air pressure required for lifting 1 kg with the Coanda Effect is roughly 1.4 kg/cm2.

Internal suction screw impellers of the Schauberger Repulsin-B model

In the Repulsin B the vortex turbine has been improved for increasing the “Implosion Effect” and thus the lifting force. In the Repulsin B the upper membrane is fixed and the lower rotates at high speed. On the edge rim there are special shaped blades of boomerang configuration. There are 120 blades that are 3 degrees spaced around the rim. The enhanced vortex turbine increases significantly the “implosion” effect in the vortex chamber. This contributes to it being able to generate a stronger thrust than the centrifugal turbine used in the Repulsin A. By means of suction screw-impeller (which revolved from the outside towards the inside along a cycloid, spiral space curve) the same type of force is generated which creates twisters, cyclones, and typhoons through the effect of either suction or implosion.

Repulsin B inner workings

Work on the Repulsin B continued in 1944 at the Technical College of Engineering at Rosenhügel in Vienna. Schauberger was finally released back to Leonstein, Austria that same year. It appears that the SS had discarded the idea of applying the Schauberger motor to a submarine when the benefits would greatly improve their work on the secret Flugkreisel which was taken from Rudolf Schriever back in 1941. By 1943 the machine had flown but proved to be unstable. The leader of the SS replacement team was Dr. Richard Miethe who proposed several Flugkreisel replacements with varied power plants, most of which relied on jets or rocket power, until it was learned that Schauberger had engineered a type of turbine machine that would create an up-current of axially-spinning air so powerful that the up-current’s drag force would speed the whole machine higher and higher into the air with a thrust equal to 10,000 hp simply by moving “air”. The turbine was considered a priority for flight development into a manned machine by the SS. It is speculated that Miethe’s final design built in Breslau that flew in 1944 was an enlarged manned Repulsin-type craft.

Schauberger meanwhile had his remaining discoid motors confiscated by the Russians and Americans at the end of the war. While AVRO Canada approached Schauberger for disc development along with a team led by Dr. Richard Miethe, Schauberger refused and instead devoted his remaining life to peaceful uses of his vortex technology by working on various civilian projects which included generators, and both water and air purification systems.

In the late 1950s Schauberger visited the US and was again pressured into working on military disc designs. The pressure was even greater due to the fact that Schauberger’s original Repulsin motors had fallen into Russian hands and the US suspected Schauberger’s technology would appear as a nuclear armed aircraft over US soil.

Schauberger refused to continue participation, but had his designs forcibly signed over to a powerful US consortium. He returned to Austria and died there 5 months later having been robbed of everything.

A tragic end of life for the man everyone named the “Water Wizard”.

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Schauberger-type disc designs for a Flugscheibe showing vortex action

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Nature is not served by rigid laws, but by rhythmical, reciprocal processes. Nature uses none of the preconditions of the chemist or the physicist for the purposes of evolution. Nature excludes all fire on principle for purposes of growth; therefore all contemporary machines are unnatural and constructed according to false premises. Nature avails herself of the bio-dynamic form of motion through which the biological prerequisite for the emergence of life is provided. Its purpose is to ur-procreate [re-create the primary, the essence of] ‘higher’ conditions of matter out of the originally inferior raw materials, which afford the evolutionally older, or the numerically greater rising generation, the possibility of a constant capacity to evolve, for without any growing and increasing reserves of energy there would be no evolution or development.

This results first and foremost in the collapse of the so-called Law of the Conservation of Energy, and in further consequence the Law of Gravity, and all other dogmatics lose any rational or practical basis.

~Viktor Schauberger (From "Implosion" no. 81 re-printed in Nexus magazine Apr-May 1996)

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Viktor Schauberger also said:

If water or air is rotated into a twisting form of oscillation known as ‘colloidal’, a build up of energy results, which, with immense power, can cause levitation. This form of movement is able to carry with it its own means of power generation. This principle leads logically to its application in the design of the ideal airplane or submarine... requiring almost no motive power.

~From "Living Water" by Olof Alexandersson (1990)

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The principal of the vacuum turbine consists in the fact that that an artificial thunderstorm or high tension electrical charge develops in a capillary tube and a double spiral pipe in which electromagnets have been incorporated, which transforms the substance of the air into electrical energies. These discharge into the sidewalls and from there thru diffusion are ducted away downwards as heat. Thru the transmutation of aeriform matter into energies, a self intensifying physical vacuum is created in an upward direction and through the recurrent development of a heat gradient in a downward direction; a powerful up current of air evolves which after a few minutes intensifies to cyclonic force. Because the air pressure in an upward direction can be progressively reduced in this extremely simple way, the counter flow of air can be raised to over 124 mph producing about 10,000 brake H.P. on the inclined surfaces of the prop or turbine.

~Victor Schauberger writes about the Paramagnetic Dynamo (Energy Evolution Pg. 115)

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Viktor Schauberger stated in correspondence of the 1950's that he worked at the Mauthausen concentration camp directing technically oriented prisoners and German scientists in the successful construction of a saucer-shaped aircraft:

The ‘flying saucer’ which was flight-tested on the 19th February 1945 near Prague and which attained a height of 15,000 meters in 3 minutes and a horizontal speed of 2,200 km/hours (1,366mph!), was constructed according to a Model 1 built at Mauthausen concentration camp in collaboration with the first-class stress-analyst and propulsion engineers assigned to me there.

It was only after the end of the war that I came to hear, through one of the workers under my direction, a Czech, that further, intensive development was in progress.

From what I understand, just before the end of the war, the machine was supposed to have been destroyed on Keitel's orders. That's the last I heard of it

In this affair, several armament specialists were also involved who appeared at the works in Prague, shortly before my return to Vienna, and asked that I demonstrate the fundamental basis of it:

The creation of an atomic low-pressure zone, which develops in seconds when either air or water is caused to move radially and axially under conditions of a falling temperature gradient…..

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the “Ernst Zündel Version”

Proposed VLX-2 Vortex Craft utilizing both Schauberger's Repulsin technology and "Coanda Effect"

The Schauberger's Flying Saucer

" The Repulsin "type A

By Jean-Louis Naudin

created on September 26th, 1999 - JLN Labs - Last update March 10, 2006

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In this article, I have tried to give you a possible explanation about the working principle of "the Repulsin" flying saucer from Viktor Schauberger (1938-1957). This document is the synthesis of a fine analysis on pictures of real working devices, on Schauberger's researches in vortexes (implosion principle) and on some technical papers from Henri Coanda (1886-1972) and Bernouilli's principle.

An original picture of the "Repulsin" ( Above) : A flying model of a Schauberger in January 1940

This device has been built with copper and uses a very high speed motor for the main vortex turbine.

The Repulsin device is an Electro-Aero-Dynamic device (E.A.D.) and uses two effects :

•The Coanda Effect, a pure Aerodynamic effect based on the Bernouilly's principle ( see the Coanda Saucer Test )

•The ElectroDynamic effect : The high speed vortex in the vortex chamber produces an electric charges separation effect, called "the diamagnetic effect " by Schauberger.

These two effects combined create the so-called "implosion effect".

When the main electric engine is started, the Coanda effect begins to create a differential aerodynamic pressure between the outer and the inner surface of the primary hull. At a higher speed, the vortex chamber becomes a kind of high electrostatic generator due to the air particles in high speed motion acting as an electrical charges transporter. The "Repulsin" will begin to glow due to the strong ionization effect of the air. Now, we have all the ingredients for a continuous and strong Aether Flow along the main axis from the top to the bottom of the craft.....

The radial air pressure required for lifting 1kg with the Coanda Effect is about 1,4 kg/cm2

The Repulsin "Type A" details

(Above) Some pictures of the vortex turbine ( in red ), the vortex area is in the middle ( the vortex chamber has been removed ).

A front view of the "Repulsin" type A, the primary hull and the vortex chamber have been shown in transparent mode

See also :

US5102066

Vertical take-off and landing aircraft, a patent by Daniel; William H. (1972)

•The Coanda Saucer Test

•The Coanda Effect

•The Repulsin "type B"

•Some additional comments and informations about the Repulsin from J. Bailey

•If your are interested to explore the vortex world see also : The Vortex Lab

• The Viktor schauberger's inventions

The GFS UAV, a Coanda effect flying saucer

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Email : JNaudin509@aol.com

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Return to the Vortex technologies page

rexresearch.com

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Richard CLEM

IC Engine

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This information is reprinted courtesy of Jerry Decker / KeelyNet: http://www.keelynet.com

KeelyNet Post (December 26, 1992): The Richard Clem Engine

KeelyNet Post: The Clem Over-Unity Motor

KeelyNet/Vanguard Note

KeelyNet Post (May 1996)

KeelyNet Post: New Info on the Richard Clem Engine

KeelyNet Email (David Hall)

Tyler Courier-Times (Sunday July 9, 1972)

Clem Engine Photo

Robert Koontz: The Clem Motor and the Conical Pump -- An Investigation of the Clem Motor (KeelyNet ~ 03/21/02)

Walter Haentjens: US Patent # 3,697,190 ~ Truncated Conical Drag Pump

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KeelyNet (12-26-1992 / 7-5-1996)

The Richard Clem Engine

A few months back, we got a call from a friend who had heard of this incredible motor that was said to run itself and generate excess useable power. The details were unclear at the time and our friend gathered more details and we met for lunch to discuss what he had found out. This file with diagram is listed on KeelyNet as CLEM2.ZIP.As we understand it, inventor Richard Clem died of a heart attack soon after the deal was signed with the coal company. His workshop was raided by law enforcement officials and all his notes and drawings were removed. The story as I was told by our unnamed friend. A local man (Dallas) developed a closed system engine that was purported to generate 350 HP and run itself. The engine weighed about 200 pounds and ran on cooking oil at temperatures of 300° F. It consisted of a cone mounted on a horizontal axis. The shaft which supported the cone was hollow and the cone had spiralling channels cut into it. These spiralling pathways wound around the cone terminating at the cone base in the form of nozzles (rimjets). When fluid was pumped into the hollow shaft at pressures ranging from 300-500 PSI (pounds per square inch), it moved into the closed spiralling channels of the cone and exited from the nozzles. This action caused the cone to spin. As the velocity of the fluid increased, so did the rotational speed of the cone.As the speed continued to increase, the fluid heated up, requiring a heat exchange and filtering process. At a certain velocity, the rotating cone became independent of the drive system and began to operate of itself. The engine ran at speeds of 1800 to 2300 RPM. Immediately after the inventor had the heart attack and the papers were removed, the son of the inventor took the only working model of the machine to a farm near Dallas. There it was buried under 10 feet of concrete and has been running at that depth for several years. In later conversations, our contact says the engine had been tested by Bendix Corporation. The test involved attaching the engine to a dynamometer to measure the amount of horsepower generated by the engine in its self-running mode. It generated a consistent 350 HP for 9 consecutive days which astounded the engineers at Bendix. They concluded the only source of energy which could generate this much power in a CLOSED SYSTEM over an extended period must be of an atomic nature. Construction of the engine was from off the shelf components except for the hollow shaft and the custom cone with the enclosed spiral channels. Richard Clem worked with heavy machinery for the city of Dallas and had noticed that certain kinds of high pressure pumps continued to run for short periods after the power was removed. His curiosity into this phenomenon led to the development of the Clem Engine.

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The Clem Over-Unity Motor

The following is from a newspaper clipping that has no name or date. In 1972, Richard Clem announced the invention of a way to operate automobile engines on cooking oil. He's still making that claim today, even though his first prototype motor fell apart and he had been "strung along" by at least 15 companies before he found financial backing. Clem, 48, a heavy equipment operator for the city of Dallas and part-time inventor, says if the automobile industry adopts his invention, motorists could change the eight gallons of vegetable oil only every 150,000 miles and never buy any gas. Clem said he uses vegetable oil because his motor runs at 300 degrees -- a temperature where water has boiled away and conventional motor oil breaks down. Though he won't divulge many details of the engine, a 12-volt battery apparently is the only other source of power. When Clem finished his first vegetable oil engine in 1972, he mapped a 600- mile test trip to El Paso for the first engine model he had financed through his earnings. But he only made it as far as Abilene before the 'shafts and everything bent in it. 'He blamed the failure on poor construction, too small a shaft and the use of chains instead of gears. Undaunted, he decided to try again, but said, 'I needed money to build this thing better.' Neither the automobile industry nor the 15 other companies he wrote -- some as far away as Taiwan -- were interested in financing a prototype and then manufacturing it. Then last year, he said, a large coal company offered to back him. Clem refused to disclose the name of his benefactor, but did say the coal company had signed contracts to sell the engines to power companies for use in pulling turbines. Clem said he expects to finish work on the motor by the end of this year. (1972)

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KeelyNet/Vanguard Note

The above article was reported as being generated from Flower Mound, Texas (northwest of Dallas and slightly beyond Carrollton). I called the only Clem listed in the book as of 11/20/92 and they knew of no other Clem in that area, nor did they know of any Richard Clem or his family. Two separate visits to the patent section of the Dallas Library have not yielded any patents by a Richard Clem involving any type of engine. We are still pursuing for more details.

As of 12/26/92, I drew up a .GIF file called CLEM1.GIF that is bundled with this file under the name CLEM2.ZIP. It gives a better understanding of how the machine was constructed, at least as it was described to us.

For those who study such matters, one immediately sees the tie-ins with Boundary Layer Drag principles as evinced in much of Tesla's work as well as Victor Schauberger's Impansion and Implosion discoveries. We have noted something odd about spinning masses in that at specific velocities, strange things occur. The velocities at which phenomena occur are dependent on the resonant frequencies of the mass as an aggregate, exactly as Keely said.The Clem system was said to be built with off-the-shelf components. The most complicated piece of the entire machine was the cone. And based on boundary layer drag, it would seem that the cone was unnecessary. The question with the Clem device is, 'Does the extended surface area of the cone add to the additional velocity of the cone, yielding greater pressures through centrifugal force or would flat plates as in the TESLA turbine be sufficient to generate the same effect?' We continue to look for more information on this device and appreciate your comments or supporting material.

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KeelyNet Update (May 1996)

A company called Creative Sciences is selling plans ($60) for what they claim is a machine that generates 1500hp and runs by itself. They call this a CEACU and claim it was released by a 70 year old retired scientist.

The truth of the matter is it was designed and built by the late Richard Clem of Flower Mound, Texas as documented by this paper.It is wonderful that someone has taken this information and done something with it (or so claimed) and we will have more details later if you might like to build one. However, be aware a few years ago, some of our Roundtable group chipped in for about $150 worth of 'plans' from Creative Sciences. The plans were bogus and were not free energy unless you are simple enough to think compressed air (as used in some of Dennis Lees 'demonstrations') is free energy.In the last part of June 2001, Rick Harrison, president of Creative Sciences sent an email to KeelyNet saying he was prepared to sue if we did not stop 'bad-mouthing' his company. The website is http://www.fuellesspower.com and I told him go ahead, since I and many others would love to see them prove their overunity claims in court. Since then he has not responded back and the website is not responding, so I think they are changing their claims. We also have several emails from others who say Creative ripped them off and one from Brazil saying its been 60 days after he sent about $115.00 and received nothing.With regard to differences between the CEACU design and Clem the CEACU does not require the cone, but instead uses a thick disk with nozzles on the outer edge. A hollow shaft feeds water into this disk at a high velocity. As the water exits from the nozzles, the disk spins giving an ever higher velocity. A 3200 psi air tank is used to get the disk spinning to 1000 rpm when it is claimed to begin to run on its own. There are other ways to achieve this velocity beyond 3200 psi as you can well imagine.If you write them, please let them know that Richard Clem is the true inventor (as I will). Thanks!... Jerry W. Decker Sysop / KeelyNet

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KeelyNet Post

New Info on the Richard Clem Engine

This past week, a new contact from the Roundtable meetings went out with some of us for dessert after the meeting. We discussed a wide range of topics and somehow Richard Clem was mentioned. This fellow said he actually KNEW Clem, had met him personally a couple of times and had some additional information about him which he would gladly contribute to the pool. Clem had a daughter and son, who our contact says meet often at a restaurant/bar in a suburb of Dallas. So we will be pursuing a contact with them, even though they were VERY spooked by the events leading up to and after their fathers death, which might make some bridge building necessary. When the FBI comes in and takes all your fathers papers and work, I think I'd be paranoid too. Our contact said Clem often drove the test car up and down Central Expressway in Dallas, back when there was NOTHING but open fields in the 70's. In seeking details or verifications of what we already had collected and which is listed in the file CLEM1, our contact said Clem worked for the city of Dallas and operated heavy equipment. This we knew, however, he said Clem used asphalt spraying equipment, which used melted asphalt that was pumped through the machine. Clem noticed THIS MACHINE would continue to run for up to an hour even after the power was turned off! The reason Clem never applied for a patent was because his design was basically the same as the asphalt sprayer and so he felt he could not infringe on an existing patent. That is the first key difference, it was a hot asphalt sprayer rather than a fire engine pump. The second key difference from our original information was that the axis of the cone was VERTICAL, with a horizontal spin plane. This had been suggested by many but we presented the information as it was given. Now, it makes even more sense because the gravity gradient would be slightly greater and amplified by the expanding centrifugal rotation. Clems' machine used Mazola cooking oil and ran at about +300° Fahrenheit. He also used a heat exchanger to keep it cool. So we have a temperature differential plus the centrifugal thrust. We will post any additional information when it comes in, hopefully by next month.

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KeelyNet Email (David Hall)

I have read your pages on the Clem engine and thought you might like to have this. I discussed this article with my brother in law and he said he knew Richard from work. Richard was a dozer operator at the Dallas city landfill and my brother in law was a sanitation truck driver.

He said he had seen the engine and had rode in the car, however the engine was in a Ford Falcon body at that time. He said Richard later built the pictured body because of pressure from Ford.

This engine is for real and works as stated; please don�t give up on this one! If the scanned image is not good enough quality let me know and I will send you a photocopy by snail mail.

I have been in sales for many years (30+) and there are only two motivating factors: The desire for gain and The fear of loss. The daughter fears loss of control of her father's invention (and the possible profits), his approval (his instructions), and her life.

These are not frivolous fears but the only way to overcome these is to get the information out there and the patent (and the courts) will protect the profits. Time will destroy the protection of the patent and people die, but is living in constant fear any better than death?

In a recent meeting with Richard Clems' daughter and her two children, she showed me a brochure which her father had been distributing. This brochure had a rough description of the engine, a list of components and the photo below pointing to various parts.

However, due to a prior arrangement with her lawyer, they removed the list identifying the various parts of the engine which you see below. If anyone has this brochure, I would appreciate a scan or photocopy of it so we can append the engine details to this photo.

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\

Tyler Courier-Times (Sunday July 9, 1972) ~

Fueled by Vegetable Oil -- Spare time inventor Richard Clem, heavy equipment operator for Dallas, stands beside his auto which he states runs on vegetable oil. If auto industry adopted his new invention, he said, the American motorist would change oil in his car only every 150,000 miles and would not have to buy gasoline in between. The claim probably comes as a shock to the auto and petroleum industries, but Clem, 43, seems to have discovered what french fries and hashbrowns have known for years -- that vegetable oil is a hot product.

Flower Mound, Texas -- Richard Clem claims that if the automobile industry would adopt his new invention, the American motorist would change the oil in his car only every 115,000 miles and in between not buy any gas.

That might come as a shock to Detroit and the petroleum industry, but Clem, a heavy equipment operator for the city of Dallas and a spare time inventor, said he has discovered what french fries and hashbrowns have know for years -- that vegetable oil is a hot product.

He said his motor -- much of which he won't divulge -- uses eight gallons of vegetable oil for fuel.

"Engineers have told me this can't work," Clem said, laughing. "I only know it does. It will do someone some good and will help keep the air clean."

His motor is mounted in a bright red car but he said if it is made large enough, "this type of engine could power ships, aircraft, even provide enough power to produce enough energy for large cities.

Vegetable Oil Best ~

"I use vegetable oil because right now the engine is running at 300 degrees," said Clem, 43. "Water would boil and evaporate and conventional motor oil would break down."

The only apparent outside source of power in his car is a 12 volt battery, which Clem said "is used only to start the engine. Once started you can throw the battery away." He said, however, the battery is also used to power the car's lights and horn.

His power plant and car, both financed through his regular earnings, are not the picture of Detroit designing.

"I'm not an engineer, I'm an inventor," he said. "When I get this done I'll turn it over to the engineers and they can develop the finished product."

He said he once attempted to get financial backing, but "is now playing the waiting game."

"I've had offers recently" he said. "But I don't know, I don't want to be obligated to anyone."

Seven Stage Pump ~

Outside the meager electrical portion of the system used to start the motor and run the lights and horn, the power plant consists of a seven stage pump and a "converter."

The pump, as he described it, is used to move the oil, under pressure, from a storage area to the converter from where the energy is converted into enough power to turn the motor, move the oil back to the storage area and power the pump, which in turn continues the cycle.

One hint as to the contents of the converter is "it acts like a turbine but isn't a turbine" in the normal sense of the word, Clem said.

He said his car has "some bugs in it," but said it has been driven as fast as 103 miles per hour. And when he gets the bugs worked out, he plans to take it on a test trip 600 miles to El Paso, Texas.

The success or failure of that trip might decide if vegetable oil is good for more than frying potatoes.

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KeelyNet (03/21/02)

The Richard Clem Motor and the Conical Pump: An Investigation of the Clem Motor

by

Robert Koontz

In December of 1992 Jerry Decker posted an article on the KeelyNet BBS, about a self-running motor that developed excess useable power. The information, gathered from newspaper and individual sources, gave an anecdotal account of the motor invented in 1972 by Richard Clem of Flower Mound, Texas. New information has since been added and can be found on KeelyNet.com at CLEM1.HTM.

Richard Clem worked with heavy machinery for the city of Dallas. He used asphalt-spraying equipment, which pumped liquid asphalt. He noticed the asphalt pump would continue to run for up to 30 minutes after the power was turned off. It was this discovery that led to the development of the motor. Modifications he made eventually resulted in a substantial 350 horsepower output from a 200-pound motor. Clem is said to have often driven a car, powered by this motor, up and down Central Expressway in Dallas. He claimed it didn't use any fuel, and only needed a change of oil every 150,000 miles.

The motor had only one moving part, a cone shaped rotor mounted vertically on a hollow shaft. Spiral channels cut into the cone wound around its length and feed into peripheral nozzles at its large end. When fluid flowed through the spiral channels it was ejected out the nozzles and caused the cone to spin. At a certain velocity, the rotating cone became independent of the starter pump and began to operate by itself. At an operating speed of 1800 to 2300 RPM the fluid heated up to 300° F, requiring a heat exchanger. Vegetable oil was used because at 300° F water boils and conventional engine oil breaks down. A 12-volt battery was the only other power source.

Clem never applied for a patent because his motor design was derived from the asphalt pump that was already patented. Fifteen companies turned him down before a large coal company offered to back him and signed contracts to sell the motor. Soon after the deal was signed, Richard Clem died of a heart attack

The above account contains only what I considered to be relevant for analysis of the Clem motor. The gear pumps, typically used for asphalt spaying, do not match the description of the pump used by the city of Dallas back in 1972. There should be public records showing what equipment manufacture the asphalt sprayer was purchased from. Since the asphalt pump was patented, I searched for a pump patent that met the following criteria:

1) Patent issued on or before 1972

2) Delivered pressure equivalent to a positive displacement gear pump.

3) Cone shaped rotor with spiral channels.

4) Self-propelling action.

5) Capable of pumping a viscous fluid like asphalt.

6) Large heat transfer to pumped fluids.

The following illustration is from US Patent 3,697,190 (Truncated Conical Drag Pump). The patent was issued October 10, 1972 (criteria 1) and appears to match the description of the asphalt pump that Clem converted into his motor.

Housing 11, Conical interior wall 12, Conical rotor 13, Inlet chamber 14, Inlet pipe 15, Outlet chamber 16, Outlet pipe 17, Support feet 19, Detachable end cap 20, Rotor shaft 21, End cap wall 22, Boss 23, Packing 24, Adjustable gland nut 25, Bracket arms 27, Bearing boss 29, Bearing 30, Snap ring 31, Inner race 32, Sleeve 33, Shoulder 34, Retainer nut 35, Reduced diameter outer end 36, Coupling 37, Packing 39, Retainer 40, Gland nut 41, Bearing boss 43, Integrally formed bracket 44, Shaft reduced diameter 45, Bearing sleeve 46, Bearing 47, Snap ring 48, Inner flanged 49, Inner race 50, Nut 51,Shaft reduced diameter 53, Lock nut 55, Flat faces 56, Snap ring 57, Washer 59, Nut 60, Helical channel 61, Channel base 63, Channel sidewalls 64

This is a high-pressure, low volume drag pump that can be used in place of conventional positive displacement pumps (criteria 2). It has a conical rotor that has a close fit clearance with the stationary housing wall. Delivered pressure is limited by back flow across the radial clearance and is inversely proportional to the square of the clearance. As a result, even a small increase in radial clearance would rapidly reduce pressure. The rotor is cone shaped so that the clearance can be controlled by axial adjustment of the rotor relative to the housing wall.

The conical rotor has two helical channels (criteria 3), in the form of square threads, spaced 180° apart for balance. The channel depth decreases as the rotor diameter increases. Fluid enters the channels at the small end of the rotor. The fluid is induced to rotate with the channel by boundary layer drag. The boundary layer is the thin layer of fluid adhering to the channel surface. Molecular cohesion tends to drag the adjacent fluid with the boundary layer. The fluid is also in contact with the housing wall. The boundary layer drag against this stationary wall slows the rotation of the fluid in the channels. Because the fluid rotates slower than the rotor, it is forced through the channels towards the large end of the rotor. In addition the fluid is forced towards the large end by centrifugal force.

The above drawing illustrates the proportional decrease in channel depth as the rotor diameter increases. Why was this done? Note that as the diameter doubles so does the circumference. This means the fluid has to travel twice as far in the same time to maintain a constant slip velocity. By reducing the channel depth in half (cross-section area = depth x width) the fluid velocity is doubled thereby keeping the slip constant.

The spiral channels could be thought of as very long convergent nozzles. The increase in fluid velocity is in the opposite direction of the rotor spin. We should expect a reaction force from the acceleration of the fluid. This thrust would be directed tangent to the circumference and would increase the spin torque on the rotor. Even without the peripheral nozzles, that Clem later added, the pump rotor experiences a thrust force in a direction that would self-propel it (criteria 4).

Because fluid drag is the primary pumping force, it is well suited for viscous fluids like asphalt (criteria 5). The long channels also represent a large sliding surface area with frictional losses that would transfer heat to the pumped fluid (criteria 6).

All six of the patent search criteria have now been met. Of course this doesn�t prove that it is the asphalt pump Richard Clem worked with.

A peculiar condition indicated by the patent is that as the velocity increases in the channels the pressure also increases. Bernoulli�s Law requires the pressure to drop proportionally as the velocity increases. Assuming an ideal fluid without losses, when the channel depth is reduced in half, the cross section area is also half and this doubles the fluid velocity and the fluid pressure should drop in half. So what is going on here? There is a centrifugal component that would add to the fluid pressure.

My guess is it's too small to overcome the predicted pressure drop. Here is what I think may be going on. As the diameter and velocity increases the drag force propelling the fluid through the channel is proportionally greater. Energy is being added all along the length of the channel. Whatever the reason, if this high-velocity, high-pressure fluid is feed into tangent peripheral nozzles at the rotor large end, the energy will be converted to shaft horsepower.

The Clem motor is producing 350 shaft-horsepower and a large heat energy component. Where is this huge amount of energy coming from? Resent quantum mechanics zero-point field (ZPF) theories may point to the answer. From an article available at "BEYOND E=mc2" (Bernhard Haisch, Alfonso Rueda & H.E. Puthoff published in THE SCIENCES, Vol. 34, No. 6, November / December 1994, pp. 26-31 copyright 1994, New York Academy of Sciences):

"Our work suggests inertia is a property arising out of the vast, all-pervasive electromagnetic field we mentioned earlier, which is called the zero-point field (ZPF). The name comes from the fact that the field is held to exist in a vacuum-what is commonly thought of as "empty" space-even at the temperature of absolute zero, at which all thermal radiation is absent."

ZPF researchers theorize that mass, inertia and gravity are not intrinsic properties of matter but the interaction of matter with the zero-point field. By "all pervasive" is meant that the ZPF exists not only in "empty space" but it is passing through your body right now and everywhere else. When you throw a stone you are interacting with this field since the ZPF resists change in motion. In essence the ZPF is the modern day aether.

The amount of energy making up the ZPF is thought to be enormous. Is the fluid acceleration in the Clem motor interacting with the ZPF in such a way as to rectify it and draw energy from it? Is it a hydraulic aether-diode? The fluid, in the Conical Drag Pump, flows through long convergent channels. Disregarding the boundary layer, is this accelerated flow laminar? Would such a long orderly flow entrain the aether energy?

From the perspective of the rotating channels the fluid appears as the discharge from a long nozzle. To exaggerate, if the fluid was held fast to the housing wall, the rotating channel would travel through the stationary fluid. This would be equivalent to achieving 100% efficiency. In reality the fluid is slipping against the stationary housing wall so that the rotating channel ("nozzle") is moving faster than the fluid discharge velocity. Assuming the reaction thrust as the only propelling force, this would give efficiency greater than 100%. So, as the slip increases the reaction thrust decreases, but the efficiency increases.

Assuming the Conical Drag Pump is the pump Clem used, can it answer the following?

1) Why was a hollow shaft used?

2) Why was the cone mounted vertically?

3) Why was a starter pump needed?

4) How were the peripheral nozzles added?

5) How was the motor RPM regulated?

6) How did a large coal company get involved?

7) Was this kind of pump ever used in asphalt sprayers?

(Red arrows show oil flow)

The above drawing shows a hypothetical Clem motor based on the Conical Drag Pump. The motor is mounted vertically so that the check valve on the hollow shaft is submerged down in the oil tank. The hollow shaft (shown in blue) extends from the oil tank through the rotor into the inlet chamber. The start pump draws oil from the tank and forces it up the external feed line connected to the inlet chamber at the small end of the rotor. This fills the hollow shaft and forces the check valve closed. The oil flows into the spiral channels and out the peripheral nozzles. The reaction thrust of the nozzles spins the rotor. The oil flows through the return line, through the valve, filter, and heat exchanger and back into the tank. The start pump is most likely a standard hydraulic gear pump. It continues to pump until the rotor spins up to its operating speed. The combinations of a start pump and check valve would be a simple way to both prime the motor and spin up the rotor.

Once the start pump is shut off the check valve is free to open. Oil is drawn up into the hollow shaft (shown in blue) to the inlet chamber at the small end of the rotor. The spiral channels pump the oil down towards the large end of the rotor. A plate is attached to the large end of the rotor and fits with a close clearance with the housing wall. Nozzles attached to the outer edge receive high-pressure oil from the spiral channels. The jet reaction thrust from the nozzles delivers shaft horsepower to the power takeoff at the shaft top. Adjusting the valve to create hydraulic backpressure regulates the motor RPM. Closing the valve stops the motor.

When I first read about the Clem Motor I found it odd that a deal had been made with a coal company. Was there a connection with the pump? After finding the Conical Drag Pump patent, I wanted to contact the inventor Walter D. Haentjens of Barrett, Haentjens & Co., Hazleton, Pennsylvania. Otto Haentjens founded Barrett Haentjens & Co., in 1916. The business began in the coalmines of Pennsylvania with Otto Haentjens original patent on the balanced opposed impeller multi-stage volute pump. The company still supplies pumps to the coal industry. They have expanded to other markets and their pumps are installed in many industries worldwide. It's now known as Hazleton Pumps Inc., after its acquisition by The Weir Group.

I contacted Peter Haentjens, the VP/General Manager of Hazleton Pumps, by e-mail to find out if this pump had ever been put into production. He replied that they had not done anything with the patent:

Email to: Peter Haentjens, VP/General Manager Hazleton Pumps (11/18/2001)

Hi Peter,

I'm interested in a pump developed by Barrett Haentjens & Co. (now Hazleton Pumps Inc.?). During a patent search I found a 1972 patent (# 3,697,190) for a "Truncated Conical Drag Pump" invented by Walter D. Haentjens of Sugarloaf, PA. The attached image is the front page from this patent. Did your company ever manufacture this pump? If so, is it still available?

I appreciate any information you can provide.

Thanks,

Robert Koontz

E-mail from: Peter Haentjens, VP/General Manager Hazleton Pumps (01/19/2002)

Dear Robert,

Sorry for the late reply to your email. We have not done anything with this patent. I would be interested to know the nature and extent of your interest in this design.

Peter

An unusual pump design would have a tough time competing in the market with an industry standard like gear pumps. The Dallas asphalt sprayer may have been a one of a kind field test of the pump design. Or the pump manufacturer offered it for testing to an asphalt equipment company in the hopes of generating interest in it.

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US Patent # 3,697,190

Truncated Conical Drag Pump

US Cl. 415/73 (October 10, 1972)

Walter D. Haentjens

Abstract --- High pressure low volume rate drag pump having a frusto-conical rotor cooperating with a frusto-conical stator wall and having close clearance with the stator wall. The rotor has a helical channel extending therealong, in which the base o root of the channel is formed along a different angle than the cone angle of the rotor. The high pressure is attained by the maximum drag surface along the relatively small passageways together with the centrifugal force of the fluid sue to increasing linear velocity of the rotor from its inlet to its discharge end. The rotor is axially adjustable to maintain a close clearance and a high pressure capability of the pump.

The Field of the Invention

This invention relates generally to low capacity high pressure rotary pumps.

Background, Summary and Objects of Invention

The pump of the present invention operates on the principles of a dynamic shaft seal in which a shaft is provided with square threads on its ends to be seals, which threaded end rotates within a closed chamber. The effectiveness of the seal is directly dependent upon the radial clearance and the pressure delivered is inversely proportional to the square of the radial clearance. While such seals generate high pressure and are in effect a pump operating against a shut-off condition, it has not been possible to provide a means for compensating for wear or for reducing the clearance between the rotor and stator to maintain the efficiency required by a high pressure pump. As is evident from the above relationship, an increase in radial clearance, as would occur with wear, rapidly reduces the pressure available.

The present invention utilizes but improves upon the features of the dynamic seal, in that it places the channels or threads at an angle, which matches a corresponding stator angle. The rotor may thus be a cone or the frustrum of a cone. Axial adjustment means are provided to axially adjust the rotor relative to the conical wall of the stator, to enable the clearance between the rotor and stator to be controlled. The rotor may thus be operated with very close clearances between the rotor and stator wall and the centrifugal force created by the increasing diameter of the rotor from its inlet adds a pressure component to the pressure attained by the drag of the fluid along the walls of the channel.

The pump, therefore, operates on the principle of maintaining a constant slip velocity between channel walls of the rotor and the fluid, in which the channel depth varies, so that the velocity of the fluid changes in accordance with the peripheral velocity of the channel walls of the rotor.

A principal object of the present invention is to provide a more efficient and practical high pressure low capacity pump by the use of a conical channeled rotor having close clearance with the conical wall of a stator.

A further object of the invention is to provide a novel and improved form of low volume high pressure rotary pump of the truncated conical variety, in which the pressure available is a combination of that produced by the hydraulic drag and the centrifugal action on the fluid resulting from the increase in peripheral speed of the rotor due to the change in radius of the truncated conical rotor of the pump.

A further object of the invention is to provide a simplified form of pump having a conical rotor cooperating with a frusto-conical stator with helical channels extending along the rotor, in which the bases or roots of the channels are formed along a different angle than the angle of the rotor, to provide a constant volume of fluid in the passageways from the inlet to the discharge end of the pump with a substantially constant hydraulic drag as the fluid progresses from the inlet to the outlet end of the rotor.

A still further object of the invention is to utilize a conical drag pump in place of the conventional positive displacement reciprocating pump for attaining a high pressure, by providing a frusto-conical rotor having at least one helical channel extending therealong from the inlet to the outlet end of the rotor, in which the efficiency of the pump is maintained by the reduction in clearance between the rotor and stator wall, and the clearance may be controlled within fine limits by axially adjusting the rotor relative to the stator wall.

A further improvement is the use of two or more helical channels, arranged so that radial hydraulic balance exists, thus permitting an extremely close operating clearance between the rotor and stator.

Other objects, features and advantages of the invention will be readily apparent from the following description of a preferred embodiment thereof, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, although variations and modifications may be effected without departing from the spirit and scope of the novel concepts of the disclosure.

Description of the Drawings

Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional view taken through a pump constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention, with the rotor shown in solid;

Figure 2 is a sectional view taken substantially along line II-II of Figure 1;

Figure 3 is a sectional view taken substantially along line III-III of Figure 1; and

Figure 4 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the difference between the cone angle and thread angle at the base of the channels, compensating for increased drag velocity and increased diameters and peripheral speed from the inlet to the outlet end of the rotor.

Description of a Preferred Embodiment of Invention

In the embodiment of the invention illustrated in the drawings, I have shown in Figure 1, a conical drag pump 10 including a housing 11 having a frusto-conical interior wall portion 12 forming a pumping chamber and cooperating with a frusto-conical rotor 13 to produce a high pressure of the fluid as discharged through the outlet of the pump. An inlet chamber 14 is provided at the small diameter end of the frusto-conical wall portion 12 and is shown as having an outlet pipe 17 leading therefrom. The housing 11 is supported on feet 19, which may be bolted or otherwise secured to a conventional foundation or base (not shown).

The outlet chamber 16 is closed by a detachable end cap 20, suitably sealed thereto and removable to afford access to the frusto-conical wall 12, to accommodate machining thereof and assembly of the rotor 13 and a rotor shaft 21 within said housing with the wall of said rotor in close clearance with the internal frusto-conical wall 12.

The end cap 20 has a wall portion 22, closing the outlet end of the housing, and having a cup-like boss 23 extending outwardly therefrom. The cup-like boss 23 contains packing 24, contained to said cup-like boss as by an adjustable gland nut 25 threaded in said boss. The end cap 20 also has a pair of bracket arms 27 extending axially outwardly therefrom. The bracket arms 27 may be formed integrally with the end cap 20 and are spaced apart to afford access to the gland nut 25, to take up on the packing 24. The bracket members 27 form a support at their outer edges for a bearing boss 29 for an anti-friction bearing 30. The bearing 30 is shown as retained against a shouldered position of said bearing boss as by a snap ring 31.

The bearing 30 may be a conventional form of ball bearing and has an inner race 32 mounted on a sleeve 33 and retained against a shouldered portion 34 of said sleeve as by a retainer nut 35 threaded on the outer end of said sleeve and suitable locked thereto. The shaft 21 has a reduced diameter outer end portion 36 extending through the sleeve 33, with a close sliding fit extending outwardly therefrom. The sleeve 33 may be feather keyed on the reduced diameter end of the shaft 36 and sufficient clearance may be provided between the shaft and the sleeve 33 to accommodate axial movement of said shaft relative to said sleeve when taking up on clearance between the frusto-conical wall 12 and frusto-conical face of the rotor 13. The reduced diameter end portion 36 of the shaft 21 is shown as having a coupling 37 mounted thereon, coupling said shaft to a suitable motor (not shown) for driving said shaft and the rotor 13. The coupling 37 may be of a conventional form, of a type which will permit some axial movement of the shaft 21 relative to the motor shaft upon adjustment of clearance between the rotor and the frusto-conical wall 12, and which will also compensate for temperature changes. It should be understood that the coupling 37 may be at either end of the shaft, although the present location of said coupling is preferred to facilitate axial adjustment of said shaft and the rotor 13 relative to the frusto-conical wall 12.

The opposite end of the shaft 21 from the coupling 37 extends through the inlet chamber 14 and is sealed by packing 39 contained within a cup-like retainer 40 extending outwardly of the inlet end wall portion of the housing 11. The packing 39 may be taken up by a gland nut 41 threaded within the interior wall portion of said cup-like retainer 40.

A bearing boss 43 is spaced outwardly of the packing nut 41 and is supported by integrally formed bracket arms 44, extending axially outwardly of the inlet end of the housing 11 and shown as being formed integrally with said housing. The spaced bracket arms 44, like the bracket arms 27, afford access to the gland nut 41, to accommodate adjustment of the packing 39.

The end of the shaft 21 extending outwardly of the gland nut 41 has a reduced diameter portion 45 having sliding fit with a bearing sleeve 46, for a bearing 47 mounted in the bearing boss 43. The bearing 47 may be a suitable form of anti-friction bearing, such as a ball bearing and is shown as retained against an inner shouldered position of the bearing boss 43, as by a snap ring 48.

The sleeve 46 has an inner flanged portion 49 forming a shoulder abutted by an inner race 50 of the bearing 47. A nut 51 threaded on said sleeve is provided to lock said inner race to said sleeve and against the shoulder formed by the flange 49.

The outer end portion of the sleeve 46 is internally threaded, and is threaded on a reduced diameter outer end portion 53 of the shaft 21. A lock nut 55 locks said sleeve to said shaft to effect rotation of said sleeve upon rotation f said shaft. The threaded end portion 53 of the shaft 21 may have opposite flat faces, one of which is indicated by reference numeral 56, to accommodate axial adjustment of said shaft relative to the sleeve 46 by loosening the lock nut 55 and holding the shaft from rotation by a wrench engaging the flat portions 56 thereof, and then turning the sleeve 46 along said shaft, to achieve the desired radial clearance between the face of the rotor 13 and the interior cylindrical wall 12.

The rotor 13 may be keyed or otherwise secured to the shaft 21 and is held on said shaft by a split or snap ring 57 snapped on said shaft and engaging the small diameter end of the rotor 13, and by a washer 59 abutting the large diameter end of said rotor, and held thereto as by a nut 60 threaded on said shaft and suitably locked thereto.

The rotor 13 has at least one helical channel 61 cut or otherwise formed therein and leading from the inlet to the outlet end of said rotor. As shown in Figures 1 and 3, two diametrically opposed channels are shown as being in the form of double square threads, each of which threads or channels have a root or base 63 and parallel side walls 64. The channels, however, need not necessarily be formed like square threads but may have rounded bases or may be of various other forms.

While I have shown two helical channels herein, it should be understood that the pump is not restricted to one or two helical channels but that the rotor may have three or more helical channels, provided they are spaced equal distances apart to effect a balance of the changes in pressure as fluid progresses along the channels to the discharge end of the pump.

In order to compensate for the increasing diameter of the rotor from the inlet to the outlet thereof, the channels 61 are cit at a different angle from that of the rotor. As for example, in Figure 4, this angle is diagrammatically illustrated by reference character A and the angle of the frusto-conical face of the rotor is designated by reference character B. The difference in cone angle from the thread angle thus adjusts the geometry of the threads according to the radius of the cone and the channels or threads 61 are of the same width throughout the length of the cone. The depth, however, decreases as the radius increases, to maintain a substantially constant slip velocity between the passage walls of the rotor and the fluid.

As previously mentioned, the pressure obtainable by the pump is basically due to the drag of the fluid along the walls of the channel, and the decreasing depth of the channel as it approaches its discharge end adjusts the geometry according to the radius to provide a constant hydraulic drag, as the fluid progresses from the inlet to the outlet end of the rotor.

The pressure generated from the present truncated conical drag pump, therefore, is a combination of that produced by a dynamic seal and the centrifugal force resulting from the increase in peripheral speed due to the increasing radius of the truncated conical rotor from its inlet to its discharge end.

The pressure produced by the unit is, therefore, controllable by the rotative speed of the rotor, the thread diameter and the thread length and the pressure obtainable is exponentially dependent upon close radial clearance between the periphery of the rotor and internal frusto-conical wall of the stator, which can be adjusted and maintained by holdig the shaft 21 stationary and turning the sleeve 46along the threaded end portion of the shaft and then locking the sleeve to the shaft by the lock nut 55.

It should be understood that while I herein show the channels cut at a different angle from that of the face of the cone, and show what are in effect square threads, that the channel may be cut in the same angle as the cone angle and the desired thread geometry may be attained by varying the width or shape of the channels from the inlet to the outlet end of the rotor.

I claim as my invention: [Claims not included here]

________________________________________

________________________________________

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The Richard Clem Engine - 07/05/96

Originally posted on December 26, 1992 - CLEM1.ASC

A few months back, we got a call from a friend who had heard of this incredible motor that was said to run itself and generate excess useable power. The details were unclear at the time and our friend gathered more details and we met for lunch to discuss what he had found out. This file with diagram is listed on KeelyNet as CLEM2.ZIP.

As we understand it, inventor Richard Clem died of a heart attack soon after the deal was signed with the coal company. His workshop was raided by law enforcement officials and all his notes and drawings were removed.

The story as I was told by our unnamed friend :

A local man (Dallas) developed a closed system engine that was purported to generate 350 HP and run itself. The engine weighed about 200 pounds and ran on cooking oil at temperatures of 300 F.

It consisted of a cone mounted on a horizontal axis. The shaft which supported the cone was hollow and the cone had spiralling channels cut into it. These spiralling pathways wound around the cone terminating at the cone base in the form of nozzles (rimjets).

When fluid was pumped into the hollow shaft at pressures ranging from 300-500 PSI (pounds per square inch), it moved into the closed spiralling channels of the cone and exited from the nozzles. This action caused the cone to spin. As the velocity of the fluid increased, so did the rotational speed of the cone.

As the speed continued to increase, the fluid heated up, requiring a heat exchange and filtering process. At a certain velocity, the rotating cone became independent of the drive system and began to operate of itself. The engine ran at speeds of 1800 to 2300 RPM.

Immediately after the inventor had the heart attack and the papers were removed, the son of the inventor took the only working model of the machine to a farm near Dallas. There it was buried under 10 feet of concrete and has been running at that depth for several years.

In later conversations, our contact says the engine had been tested by Bendix Corporation. The test involved attaching the engine to a dynamometer to measure the amount of horsepower generated by the engine in its self-running mode.

It generated a consistent 350 HP for 9 consecutive days which astounded the engineers at Bendix. They concluded the only source of energy which could generate this much power in a CLOSED SYSTEM over an extended period must be of an atomic nature.

Construction of the engine was from off the shelf components except for the hollow shaft and the custom cone with the enclosed spiral channels.

Richard Clem worked with heavy machinery for the city of Dallas and had noticed that certain kinds of high pressure pumps continued to run for short periods after the power was removed. His curiosity into this phenomenon led to the development of the Clem Engine.

________________________________________

The Clem Over-Unity Motor

The following is from a newspaper clipping that has no name or date.

In 1972, Richard Clem announced the invention of a way to operate automobile engines on cooking oil. He's still making that claim today, even though his first prototype motor fell apart and he had been "strung along" by at least 15 companies before he found financial backing.

Clem, 48, a heavy equipment operator for the city of Dallas and part-time inventor, says if the automobile industry adopts his invention, motorists could change the eight gallons of vegetable oil only every 150,000 miles and never buy any gas.

Clem said he uses vegetable oil because his motor runs at 300 degrees - a temperature where water has boiled away and conventional motor oil breaks down. Though he won't divulge many details of the engine, a 12-volt battery apparently is the only other source of power.

When Clem finished his first vegetable oil engine in 1972, he mapped a 600- mile test trip to El Paso for the first engine model he had financed through his earnings.

But he only made it as far as Abilene before the 'shafts and everything bent in it.'

He blamed the failure on poor construction, too small a shaft and the use of chains instead of gears. Undaunted, he decided to try again, but said, 'I needed money to build this thing better.'

Neither the automobile industry nor the 15 other companies he wrote - some as far away as Taiwan - were interested in financing a prototype and then manufacturing it. Then last year, he said, a large coal company offered to back him. Clem refused to disclose the name of his benefactor, but did say the coal company had signed contracts to sell the engines to power companies for use in pulling turbines.

Clem said he expects to finish work on the motor by the end of this year. (1972)

________________________________________

Vanguard Note..

The above article was reported as being generated from Flower Mound, Texas (northwest of Dallas and slightly beyond Carrollton). I called the only Clem listed in the book as of 11/20/92 and they knew of no other Clem in that area, nor did they know of any Richard Clem or his family.

Two separate visits to the patent section of the Dallas Library have not yielded any patents by a Richard Clem involving any type of engine. We are still pursuing for more details.

As of 12/26/92, I drew up a .GIF file called CLEM1.GIF that is bundled with this file under the name CLEM2.ZIP. It gives a better understanding of how the machine was constructed, at least as it was described to us.

For those who study such matters, one immediately sees the tie-ins with Boundary Layer Drag principles as evinced in much of Tesla's work as well as Victor Schaubergers Impansion and Implosion discoveries.

We have noted something odd about spinning masses in that at specific velocities, strange things occur. The velocities at which phenomena occur are dependent on the resonant frequencies of the mass as an aggregate, exactly as Keely said.

The Clem system was said to be built with off-the-shelf components. The most complicated piece of the entire machine was the cone. And based on Boundary layer drag, it would seem that the cone was unnecessary.

The question with the Clem device is 'Does the extended surface area of the cone add to the additional velocity of the cone, yielding greater pressures through centrifugal force or would flat plates as in the TESLA turbine be sufficient to generate the same effect?'

We continue to look for more information on this device and appreciate your comments or supporting material.

________________________________________

Update as of May 1996

A company called Creative Sciences is selling plans ($60) for what they claim is a machine that generates 1500hp and runs by itself. They call this a CEACU and claim it was released by a 70 year old retired scientist.

The truth of the matter is it was designed and built by the late Richard Clem of Flower Mound, Texas as documented by this paper.

It is wonderful that someone has taken this information and done something with it (or so claimed) and we will have more details later if you might like to build one.

However, be aware a few years ago, some of our Roundtable group chipped in for about $150 worth of 'plans' from Creative Sciences. The plans were bogus and were not free energy unless you are simple enough to think compressed air (as used in some of Dennis Lees 'demonstrations') is free energy.

In the last part of June 2001, Rick Harrison, president of Creative Sciences sent an email to KeelyNet saying he was prepared to sue if we did not stop 'bad-mouthing' his company. The website is http://www.fuellesspower.com and I told him go ahead, since I and many others would love to see them prove their overunity claims in court. Since then he has not responded back and the website is not responding, so I think they are changing their claims. We also have several emails from others who say Creative ripped them off and one from Brazil saying its been 60 days after he sent about $115.00 and received nothing.

With regard to differences between the CEACU design and Clem the CEACU does not require the cone, but instead uses a thick disk with nozzles on the outer edge. A hollow shaft feeds water into this disk at a high velocity.

As the water exits from the nozzles, the disk spins giving an ever higher velocity. A 3200 psi air tank is used to get the disk spinning to 1000 rpm when it is claimed to begin to run on its own. There are other ways to achieve this velocity beyond 3200 psi as you can well imagine.

If you write them, please let them know that Richard Clem is the true inventor (as I will). Thanks!...

Jerry W. Decker Sysop / KeelyNet

Clem Engine Index page - 06/11/04

KeelyNet Loader page

GDR Pirna Sowjetische Flugscheibe

(1950-1956)

By Rob Arndt

________________________________________

The Soviets had Josef Andreas Epp redesign the Omega Diskus to a much less complicated standard that removed the entire ramjet rotor above the canopy and replaced the two proposed Pabst ramjets with more practical copied Junkers Jumo 004B (Soviet RD-10) jet engines fixed one at each side of the disc.

They also demanded that the original eight Argus lift fans be dropped in favor of six higher-hp lift fans of unknown manufacture fitted closer together around the disc’s inner rim surrounding a perfectly domed cockpit. Two tall vertical tails were mounted just aft of the rear lift fans with suitable flight control surfaces added as well on the outer rear disc rim.

The Soviets wanted to use this craft for reconnaissance with enough lift to loiter over Western areas within range of their cameras but with enough speed to make a quick escape. For greater VTOL (Verticle Take-Off and Landing) stability, the central landing gear arrangement was replaced by four hydraulic retractable gear located at each corner of the disc.

The secret disc was constructed not in the USSR but in East Germany at Pirna in 1950. Epp tried to persuade the Soviets to develop more of his postwar designs but they didn’t accept them. Although no performance figures or flight characteristics are known of the Pirna Disc, it appears that this concept was not a success and perhaps the prototype either crashed or was scrapped altogether.

Josef Andreas Epp, discouraged, returned to West Germany and provided the United States with full details of his Pirna Disc construction which was documented in 1956. Epp also patented the propulsion system in 1956, then received another patent for his entire craft in 1958; but again, no one in the USAF was interested in this disc aircraft which would have been crewed by ten men. They were much more interested in Dr. Richard Miethe’s work with the Canadians at AVRO Canada, wanting HIM to build the first US jet disc aircraft types in America at Wright Patterson AB.

The Soviets also got German engineer Klaus Habermohl and several of Viktor Schauberger's Repulsin discoid motors to keep them busy for years. Epp was not missed by them.

Four decades later... the result of Josef Andreas Epp's designs for the Soviets- the SKAT

Soviet Disc Aircraft and a Mystery Spacecraft

Sukhanov Diskoplan 1 of 1958:

Sukhanov Diskoplan 2 of 1960:

Sukhanov Diskoplan 3 of 1962:

Then there's this on display at Monino, which no Russian will comment on and is unmarked. In their inventory they should possess Diskoplan 1-2. Number one is hanging from their ceiling but the other one is NOT the number two at all. It predates all Soviet spaceplane developents:

Rumor has it that this is either a German captured disc aircraft from Peenemünde or a German-Soviet postwar development. Either way, it defies explanation as it is a 2/3rds scale model of a space escape ship attached to its external fuel tank to power the rear rocket motor.

It has now been identified as a Sukhanov - the X-Tail.

~Rob Arndt

Future Russian Disc Aircraft?

Russia’s Institute of Applied Mechanics has developed a new aircraft, also known as cosmoplan(e). It takes off and lands like an ordinary plane, but it behaves like a spacecraft for the rest of the flight. The aerospace craft is expected to fly at heights between 100-200 kilometers and with speed as high as 30 thousand kilometers per hour. It takes the vehicle 20 minutes to fly from Moscow to Paris and 50 minutes to New York. The cosmoplane uses hypersonic engines fueled by oxygen and hydrogen. Tests of plane’s 1:25 scale model by institute’s experts proved to be successful.

Project Silver Bug

The Rush To Develop A Craft With Saucer Performance

It was born in the Cold War era as a possible way of hiding high performance aircraft from Russian A-bombs, but it remains shrouded in mystery. The only mention the Air Force makes of that project is in The Report on Project Silver Bug, written in 1955 by the Air Technical Intelligence Center and Wright Air Development Center, It proposed the mounting of a research and development project into the building of a jet-propelled flying saucer, capable of both vertical takeoff and landing along with supersonic speeds up to 1,500 mph. If successful, the craft would have been based underground, thus avoiding the need for long runways and easily-distinguished bases which would have been easily taken out by a single nuclear bomb or missile warhead.

It was a great idea, actually. The U.S. government had taken the idea seriously enough to import a group of German aeronautical experts to this country after World War II. Some of those German experts had allegedly worked on similar projects under Hitler during the war. Hopefully, they would be capable of building a combat saucer for us under Operation Paperclip, the program which brought them to the United States.

The entire Silver Bug project remained clouded in secrecy and security classifications until the decade of the 1990s, when the one report was finally declassified and released by the Air Force. There is a semi-official story floating around that the Silver Bug project resulted in the ill-fated Avro Car, which only got a few feet off the ground, and the project was ultimately scrapped due to instability of the craft and an inability to fly. But public information officers at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, when asked if further reports on Project Silver Bug are available and if the project ever resulted in an operational aircraft, said no further reports on that project are currently declassified.

Abbreviated Development Plan, (U)

AVRO Vertical Take-Off Aircraft, Weapon System 606A

USAF Contract # AF33 (600) - 39722

26 June 1959,

AVRO Aircraft Ltd, Malton, Ontario, Canada

(NOTE: Although the 1958-59 re-direction of funds from this contract to help support the subsonic AVROCAR (USAF/Army Contract # AF33 (600) - 37496 development was detrimental, it should have nonetheless returned on-track by 3rd quarter 1960.)

This program called for development and manufacture of a prototype weapon system resulting in first flight of a vehicle in the 2nd Qtr of 1964. the Category I and II flight testing should have been completed by late 1965. The Contractor's Estimate for the prototype program was about 50 Million, and was to have provided 3 Supersonic Disc aircraft.

Royal Air Force Flying Review No.1

October 1955

The MX-1794 Silverbug; an attempt by the US Air Force & Avro Canada

to build a supersonic flying saucer in the 1950s.

A product of true vision, the only thing that kept this machine on the ground was the annoying fact that it didn't work.

Persons who have investigated the Silver Bug project find that Air Force statement quite interesting, since it was not a flat denial that anything operational was ever produced from that R&D project ... if the project was a failure, why are any other reports on it still classified? A lot of experimental test aircraft have been checked out by the Air Force, are found to be failures, and are scuttled. Some of those investigators are convinced that Silver Bug actually flew, and that at least some of the resulting craft were and are in existence.

Whether or not the craft actually turned out to be powered by jet aircraft or some other propulsion system is unknown, as well as other aircraft features including size and the use the Air Force would put the aircraft to.

Those questions, as well as others, have no publicly known answers. What the investigators and everybody else are left with at present are only sketchy facts and a lot of speculation ... as well as some sightings of strange aircraft that could be of something Silver Bug resulted in.

What Project Silver Bug was set to begin work on in 1955 was the research and development project to field jet propelled flying saucers which could be dispersed underground in an attempt to get away from the air bases of the day which featured long runways. The jet-propelled disks were to be capable of vertical takeoffs and landings, and would be capable of Mach 3.48--faster than the SR-71 Blackbird.

What Batts and his buddy Joe saw at a range of approximately 200 yards in 1977 was a 200-foot diameter flying disk rising out of the ground of the desert with a bright light on its belly and flashing sequential lights at its center. It was silver in colour and Batts says there is no way it could have been a case of mistaken identity through swamp gas or a multitude of other common UFO debunking postulations put forward by debunkers.

The Report on Project Silver Bug, dated Feb.15, 1955, and declassified on March 29, 1995, proposed the development of such a disk-shaped interceptor aircraft. The proposed craft would be capable of vertical takeoff and landing; a maximum level speed of 2,300 mph with reheat (afterburners); a ceiling of 80,600 feet; and a climb rate of 1.76 minutes to 36,090 feet.

Those performance figures were very advanced for 1955, and are not too shabby today. Top speeds of American fighter-interceptor aircraft of 1955 were around 1,000 mph, and they had a lower ceiling than what the disk would have. But the big thing as far as the Air Force was concerned was the potential such flying disks had for being dispersed in underground facilities.

The Report on Project Silver Bug was issued by the Air Technical Intelligence Center along with the Wright Air Development Center at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio. While the Silver Bug project has been officially claimed to have resulted in the ill-fated Avro Car, which turned into perhaps the world's first air cushion vehicle instead of a supersonic interceptor disk, UFO researchers have long questioned whether the project actually came to a sudden stop with development of the Avro Car, which was a flop at flight.

Recent enquiries to the Public Information Office at Wright-Patterson prior to Batts' account garnered the response that no further information on the Silver Bug project has been declassified at this time. That is not quite the same as an outright denial that Project Silver Bug actually came up with a workable prototype craft, or an operation disk-shaped interceptor. Nor does it rule out whether or not the project originally resulted in a flop at first with continued research into making a flying saucer actually work.

The Silver Bug report noted that a pair of ongoing U.S. projects involving the building of vertical takeoff aircraft had already occurred, after a discussion of the perceived need to get away from long, vulnerable runways was addressed briefly. The report noted that vertical takeoff craft were the way to get around the vulnerability of conventional air bases but ``tail sitter'' types of aircraft, equipped with turboprop engines, were found to lack the ability to join VTO and landing abilities with the high performance of a fighter aircraft.

The report was more enamoured of a proposed classic flying disk aircraft, which exhibited performance characteristics that were greatly advanced even by current standards. The largest of the proposed disks weighed 26,000 pounds, was powered by a radically new type of jet engine, and could climb to 36,090 feet in approximately one minute and 45 seconds. This is in the performance range of the current F-15 fighter the Air Force uses, and was attributed to a machine in 1955, some 20 years prior to the F-15's first flight.

But the Silver Bug report was not the only publication in 1955 that contained information relating to the development of flying saucers by the federal government.

Look Magazine, in June 1955, said in an article that persistent and fairly credible accounts claimed that A.V. Roe, Canada, Ltd., a Canadian aircraft manufacturer, had a saucer design under development since 1953. It had been abandoned since the cost factor was too high for the Canadians--over $75 million to get a prototype model into the air.

That 1955 issue of Look also noted that at a meeting of engineers it was indicated that while flying saucer or sphere projects might have been purely hypothetical then, new air defence problems were setting up requirements for aircraft performance which would apparently be best met by a saucer aircraft.

Brig. Gen. Benjamin Kelsey, deputy director of research and development for the Air Force, was quoted as saying that ``Airplanes today spend too much time gathering speed on the ground and not enough time flying in the air.'' The fighters of that time, Kelsey said, needed extremely long runways and there were few in existence then that were long enough.

Those few, he said, and the concentration of planes using them, provided a worthwhile target for an A-bomb. With one blow, the enemy might cripple a substantial portion of the American air defence.

Vertical takeoff planes would not need long runways, he said, and could be dispersed widely and safely. Future airports built for vertically rising flying saucers would have no need of the many vulnerable runways the fighters of 1955 (and of today) require. The complete operation could go underground, the Look article noted, with tunnels with takeoff shafts set in the ground, complete with maintenance bays, fuel, and crew quarters.

Those underground bases, the article said, would be bombproof shelters for a saucer squadron. The shafts would be sealed after takeoff for camouflage and protection. The Look article also detailed what some of the requirements of an ideal defence fighter would be. Those attributes would be the ability to take off and land vertically; a high speed of over Mach 2 (more than 1,500 mph); high rate of climb; excellent manoeuvrability; heavy armament; and the ability to operate at 60,000 feet.

It should be noted that the one disk craft noted in the Silver Bug report met and exceeded all of the criteria listed in the Look Magazine report. But Look's report also noted that such a disk-shaped craft might include a one-man crew, housed in a glass bubble that would provide excellent visibility. The prone position of the pilot would not only allow improved streamlining, but also enables (original wording) the pilot to withstand high accelerations and quick turns. There were some American disk-shaped craft that were developed publicly, namely the Flying Flapjack and/or The Flying Flounder, which did not come to operational use.

Avro-Canada, meanwhile, was reported to be working in 1953 by the Toronto Star to be working on a new flying saucer at their plant in Malton, Ontario. On Feb. 16, 1953, the Minister for Defence Production informed the Canadian House of Commons that Avro was working on a 'mock-up model' of a flying saucer which would be capable of flying at 1,500 miles per hour and climbing vertically.

The president of Avro-Canada also wrote in Avro News that the prototype being built was so revolutionary that it would make all other forms of supersonic aircraft obsolete. The new plane's official name was the Avro Car.

By 1960 it was being claimed officially that the design had been dropped, and the so-called prototype of the Avro flying saucer is reported to be housed in the U.S. Air Force Museum in Fort Eustis, Virginia.

A number of German aeronautical engineers were reputedly brought to the United States after World War II to continue their work on VTO flying disks which had originated as a Luftwaffe research and development project, Popular Mechanics said in its August 1997 edition. The Germans, in the closing days of World War II, had one big aeronautical problem--their airfields were under constant Allied aerial attack which kept what fighters they had left from being an effective deterrent against American and British heavy bomber raids on German industrial targets. U.S. Army intelligence officers combed Europe for two brothers called Walter and Reimar Horten following the war, certain U.S. government files say. The brothers were trained as pilots and engineers, and reputedly had close connections to the Reich's high command.

The two brothers were believed to have persuaded German leaders to construct a fleet of saucer-shaped bombers, a Popular Mechanics story in August 1997 said. U.S. military historians acknowledge the Horten brothers built and flew prototypes of circular and flying wing aircraft, the PM story said, but the historians also discount the craft as aeronautical curiosities with no military value.

.

A service-wide request for information about the two brothers showed the two men had already been found, PM's report said. They had already been released by the UK for exploitation and allocated to the United States on Nov. 15, 1946, via Operation Paperclip.

Operation Paperclip was the American program that put a lot of German scientists and engineers on the U.S. payroll following World War II. These included Wernher Von Braun and some of his associates, who were ultimately responsible for building the American ICBM force and space program rocket boosters.

But the existence of Paperclip was not released publicly until Americans first set foot on the moon, due to the fact that the laboratories at which many of the former German scientists had worked were also Nazi slave labor and death camps. Apparently negative public reaction was the reason the news was kept secret until the space program resulted in a record-breaking moon landing.

The Horten brothers, according to PM and the files it got, had been working on a design for a new generation of circular VTO craft just prior to their capture--with specifications much like those described in the Report on Project Silver Bug.

Other records, PM said, show that models of the Hortens' design, possibly constructed by the brothers themselves, were tested in the wind tunnel at Wright Field, now Wright-Patterson AFB. While the Air Force acknowledges the Hortens were working on a flying disk craft, PM said, the AF also says it was inherently unstable.

Other declassified records gained by PM in the course of its investigation, the magazine article said, suggest the Avro Car built for the Army and a deteriorating plywood Horten flying wing were both shills intended to disguise the existence of more formidable flying machines.

One of the more potent of those flying machines, the PM report said, was developed under the secret Project Pye Wacket. Its object was to design a five foot diameter liquid fuelled missile launch platform to protect American bombers penetrating Soviet airspace.

Samisdat Publications, a right-wing organization based in Toronto, Canada, has said that the Nazis did in fact develop the Flügelrad, or 'Wingwheel', a saucer-helicopter which could take off vertically. One of the scientists involved with the early Nazi saucer projects was identified as Viktor Schauberger by Samisdat. Schauberger was brought to America after the war, where he was rumoured to be working on a top secret flying disk project in Texas for the U.S. government until his death in 1958. Some reports maintain that some prototypes the government is now developing are as advanced in propulsion and other areas over the Schauberger models as the space shuttle is over the biplane Some of his prototypes include things like the Model I, the most conventional design by today's concepts, which used a standard German Walther rocket engine and was steered by a rudder.

Model II, an improvement over Model I, had a specially designed ``rotary wing'' which stabilized and steered the craft. This model was more manuverable and faster.

Model III was supposedly extremely fast, capable of attaining speeds over 6,000 kilometers per hour and using a jet vacuum propulsion system. The fuel mixture produced vapour trails, an acrid smell, and sometimes flames and sparks. The saucer's propulsion system produced high pitched, whining sounds. The craft was also capable of terrific acceleration, or steady hover. It could also climb and bank steeply and often startled observers with loud sonic booms as it accelerated through the sound barrier. This model was reportedly equipped with telescopic landing gear.

Successors of the Model III, still in the planning stages during the middle 1940s, were said to utilize the Earth's magnetic field in their propulsion systems.

And there is also one home-grown American scientist who apparently had some input into the U.S. government's flying saucer project--T. Townsend Brown, and his Project Winterhaven. Brown was an American physicist, who was heavily involved in electrogravitics research. In the middle 1920s, he discovered it is possible to create an artificial gravity field by charging an electrical capacitor to high voltage.

By 1958, he had managed to work his way to the point where he had succeeded in developing a 15-inch diameter model saucer that could lift over 110 percent of its weight. What his experiments had inaugurated was the new field of electrogravitics, or the technology of controlling gravity through the use of very high voltage electric charges.

By 1952, Brown gave a demonstration to a Air Force major general in which Brown flew a pair of 18-inch disc airfoils suspended from opposite ends of a rotatable arm. The discs were electrified with 50,000 volts and circuited at a speed of 12 miles per hour.

Approximately one year later, he flew a set of three-foot diameter saucers for Air Force officials and representatives from several major aircraft companies. These discs were energized with 150,000 volts, and sped around the 50-foot diameter course so fast that the subject was immediately classified. A report by ``Interavia'' magazine noted that the discs would attain speeds of several hundred miles per hour when charged with several hundred thousand volts.

The secret to Brown's discs was that they were charged with a high positive voltage, via a wire, running along their leading edge. A high negative voltage ran along their trailing edge, also on a wire. As the wires ionized the air around them, a study by Paul A. LaViolette said, a dense cloud of positive ions would form ahead of the craft and a corresponding cloud of negative ions would form behind the craft.

LaViolette said that Brown's research showed that, like the charged plates of his capacitors, these ion clouds induced a gravitational force directed in the minus to plus direction. In short, a gravitational well formed ahead of the disc which pulled the craft, while a gravitational hill formed behind the craft and pushed it. As the disc moved forward in response to its self-generated gravity field, it would carry with it its positive and negative ion clouds and their associated electrogravity gradient. The discs in effect would ride their advancing gravity wave much like surfers ride an ocean wave, LaViolette said.

The occupants of one of the saucers, if there were occupants, would feel no stress at all no matter how sharp the turn or how great the acceleration, LaViolette said. This was because the ship and is occupants and the load are all responding equally to the wavelike distortion of the local gravitational field.

Brown by 1952 had put together a proposal, code named ``Project Winterhaven,'' LaViolette said, which suggested that the military develop an antigravity combat saucer with Mach 3 capability. As early as 1954, according to a report prepared by the private aviation intelligence firm Aviation Studies International Ltd., the Air Force had begun plans to fund research that would accomplish Project Winterhaven's objectives.

That report, issued in 1956 and called ``Electrogravitic Systems: An Explanation of Electrostatic Motion, Dynamic Counterbary and Barycentric Control,'' was originally classified as ``confidential.'' That report mentioned the names of more than 10 major aircraft companies which were actively involved in the electrogravitics research in an attempt to duplicate or extend Brown's work. Since that time, LaViolette said, much of the work in electro-antigravity has proceeded in Air Force black projects on a fairly large scale.

LaViolette's study, known as ``The U.S. Antigravity Squadron,'' has as its main contention that the Air Force is using Brown's antigravity ideas to help the B-2 bomber operate. He says the B-2 accomplishes using high amounts of electric charges on its leading and trailing edges through the same method Brown described in his electrokinetic generator patent.

The saucer craft Brown proposed was to be powered by a flame-jet generator, a high-voltage power supply that had the advantage of being both efficient and relatively lightweight, LaViolette said. That generator design, he said, uses a jet engine with an electrified needle mounted in the exhaust nozzle to produce negative ions in the jet's exhaust stream. The negatively ionized exhaust is then discharged through a number of nozzles at the rear of the craft. By electrically insulating the engines and conveying their positive charges forward to a wire running along the plane's leading edge, the required positively charged ion cloud is built up at the front of the vehicle. Brown, LaViolette said, estimated that such a generator could produce potentials as high as 15 million volts across his craft.

Whether or not Project Silver Bug ever resulted in a prototype or operational jet-propelled flying saucer is publicly unknown, given the fact that cutting-edge military development projects are normally cloaked in tight security. Even the money trail which would normally lead to the existence of top-secret or higher R&D projects is often a closed door. Military aircraft and weapon systems developers normally hide the funding for those projects in other projects, keeping sharp-eyed researchers from finding R&D projects hidden in the federal budget. Various UFO researchers have long been intrigued by the role the Air Technical Intelligence Center at Wright-Patterson AFB has played in various projects like Silver Bug. ATIC has since 1955 been known as the Foreign Technology Division, and is currently called the National Air Intelligence Center.

Over the years, despite the name, ATIC has been rumored in UFO circles to be the place where the debris from the alleged Roswell, NM crash of an alien flying saucer was taken for study. ATIC was also the parent Air Force unit for Project Blue Book, which for several years was the official study center for unidentified flying objects.

With no further available declassified reports, whatever Project Silver Bug finally arrived at remains as hidden as an underground interceptor craft installation. Or at least there was no information about any disk-shaped craft being tested by the U.S. Air Force ... until Frank Batts and his buddy got their directions wrong in 1997 and wound up on the wrong side of Nellis AFB.

That's where it stands at present. There is a fair amount of information floating around that would indicate Project Silver Bug did result in some type of actually flyable aircraft. But there is no actual proverbial ``smoking gun'' as yet.

Some persons who have researched Silver Bug, and some persons who claim to have worked on secret government aeronautical projects, are convinced or hint that something did fly as the result of Project Silver Bug. Some even say that some operational circular craft have been stationed at some places ... all underground, in effect hiding them in plain sight. But there is a lack of actual hard evidence that ATIC or WADC ever developed an actual operational flying saucer from Silver Bug. Just enough information exists to tantalize those who have investigated it so far, and a lot of gaps which can at present be filled only by speculation.

Avro Canada History

After World War 2, the A.V. Roe aircraft company was restructuring and looking for new projects. During the war the company produced several planes such as the Anson, Lysander and the Lancaster bomber in it's Malton, (Toronto) plant (Victory Aircraft).

It was now peacetime and new aviation ideas were surfacing. The company designed and built the first successful jet turbine powered passenger aircraft in North America called the "Jetliner"

At this time the norm for passenger aviation were propeller powered planes such as the DC 3. The concept was revolutionary. After successful flights, one being to New York city, where the designers and crew were given a ticker tape parade, and heralded as aviation pioneers, the project was scrapped. The U.S. aircraft industry quickly picked up on idea.

At the same time the RCAF required a new jet fighter and the company designed and built the CF-100, "CANUCK" a sub mach fighter plane, 692 were built.

During the 1950's the "Cold War" was heating up between the United States and Russia. Nuclear bombs were everywhere, people lived in fear that a nuclear war would start and everyone would be killed.

The RCAF needing a replacement for the slow Cf-100, drew up requirements for a new "Jet Interceptor" which would fly past the north pole and shoot down the invading Russian planes in the far north before they could reach populated areas in the south. This plane would protect Canada as well as the United States since the shortest flying route to the United States is over Canada.

The revolutionary Mach 2+ "Avro Arrow" was designed. The "CF-105". It was a large delta winged, twin engine plane that could leave bases in the south and reach the invaders in minutes.

The company was awarded the contracts and design and testing began. To save design time and costs a prototype was not built, the company used scale models for wind tunnel and high mach tests performed by CARDE. The results from these types of testing went right to the production line.

The rollout was on Oct. 4, 1957 and first flight was on March, 25, 1958, successfully flown by test pilot Jan Zurakowski.

Oct. 4 1957 was the same date that the Russians launched the first space satellite "Sputnik".

The plane was successful and flight testing went on. Five planes flew for almost 70 hrs, the sixth was 99% completed and was to be a Mark 2, incorporating the newly manufactured "IROQUOIS" engine provided by Avro subsidiary ORENDA. Thirty more were in various stages of production in the plant.

The "IROQUOIS" engine was a technological marvel in itself. Mostly created from titanium, it produced more thrust than any other engine built anywhere in the world and was very lightweight.

Avro Aircraft was also designing and producing "Secret" projects such as "Project Y", which was a "Flying Saucer" for the United States military.

Suddenly February 20, 1959, Prime Minister John Diefenbaker stood in the house of commons and announced that the Arrow and Iroquois projects were canceled.This immediately put over 50,000 people out of work at the plants and outside suppliers. Avro Canada was closed.

All the planes, in production and flying, with their blueprints, dies, moulds, anything that had anything to do with the plane was ordered destroyed by the government.

The pieces were cut up for scrap and smelted in Hamilton, Ontario.

A large number of engineers were immediately recruited to NASA and worked on every US space project, including "Apollo". Avro Canada engineers played an important role in putting man on the moon. Some engineers went to the "Concord Project" and continued their work in high mach aviation.

Orenda Engines survived and still produce top line turbine engines for helicopters and aircraft.

The Avro Jetliner and Arrow are long gone, however they remain an important part of Canadian history.

"The Legend That Will Never Die"

Project Silver Bug - plans that both Canada and the United States had in the 1950s to build and fly UFO-like aircraft……..but they were not alone. A decade before, the Nazis were doing something very similar.

That the Nazis had been working to perfect a circular-shaped aircraft that would broadly fit the classic flying saucer description is a theory that does have some merit.

VZ-9A

AVROCAR

Development sponsored by

The US Air Force and The US Army

On February 11, 1953 The Toronto Star reported that a new flying saucer was being developed at the Avro-Canada plant in Malton, Ontario.

On 16 February the Minister for Defense Production informed the House of Commons, in Ottawa, that Avro-Canada was working on a 'mock-up model' of a flying saucer, capable of flying at 1500 miles per hour (2400 km/h) and climbing vertically.

The President of Avro-Canada wrote in AVRO NEWS that the prototype being built was "...so revolutionary that it would make all other forms of supersonic aircraft obsolete".

But by 1960 it was being officially claimed that the project had been dropped. The 'prototype' of the Avro flying saucer is now in the U.S. Air Force Museum in Fort Eustis, Virginia.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A true flying saucer. A circular craft with a large central fan that sucked in air from the upper side and expelled it at the edges of the disk. It flew well at low altitudes of five or six feet, but when it tried to rise further it became unstable. Never did more than hover at low altitude, and was abandoned after seven months because of stability problems.

The AVRO Canada VZ-9A AVRO car was, designed, built and tested just outside Toronto was unique in the annals of flight. Shaped like an obese discus, it was intended to use a novel flight mode called GETOL - Ground Effect Takeoff and Landing. The machine would lift into ground effect on a cushion of air expelled from a peripheral slot on its underside and directed by a sliding "focusing ring." The ring would then "focus" the cushion rearward, driving the flying saucer forward. The strange craft would thus taxi in ground effect until it had enough forward speed to climb out of ground effect and fly like a conventional airplane.

In actuality, the prototype never flew out of ground effect. To solve problems of stability in ground effect the designers came up with a pneumatic analogue control system using the huge vertical-axis lift fan as the sensing element. The obvious wobbliness of the ship in its original configuration completely disappeared thanks to this light, simple solution.

The Guardian

09-25-99

Canada's Avro 'Flying Saucer' - And German Disc Technology

By Julian Borger

In 1954, a memo was fired off to CIA department heads demanding intelligence on new 'saucer-like' flying machines being developed by Britain and Canada. So began the race to develop the most unlikely weapon of the Cold War.

The year was 1952 and the cold war was at full chill. Joe McCarthy's Un-American Activities Committee was looking for reds under beds, and UFO sightings were spreading like an epidemic across the United States. Even air-force pilots reported being pursued by flying saucers. The sense of dread was turning to frenzy and the CIA decided something had to be done.

In one of his many memos on the subject, H Marshall Chadwell, the deputy head of the agency's Office of Scientific Intelligence, declared that "something was going on that must have immediate attention". He and others in the CIA were concerned that the Soviet Union was developing a secret weapon based on the "flying discs" the Nazis were rumoured to have constructed in the last months of the war.

Recently released documents from the CIA archive are full of accounts by former German scientists of their desperate work to save the fatherland with revolutionary circular aircraft supposedly capable of enormous speeds. But when the CIA set up a study group to look into the phenomenon in 1952, it discovered something extraordinary far closer to home. Just over the border, in Canada, British engineers were in the process of building a flying saucer of their own.

It was called Project Y - a joint British-Canadian venture into the unknown which was, for much of the 50s, perhaps the most secret aviation project in the western world. A half-century on, the Project Y story remains a remarkable forgotten chapter in the history of aerial design, an idea that came tantalizingly close to breaking all the rules of the sky, before collapsing in bitter disappointment for lack of money and faith.

Back in the 50s, the news that British boffins were building a saucer set off alarm bells at the CIA. Was the US being left behind by its staunchest allies in the race for a technological edge? And if Britain and Canada could build a flying saucer, then surely the Soviet Union would be far ahead.

Chadwell wanted answers. The sense of urgency is tangible in a memorandum he sent in June 1954 to his department heads, demanding reports on "the use by any foreign power or nation of non-conventional types of air vehicles, such as or similar to the 'saucer-like' planes presently under development by the Anglo/British Canadian efforts".

While CIA agents were dispatched to watch eastern skies for flying saucers, US Air Force officers were paying a visit to Malton, just outside Toronto, the site of the city's airport and the research headquarters of Avro-Canada. Avro was a subsidiary of the British aircraft firm AV Roe (legend had it that there had not been space on the factory roof to include the "e" from Roe), which was in turn part of the legendary aviation group, Hawker-Siddeley. During the war, its engineers had been famous for the Hurricane fighter and the Avro Lancaster bomber. Now, under the tension of the cold war, they were trying something completely different.

After the war, Malton was the place to be for hotshot aircraft designers fleeing Britain's doomed aviation industry. Among them was a softly spoken, supremely talented 31-year-old called John Carver Meadows Frost, who had already earned a reputation for unorthodox design with the sleek De Havilland 108, a swallow-shaped research plane and arguably one of the most beautiful aircraft of all time.

Frost was brought to Avro-Canada to work on the CF-100 fighter, an ugly pug-nosed design he never really liked. He soon became obsessed with far more radical departures from orthodoxy. It is unclear whether he drew inspiration from the increasingly widespread popular legend of alien-piloted flying saucers skimming through the post-war skies or how much he relied on previous research.

He would have known about the "Coanda effect", named after a French Romanian inventor, Henri-Marie Coanda, who experimented with the first rudimentary jet engine as early as 1910. Coanda found that a turbo-jet would not only provide thrust. By sucking in air, it could also create a vacuum above the wing and thereby produce extra lift.

There is plenty of evidence that in the closing stages of the second world war, as both sides threw jet fighters into the fray for the first time, the Nazis began to experiment with secret weapons built around the Coanda effect. Among the documents in the CIA's "X-file" archives is an interview given by a German aeronautical engineer called Georg Klein, who claimed to have worked on a Nazi flying saucer under the supervision of Luftwaffe designers, Rudolf Schriever and Richard Miethe.

Another document from the archives is a 1950 article written by a German emigre in Chile calling himself Dr Eduard Ludwig. The article, submitted to a Chilean magazine but apparently never published, was entitled: "The Mystery of 'Flying Discs' - A Contribution to its Possible Explanation". It recounted Dr Ludwig's wartime work at a Junkers research facility, helping develop a "one-piece metal wing" functioning as a "speedily rotating top" which was capable of vertical take-off and high speeds.

"The experiments turned out to be extremely difficult and involved many casualties," the professor observed drily, clearly rueful that the spinning top experiments had not come to fruition before the arrival of the Red Army.

He concluded: "The future will show whether the 'flying discs' are only the products of imagination or whether they are the results of a far-advanced German science which possibly, as well as the nearly finished atomic bombs, may have fallen into the hands of the Russians."

"'The History Of The Flying Discs: A Contribution to its Possible Explanation"

by Dr. Eduard Ludwig, Santiago, Chile. Av.Cristobal Colon 1916.

This paper starts in 1915 with a history of aviation and discusses the work of Professer Junkers in Dossau, in relation to his work with gas turbine rotary trust rings. He also talks of Dr Bock, Professor at the Technical Hich School of Berlin, who, as he says "may have been the greatest genius of German Airplaje theoretics..." and later was named "consturctor of the Ministry of German Airways and Director of the German Institute of Airways Research in Berlin-Adlershof." He discusses the work of Russian Professor Jukowski of Moscow together with his "esteemed teacher, Dr. Kutta from the Technical High School of Stuttgart, Germany," whom he says "developed the theory of airplane-wingbeam.

In another part of the paper, he states: "It was principally the Aerodynamic Experimental Institute of the Göttingen University, directed by the renouned Professors Prandtl and Betz, and Constructor Flettner, which drew its conclusions from the theory of the airplane-wing beam. Flettner proved that the conditions of a rotating object are similar to those which appear in a 'translatorichen' movement. Thus was evolved the 'Flettner-Rotor".

Finally, he points out that "the missiles of German anti-tank weapons were coated with chemical substances which melted up to 20 cmts of steel plates within fractions of a second."

Some of the Luftwaffe's top engineers did indeed end up in Moscow, while a handful, such as Wernher von Braun and Dr Miethe, were spirited away to the west. Dr von Braun, of course, became the father of the US space programme. No one seems sure what became of Miethe.

In his own work at Malton, John Frost seemed to be groping his way. He was in search of the aeronautical holy grail of the age, the vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) craft, but began his research on a spade-shaped craft before settling in 1953 on a disc. The original concept called for a single flat turbo-jet to draw air in from above and force it out through nozzles around the edge of the craft. It would be kept aloft by a cushion of air and pulled upwards by the Coanda effect.

The early work was carried out in total secrecy. Only a handful of Avro workers were told what was going on, and even some of the engineers fashioning individual components were not informed what they were for.

"It was so secret that when Frost would come to the welding shop, he would sketch the piece he wanted on some paper, and when we had finished we had to put the sketch in a special garbage bag," Alex Raeburn, Avro's workshop superintendent at the time, recalled.

Verne Morse, the company photographer, was made privy to the secret only once it had already begun to take shape. "There was a stupid rumour going around the plant that we were building a flying saucer, and everybody was laughing about it," he said. "Then one day I was called in by security, and I was told I need clearance because we were building a flying saucer.

"My first impression was that this was ridiculous," he said, but when he was taken past the guards, through Project Y's double doors and saw the smooth metal disc taking shape, he was speechless. "It was a sense of 'Wow!' Just real awe."

But Project Y's first year was proving troublesome. The jet engine blew so hot it melted the steel structure of the craft, and its violent shaking would pop the rivets. When the gentlemen from the USAF arrived in September 1953, the Canadian government, having spent $400,000 on the project, was glad to hand over the reins to a bigger sponsor. AV Roe, having failed to squeeze funds out of the British government, also welcomed the Americans with open arms.

In 1955, Project Y became the US defence department weapon system 606A, and a white USAF star was painted on the prototype's fuselage. Millions were now being poured into the project, and the cult of secrecy deepened yet further.

Alex Raeburn recalled the day in 1959 that the US navy came to take the prototype away for wind tunnel tests near Los Angeles. "We loaded it on a flatbed truck in the middle of the night. The police shut off all the traffic right down to Toronto harbour, and they put it on a US tugboat. They even had one of our men sworn in to the US navy so he could go with it, along the Erie Canal, along the New York intercoastal waterway, and through the Panama Canal."

With the help of the US funding, Frost had redesigned the original concept, placing three small jet engines around a central fan which would suck the air in through a circular intake at the centre of the disc. The pilot would sit in a little oval cockpit to one side under a perspex bubble. But the wind tunnel tests suggested that secret weapon 606A had severe stability problems and was in constant danger of flipping over like a stiff pancake once the throttles were opened on its jets. Frost and his assistants tinkered away at the problems for another year, but had still not mastered them by the winter of 1960 when Spud Potocki, a former Polish air-force flyer, took the prototype for its first flight.

Ernie Happe, another British engineer, was one of the few allowed to watch. "We were standing around it, and it was tethered with three cables to stop it flipping. It just went up a couple of feet off the ground, and Potocki was sitting in the cabin fiddling around with the controls, trying to make it do what it was supposed to."

Over the next few months, as Potocki attained a feel for the delicate controls, he was allowed to roam around the Avro compound free of his tethers, dodging in and out of the hangars. Raeburn would often look out of his workshop window and see it floating by.

"He would go up and down and hover over the concrete apron and look in the doors of the hangars. I remember the wind would suck the ice off the puddles and they would float around in the air like plates of glass," Raeburn said.

Avro's management was overjoyed to see their flying saucer take to the air. The publicity department began designing brochures to capitalise on the aircraft's boundless potential for the day when the shroud of secrecy would drop away. It was to be called the Avrocar, and it would spawn a string of civilian and military spin-offs. There would be an Avrowagon for the family of the future, an Avroangel (an air ambulance that would zip to the scene of an accident and land on the spot) and an Avropelican for air-sea rescues and anti-submarine warfare.

Ken Palfrey, a draughtsman on the project, remembers Frost's own far-reaching hopes for his project. "He was planning to make one four times as big, to move troops in and out of battle, like helicopters do now."

The giant troop carriers would lurk under the enemy radar, drop their passengers and then zip into the stratosphere before the other side even spotted them. Happe recalls Frost excitedly visualising the craft bouncing off the upper layers of the atmosphere, crossing continents in a single bound.

The reality was more mundane. The Avrocar hovered happily close to solid ground but became dangerously unstable at heights much over eight feet, however much Spud Potocki struggled with the controls. The USAF wanted to fit it with a tailplane to test whether that would correct the problem, but Frost, a design purist, refused to countenance the idea.

"He wouldn't have it. When the Americans suggested that, it was about the only time I ever saw him angry," Palfrey recalls.

Frost insisted he could fix the problems, but the US military was rapidly losing interest. After spending $7.5m, the defence department pulled the plug at the end of 1961, killing both the Avrocar and inflicting a final fatal blow to Avro, which struggled for a few more years before finally collapsing in 1965.

Frost left the country a bitter man in 1961. "He was completely fed up," Palfrey said. "It was a sad story. He was a fine guy. A gentleman."

The British designer ended up in Auckland, where he spent the rest of his days dreaming up gadgets for Air New Zealand, such as a hydraulic tail dock to allow engineers easy access to commercial planes. But it was small beer compared to the cosmic ambitions of Project Y, and the sense of betrayal was as keen as ever when he finally retired in May 1979.

In his valedictory interviews, Frost told the local press that he had been robbed of credit for inventing the hovercraft by Sir Christopher Cockerell. The irony was that at Malton, Frost's eyes had been so set on the skies he failed to spot the Avrocar's ground-hugging potential under his nose. Within a few days of leaving his job, he died. He was 63.

The legend of Project Y lives on in the web pages of committed Ufologists. Some speculate that it had in fact been a stunning success, and the sad litany of design errors and disappointments recalled by Avro veterans was merely a cover story. Others believe the whole project was merely a smokescreen for the Pentagon's "real" flying saucer project being masterminded in secret bases such as Roswell, perhaps by mysterious superannuated Nazis like Dr Miethe.

As for secret weapon 606A, the prototype is gathering dust in a corner of a Maryland warehouse which serves as a storage facility for the National Air and Space Museum. The burnished metal disc, about 15 yards across, is lying unsung and forlorn under the wing of a second world war Black Widow fighter. The perspex bubble over the cabin has been removed, its instrument panel is lying in a cardboard box somewhere else. But you can still see where the edges were charred in the effort to get John Frost's flawed vision off the ground.

The Sunday Times

March 26 2000

Revealed - Britain's 1950s flying saucer

Jonathan Leake, Science Editor

It is the nearest the RAF got to a UFO. Recently discovered photographs taken at a secret laboratory in the 1950s reveal for the first time how close Britain came to developing a saucer-shaped stealth fighter after the Second World War.

The pictures, taken at a research centre in Canada, show a revolutionary ultra-high-speed jet fighter designed by the British engineer John Frost. Aviation experts who studied the pictures last week said the jet incorporated some of the features on America's stealth fighter plane.

Work on the aircraft in the 1950s was code named Project Y. Frost and his team initially set out to build a disc-shaped machine with vertical takeoff, but ended with a sleek, arch-shaped aircraft.

"The pictures are a wonderful find," said David Windle, who has researched the history of Project Y. "It is technology that Britain just lost and it is a pity the project was abandoned. Who knows what would have happened if they had pursued it."

The photographs were taken at a laboratory in Malton, near Toronto, where Frost was working with Avro-Canada, a subsidiary of the British firm AVRO, to develop a jet fighter for the Canadian government. He wanted to create an aircraft which could fly at 2,500mph and take off and land on its tail.

The existence of Project Y has been known about for years, but no pictures of the aircraft have ever been found. An aviation researcher accidentally discovered the photographs in a file at the Public Records Office in Kew.

An elongated saucer shape was used because of the revolutionary "radial flow" jets designed to power it. The engines were designed to emit the exhaust gases from several small nozzles, increasing the thrust of the jet.

Aviation experts said last week that the prototype vehicle would have been almost invisible to radar because of its slim cross-section. It would also have been more likely to evade enemy missiles because of the lower heat output through the numerous jet outlets.

It is not known why the revolutionary jet never went into production, but the project was abandoned before the plane had its first test flight.

Alex Raeburn, then assistant superintendent of manufacturing at AVRO, described the life of secrecy for those on the base. "The security was very tight," he says. "Armed guards were stationed on the doors and drawings were taken away as soon as we'd made the component. In fact, we never knew exactly what it was we were making."

Verne Morse, one of the team who worked on the secret project, said he was amazed any pictures had survived because of the total secrecy surrounding the project. He described how he saw a subsequent model designed by the team.

"When I saw it [the plane] for the first time I was stunned," he said. "I'd heard rumours we were working on a flying saucer, but I dismissed them. Now, here I was looking at it, and I was speechless."

In 1954, the Canadian government decided to end the development of the aircraft. The American air force took over the project and later a scaled-down version of the plane became an "air jeep", which was nicknamed the Avrocar.

Raeburn said he witnessed test pilot Spud Potocki flying the saucer-shaped craft. "I remember him flying up to the hangar windows and looking in like a humming bird might do. When he flew in cold weather the engines sucked pieces of ice off the puddles. They'd float around in the air, shining in the sunlight."

Professor Michael Graham, professor of aerodynamics at Imperial College, said: "In the 1950s there was a lot of interest in different aircraft shapes. This is built like a kind of flying wing. Its ability to hover is useful for landing in rough places."

While Frost worked on Project Y, American engineers were developing their own ultra-high-speed jets at desert bases in California and Nevada, which led to the development of spy planes such as the U2.

In 1961, however, despite the successful flights of the Avrocar, the American air force halted all funding for the company's researchers. There were no more British-designed flying saucers and Frost left AVRO and moved to New Zealand, where he died.

Last week Tony, his son, said: "Dad was a brilliant artist who was always designing things, but he combined that skill with being a very capable mathematician and great lateral thinker."

Josef Andreas Epp Omega Diskus

(1939-1945)

by Rob Arndt

________________________________________

Josef Andreas Epp’s Helioplane. Propulsion was by means of a rotor vane circle. The small propeller on top of the cabin provided directional steering.

In 1939, Josef “Andreas” Epp designed a radical rotor/jet powered aircraft he named the “Helioplane”. But this design could not be pursued due to the early development phase of the German turbojets of Heinkel, BMW, and Junkers.Epp meanwhile continued trying to develop a more pure flight disc when he learned that similar projects were already underway in much of the Reich. Epp traveled to Prague where BMW was testing out their small-scale disc-fan Flügelrad (Winged Wheel) jet auto-gyros which utilized the company’s BMW 003 series engine with a Strahlrohr (Jet Pipe) deflector system to divert engine thrust up to the spinning rotor blades, a combination rotor-jet idea that originated with Rudolf Schriever’s 1941 Flugkreisel (which the SS had taken from him and handed over to three prominent specialists for continued development).

Epp therefore designed by 1943 his Omega Diskus which combined ducted fan technology with two free-spinning rotors propelled by Pabst ramjets being developed for the Fw Triebflügel (Thrust Wing) and utilizing the increasing lifting of the “Coanda Effect”. The Omega Diskus consisted of a circular cockpit 4 meters in diameter surrounded by a disc wing of 19 meters diameter. The wing supported eight ducted lift fans of 80 hp each. The engines were held in place by eight conical pipes of 3 meters diameter.

The support for the main rotor was on the axis of the disc. The rotor had two blades to which were attached the Pabst ramjets at their tips with a spin diameter of 22 meters. Reversing the pitch of the blades in the auxiliary engines, the rotor accelerated, expelling a strong air stream upward. The ramjets started at 220 rpm and the pilot changed the pitch of the auxiliary engines and rotor, gaining enough lift for safe take-off.The main rotor was of an auto-gyro type and did not cause any conflicting forces. Unlike a helicopter, the rotor was not articulated but fixed to a rigid mounting, like the propeller of a conventional piston-engine fighter.

Possible flight manouevers with the "Omega-Diskus"

Drawing by Josef Andreas Epp

An alternate acceleration of the auxiliary engines inclined the disc in the desired direction. This changed the lifting plane of the main rotor and therefore flight direction. If one of the auxiliary engines eventually stopped, the disc kept enough control to fly on. If a ramjet stopped, the feed to the fuel to the other one was automatically cut off with the pilot starting an autorotation sequence to attempt landing.

When at low altitude the disc had the benefit of extra lift due to ground effect, the same principal used by Hovercraft and GETOL (Ground Effect Take Off and Landing) craft such as the postwar AVRO VZ-9V Avrocar.

The existing photos of the Omega Diskus are of four 1/10th scale models built strictly for aerodynamic testing. No full scale aircraft prototype was ever built and Epp, who was rumored to have worked on various other disc projects, sadly did not.

Baade 152

Postwar Epp couldn’t interest the Western Allies in the Omega so he went to work for the Soviets who actually built a craft similar to it in East Germany. But that venture turned out to be a waste of time as the Soviets would not allow the East Germans to build any type of aircraft, military or civilian.

The returning Junkers team that had built a series of EF projects in the U.S.S.R. found that out the hard way when they tried to adapt the EF-150 bomber into the Baade 152 jet airliner. The Soviets shut the program down.

Epp had also tried to persuade the Soviets to develop a larger disc that might serve as a long range remote-controlled weapon which was postwar claimed to be the mystery Spitzbergen UFO spotted by Norwegian jets in 1952 with a diameter of 150 ft with a ball Plexiglas dome and interior remote instruments with Russian writing. It was supposed to be powered by 46 jets running around its circular rim. But this incident (and the similar Helgoland one) are considered to be hoaxes and are not to be taken seriously. Epp DID propose such a craft to the Soviets but there is no proof it was ever built. Neither did Epp have anything to do with reports of involvement with the German V-7 weapon which was also claimed postwar to have been turned into a remote-controlled machine launched from Rechlin and crashing in Spitzbergen during the war (discovered in 1946)!

Epp-designed Pirna Disc of 1950, built in the GDR for the Russians

Epp was devastated and returned to the US where he reported the details of his Pirna Disc to Allied Air Intelligence teams. By 1956 Epp had patented his propulsion system and offered it to the USAF for manufacturing. He was turned down again even as he patented the entire craft by 1958 which would have been crewed by ten men. The USAF and Army researched the idea but decided instead to participate in the Avrocar fiasco which was meant to deceive the Soviets of the true nature of AVRO Canada’s sixteen German-based disc design programs headed by Dr. Richard Miethe who had built a radical Flugscheibe (Flight Disc) based on the Schauberger vortex technology which flew in April 1944. Miethe was also the one who had designed the mysterious V-7 which was actually the “Elektrische Luft Turbine” which burned air and nitrogen with the addition of helium injection for thrust augmentation.

In the end, Epp had been rejected by the Nazis, the Soviets, and the Americans.

________________________________________

Interview mit Andreas Epp und Walter Schauberger

A one hour long video interview with Andreas Epp and Walter Schauberger who were actively involved with 3rd Reich's secret projects which dealt with development of flying saucers. An exclusive interview from 2 first hand witnesses before they passed away.

Art by Justo Miranda

What might have been…..

Art by Luca Oleastri

Omega Diskus

A flying saucer… or a discoidal helicopter, propelled by rotors and ramjet engines, first constructed and tested secretly in the Skoda factory at Praga, between 1943-45. It was supposed to be the carrier of the first Nazi Atomic Bomb. Epp continued its construction on his own after WWII, improving its design over the years.

________________________________________

Andreas Epp was born on 11 May 1914, in Germany, just a few months before the First World War. His family moved to Hamburg when he was a child, and that’s the place where he spent most of his life.

He was interested in things like “How do flies fly?” or “How can a boat float into the water?” since his childhood, making mad his professors with that kind of tricky questions. He devoted his time out of school in studying birds’ flight and building several boat models.

An interest in airplane designs awoke soon in his inquisitive mind, and he started to pay attention to the newest plane designs. He started to attend at the Hamburg airport to study how the planes landed and take off. In one of his visits to the airport he met Ernst Udet, a WWI hero pilot, who became his mentor and a helpful hand later in his life.

After finishing primary school, when he was 16, the catastrophical economical situation of Germany forced him to look for a job. After a difficult test he got a position with Blohm & Voss, a Hamburg dockyard where he became a shipbuilding apprentice. In his spare time he started to play with a new V-type airplane concept.

In those years National Socialism propaganda seduced him. He joined the Hitler Youth but he quit once his father, a humanist and pacifist, found his uniform and burnt it.

His continuous complaints about the low level jobs he was assigned to do as an apprentice irritated his professors, who put an end to his career at the shipbuilding school in 1932. He joins a labour camp as a volunteer and, later, he started a training course as aircraft engine technician at the Humbold-Deutz Company.

At the age of 22 he joined the Air Force. That allowed him to be trained in his desired occupation. Now he was able to fulfill his dream of becoming an airplane technician and design all his youth’s concepts.

In his early years in the Air Force he had the first idea of the construction of a flying disk after the first helicopter flight by Hanna Reitsch. In 1940, WW2 having started a year ago, he became a technical teacher. At the end of that year he joined a combat squadron as airplane engineer.

During the war he created several inventions, like mine sedimentation equipment for submarines, fuel measuring instruments, and different guidance possibilities for airplanes. Thanks to the help and influence of his old friend, Ernst Udet, he was able to give the constructions plans and a model of his flying disk to the Ministry of Aviation.

After the loss of the bomber units over England, Hermann Göring was looking for new ideas for better and faster airplanes. The idea of the flying disk was then offered to him. Göring submitted the idea of the flying disk to Hitler selling it as a new secret weapon with the purpose of carrying the atomic bomb that was being developed by German physicists, but Hitler was only focused on missiles, Göring privately supported the construction of the disk and the tests started.

The construction of the model proposed in 1940 by Epp through Ernst started in secret in 1943 in the Skoda factory, in Prague. There were some problems during the construction of Epp’s “flying gyroscope” caused by the rotor discs. An improved model made its first test flight in February 1945. . Anyway, it seems that Epp wasn’t directly involved in the construction of any of these flying disks. At the same time, several other flying disks prototypes were already being worked on and tested in secret by the Germans

The fast advance of the allied forces did not allow enough time for the Germans to manufacture the atomic bomb. The Russians arrived on 5 May 1945 at Prague, forcing the team involved in the flying disks construction to blow up all the prototypes and burn all the plans and the rest of existing material.

After the war, Epp was continuously interrogated about his activities during the conflict, but he remained silent about his flying disk project. He couldn’t find any job as airplane technician, so he started to work in his old flying disk idea in private. He had another problem, anyway. The allied control council laws made impossible for him to build models heavier than five kilograms.

He started to acquire the materials to build his disk using city rubble and exchanging food and cigarettes in the black market. In 1948 he was in need of more money to build a new improved disk model, but he wasn’t able to find any job as technician. Also, having being a career soldier, he wasn’t able to start an independent occupation as entrepreneur, so he decided to move to Spain, where he lived until 1951.

In Barcelona he worked as a technical designer in a factory of compressors for cooling systems. There he continued his work on the flight disk project.

After his return to Germany he started to work again secretly on an improved flying disk, thanks to the small savings from Spain.

In 1953, he designed a 175cm large delta wing airplane model and made a public demonstration. That was a move to avoid traitorous neighbours and the control of the allied forces. With the success of that demonstration he managed gather some funds from investors and recognition from magazines around the World. That helped him to finish the construction of the “Disk 54”, a new improved flying disk concept.

New financial difficulties forced him to move to East Germany where he worked as engineer. There he was pursued by SED (Socialist Union Party of East Germany) agents because of his political convictions, so he had to flee back to Bremerhaven. There he started to work on his new model “Omega Disk 55”, a two meters diameter flying disk. He was accused of espionage and all his plans and documents were copied.

Finally, in 1958 he was able to start the construction of the model. After six months of hard work he finished it and was able to make a successful test flight. He published the results to the media. But the SED agents reappeared and tried to buy his Omega Disk prototype. After reporting the SED spies to the police he fled in panic from Germany.

The rest of his life he continued working on his new prototype “Omega Disk 58”, trying to get attention and recognition through conventions and articles without success. His last project was to adapt the Omega Disk to make it possible to travel to other planets.

He died on 3 September 1997 at the age of 83 years, poor and alone.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Epp always believed that all the UFO sightings reported all over the world were man made:

The UFO phenomenon is full of fairy tales invented only to divert from the real facts. Since 1945 all kind of rumours have circulated over fantastic flying machines, the so called flying saucers. […] Observers of such flying disks were made purposefully ridiculous. Due to my knowledge about the reality of the flying saucer constructions I nearly despaired.

Richard Miethe

________________________________________

In the issue of September 6, 1952 the Italian weekly "Tempo" published the first of a four-part article devoted to the German secret weapons of World War II and signed by the Italian journalist Luigi Romersa (who already wrote an article in 1947 about an alleged atomic test ran by Germany on the Baltic coast).

An additional article from a given Jacques Alain was published as an introduction. Actually it was nearly the same article published the earlier June by the French daily "France Soir" about the claims of Richard Miethe on his fantastic V-7.

Such a "new" article was originally published in the French magazine "La Marche du Monde", together with one picture of the alleged Miethe disc.

More or less the same article was then reprinted on the French weekly "C'est la Vie" of August 7, 1952, where a second picture was presented.

It is very likely this is the ultimate source of "Tempo" magazine set of three pictures which was introduced as the visual proof of the German saucers flight-tested over the Baltic sea on Aprill 17, 1944.

Besides the original low printing quality, the pictures look quite blurred and no detail is clearly visible. There is a strong feeling these pictures could be post-1947 "flying saucer" photographs used as purported proofs of a possible journalist scoop.

Several book and article illustrators tried to portrait the craft claimed by the "inventors" or witnesses of Nazi flying saucers just following the descriptions provided by them. Results were often quite exotic and far from the original words, likely to try to make even more visually-appealing the story about a fantastic Nazi super-weapon.

Possible model for the claimed 42-meter large "flying saucer"

developed by Miethe

Draft drawings of the alleged Miethe disc have been often presented as "technical documents" sustaining the reality of the "German saucers". Actually they were just artist renderings of the claims reported by newspapers.

Aviation expert Hans Justus Meier says the descriptions reported by the press in the early '50s are generaly pure nonsense from an aerodynamic and technical point of view. In fact it would have been a self-destructive craft due to the claimed placement of its jet engines. More, its weights appear completely unbalanced.

VIDEO

________________________________________

Hitler's Space Plane Project

German Saucers

An interesting section from

'Introduction to Secret German Flying Discs of World War Two'

published by the German Research Project:

This V-7 project was headed by Dr. Heinrich Richard Miethe, known in the literature simply as "Dr. Richard Miethe". He was assisted by the Italian scientist, Dr. Giuseppe Bellonzo, a specialist in jet engines and metallurgy. Dr. Miethe produced many different saucer-like designs during the early 1940's with many different power plants. Some seemed to combine characteristics of saucers and flying wings.

But more exotic designs existed. One was based on a completely new type of jet fuel invented for the V-7 by an Austrian physicist, Dr. Karl Nowak, German Patent #905-847, March 16, 1943. Another design involved mounting an A-4 (V-2) engine underneath the V-7 giving it an estimated top speed of 4,000 km.per hour.

The most interesting engine design, however, may have involved burning nothing but "air" itself. There is a rumor that the Germans tested a reciprocating engine, (like an automobile engine), which used atmospheric oxygen to oxidize atmospheric nitrogen. This was said to have involved very high voltage sparks to produce temperatures near 50,000 degrees within the combustion chamber. A similar event occurs with lightning. Lightning simply burns the air surrounding it leaving a vacuum which collapses suddenly upon itself producing the sound we call thunder. This engine was to do the same but, in addition to this, was to inject super-cold liquid helium directly into the combustion chamber. Helium is an inert gas. It does not burn. For years claims by the Germans that the V-7 was powered by helium were cited as evidence that the whole concept was a hoax. Now, after learning of the work of Dr. Nowak, we know that this very cold liquid could have been injected into this combustion chamber for purposes of cooling that combustion chamber and also to causing a tremendous expansion as it was heated thus aiding in production of motive force of the engine itself.

Photographed in Arizona 1947

see Avro Omega/Spade disc project led by Dr. Richard Miethe

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Parca nea Coanda a lucrat la asa zisele nave rotunde si care mai si functionau deci sincer cred ca nu nemtii le-au facut.

Un nene roman le-a facut si rachetele alea jmekere V2 parca care aveau aceeasi propulsie ca cele care pleaca acum in spatiu.

Nemtii?Au imprumutat savantii cel putin la vremea aia.

PS: nu am rabdare sa vad toate linkurile alea

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Parca nea Coanda a lucrat la asa zisele nave rotunde si care mai si functionau deci sincer cred ca nu nemtii le-au facut.

Un nene roman le-a facut si rachetele alea jmekere V2 parca care aveau aceeasi propulsie ca cele care pleaca acum in spatiu.

Nemtii?Au imprumutat savantii cel putin la vremea aia.

PS: nu am rabdare sa vad toate linkurile alea

Asa e, Henri Coanda a descoperit principiul aerodinei lenticulare, care putea stationa la punct fix, vira in unghi ascutit si zbura cu viteza supersonica, dar numai in atmosfera. Era vorba de mecanica fluidelor, un produs al studiului curgerii laminare. Sibianul Conrad Hass (1509 - 1576) a inventat racheta cu mai multe trepte, Hermann Julius Oberth (1894 – 1989) a dezvoltat principiul rachetei in trepte, propulsata cu peroxid de hidrogen, cat si bomba termochimica, pus fiind la treaba de nazisti, ca si pe Henri Marie Coanda, cu ocazia lucrului la aerodinele lenticulare, dar Hermann era roman de origine german, ca si timisoreanul Johnny Weissmuller, campion mondial la natatie, pe atunci cu procedeul crowl pe piept (cu capul in apa), la acest procedeu inregistrandu-se de cele mai multe ori recorduri la viteza si rezistenta (100 m, respectiv 20 km), care a jucat prima oara rolul lui Tarzan in prima serie de filme (alb-negru).

Conrad Haas (n. 1509, Dornbach, azi cartier al Vienei - d. 1576, Sibiu) a fost un inventator austriac, precursor al zborului cu racheta. A imaginat la Sibiu tehnica rachetei în trepte.

1983 Frieder Schuller, emigrat 1978 din Sibiu la Bonn (RFG), a realizat pentru televiziunea austriaca un film documentar despre Conrad Hass. Operator a fost Florin Mihailescu. La plecarea din tara cu filmul gata montat la Buftea Frieder Schuller a fost doua zile retinut la granita Bors, bobinele de film confiscate de securitatea si aproape distruse.

Reproducere din ultima parte a Coligatului de la Sibiu (1529-1555), cea mai veche lucrare cunoscută, în care Conrad Haas a imaginat rachetele în trepte, dotarea acestora cu aripioare de stabilizare şi folosirea rachetelor ca mijloc de transport aerospaţial.

Hermann Oberth

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Hermann Oberth

Oberth (in front) with fellow ABMA employees.

Left to right: Ernst Stuhlinger, General Holger Toftoy, Oberth, Wernher von Braun, and Robert Lusser

Born 25 June 1894

Hermannstadt, Austria-Hungary (today Sibiu, Romania)

Died 28 December 1989

Nuremberg, Germany

Citizenship Romanian, German[1]

Nationality Romanian

Fields astronautics and physics

Hermann Julius Oberth (25 June 1894 – 28 December 1989), born in Transylvania, Austria-Hungary, was a Romanian[2][3] and German physicist and engineer of Saxon ancestry, who along with the Russian Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and the American Robert H. Goddard, was one of the founding fathers of rocketry and astronautics. The three never were active collaborators, and in fact, never knew one another: instead, their parallel achievements occurred independently of one another.

Contents

[hide]

• 1 Early life

• 2 Rocketry and space flight

• 3 Later life

• 4 Legacy

• 5 See also

• 6 Books

• 7 References

• 8 External links

[edit] Early life

Oberth was born to a Saxon family in Sibiu/Hermannstadt/Nagyszeben, Austria-Hungary (now Sibiu/Hermannstadt, Romania).[4] By his own account and that of many others, around the age of 11 years old, Oberth became fascinated with the field in which he was to make his mark through reading the writings of Jules Verne, especially From the Earth to the Moon and Around the Moon, re-reading them to the point of memorization. Influenced by Verne's books and ideas, Oberth constructed his first model rocket as a school student at the age of 14. In his youthful experiments, he arrived independently at the concept of the multistage rocket, but he lacked then the resources to pursue his idea on any but a pencil-and-paper level.

In 1912, Oberth began the study of medicine in Munich, Germany, but at the outbreak of World War I, he was drafted into the Imperial German Army, assigned to an infantry battalion, and sent to the Eastern Front against Russia. In 1915, Oberth was moved into a medical unit at a hospital in Segesvár, Transylvania, in Austria-Hungary.[5] There he found the spare time to conduct a series of experiments concerning weightlessness, and later resumed his rocketry designs. By 1917, he showed how far his studies had reached so far by firing a rocket with liquid propellant in a demonstration to Hermann von Stein, the Prussian Minister of War.[6]

On July 6, 1918, Oberth married Mathilde Hummel, with whom he had four children. Among these were a son who died as a soldier in World War II, and a daughter who also died during the war when there was an accidental explosion at a liquid oxygen plant where she was in August 1944. In 1919, Oberth once again moved to Germany, this time to study physics, initially in Munich and later in Göttingen.

In 1922, Oberth's proposed doctoral dissertation on rocket science was rejected as "utopian". He next had his 92-page work published privately in June 1923 as the somewhat controversial book, Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen ("By Rocket into Planetary Space"). By 1929, Oberth had expanded this work to a 429-page book titled Wege zur Raumschiffahrt ("Ways to Spaceflight"). Oberth commented later that he made the deliberate choice not to write another doctoral dissertation. He wrote, "I refrained from writing another one, thinking to myself: Never mind, I will prove that I am able to become a greater scientist than some of you, even without the title of Doctor."[7] Oberth criticized the German system of education, saying "Our educational system is like an automobile which has strong rear lights, brightly illuminating the past. But looking forward, things are barely discernible."[7] Hermann Oberth was finally[clarification needed] awarded his doctorate in physics with the same rocketry paper that he had written before, by the University, Cluj, Romania, under professor Augustin Maior, on May 23, 1923.[5]

Oberth became a member of the Verein für Raumschiffahrt (VfR) - the "Spaceflight Society" – an amateur rocketry group that had taken great inspiration from his book, and Oberth acted as something of a mentor to the enthusiasts who joined the Society. Oberth lacked the opportunities to work or to teach at the college or university level, as did many well-educated experts in the physical sciences and engineering in the time period of the 1920s through the 1930s – with the situation becoming much worse during the worldwide Great Depression that started in 1929. Therefore, from 1924 through 1938, Oberth supported himself and his family by teaching physics and mathematics at the Stephan Ludwig Roth High School in Mediaş, Romania.[5]

[edit] Rocketry and space flight

The statue of Hermann Oberth in front of Sibiu city hall

In parts of 1928 and 1929, Oberth also worked in Berlin, Germany as a scientific consultant on the first film ever to have scenes set in outer space, Frau im Mond ("The Woman in the Moon"), which was directed and produced by the great film pioneer Fritz Lang at the Universum Film AG company. This film was of enormous value in popularizing the ideas of rocketry and space exploration. One of Oberth's main assignments was to build and launch a rocket as a publicity event just before the film's premiere. He also designed the model of the "Friede", the main rocket portrayed in the film.

On June 5, 1929, Oberth won the first (Robert Esnault-Pelterie - André-Louis Hirsch) "Rep-Hirsch Prize" of the French Astronomical Society for the encouragement of astronautics in his book Wege zur Raumschiffahrt ("Ways to Spaceflight") that had expanded Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen to a full-length book.[8]

In the autumn of 1929, Oberth conducted a static firing of his first liquid-fueled rocket motor, which he named the Kegeldüse. He was helped in this experiment by his students at the Technical University of Berlin, one of whom was Wernher von Braun, who would later become a giant in both German and American rocket engineering from the 1940s onward, culminating with the gigantic Saturn V rockets that made it possible for men to land on the Moon in 1969 and in several following years. Indeed Von Braun said of him:

“ “Hermann Oberth was the first, who when thinking about the possibility of spaceships grabbed a slide-rule and presented mathematically analyzed concepts and designs.... I, myself, owe to him not only the guiding-star of my life, but also my first contact with the theoretical and practical aspects of rocketry and space travel. A place of honor should be reserved in the history of science and technology for his ground-breaking contributions in the field of astronautics.”[9]

In 1938, the Oberth family left Sibiu, Romania, for good, to first to settle in Austria, then in Nazi Germany, then in the United States, and finally back to a free Germany. Oberth himself moved on first to the Technische Hochschule in Vienna, Austria, then the Technische Hochschule in Dresden, Germany. (A Hochschule is rather like a four-year technical institute, above a high school, but not as highly-regarded, or offering as many years of study as a university does.) Oberth moved to Peenemünde, Germany, in 1941 to work on Nazi German rocketry projects, including the V-2 rocket weapon, and in about September 1943, he was awarded the Kriegsverdienstkreuz I Klasse mit Schwertern (War Merit Cross 1st Class, with Swords) for his "outstanding, courageous behavior � during the attack" on Peenemünde by Operation Hydra, part of Operation Crossbow.[10]

Oberth later worked on solid-propellant anti-aircraft rockets at the German WASAG military organization near Wittenberg. Around the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945, the Oberth family moved to the town of Feucht, near Nuremberg, Germany, which became part of the American Zone of occupied Germany, and also the location of the high-level war-crimes trials of the surviving Nazi leaders. Oberth was allowed to leave Nurmberg to move to Switzerland in 1948, where he worked as an independent rocketry consultant and a writer.

In 1950, Oberth moved on to Italy, where he completed some of the work that he had begun at the WASAG organization for the new Italian Navy. In 1953, Oberth returned to Feucht, Germany, to publish his book Menschen im Weltraum (Men in Space), in which he described his ideas for space-based reflecting telescopes, space stations, electric-powered spaceships, and space suits.

During the 1950s and 1960s, Oberth offered his opinions regarding unidentified flying objects (UFOs). He was a supporter of the extraterrestrial hypothesis for the origin of the UFOs that were seen at the Earth. For example, in an article in The American Weekly magazine of October 24, 1954, Obert stated, "It is my thesis that flying saucers are real, and that they are space ships from another solar system. I think that they possibly are manned by intelligent observers who are members of a race that may have been investigating our earth for centuries..." [11]

Oberth eventually came to work for his former student, Wernher von Braun, who was developing space rockets for NASA in Huntsville, Alabama. (See also List of German rocket scientists in the United States). Among other things, Oberth was involved in writing the study, The Development of Space Technology in the Next Ten Years. In 1958, Oberth was back in Feucht, Germany, where he published his ideas on a lunar exploration vehicle, a "lunar catapult", and on "muffled" helicopters and airplanes. In 1960, back in the United States again, Oberth went to work for the Convair Corporation as a technical consultant on the Atlas rocket program.

[edit] Later life

Oberth retired in 1962 at the age of 68. From 1965 to 1967 he was a member of the considered to be far right National Democratic Party. In July 1969, Oberth returned to the United States to witness the launch of the Apollo project Saturn V rocket from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida that carried the Apollo 11 crew on the first landing mission to the Moon.[12]

The 1973 petroleum crisis inspired Oberth to look into alternative energy sources, including a plan for a wind power station that could utilize the jet stream. However, his primary interest during his retirement years was to turn to more abstract philosophical questions. Most notable among his several books from this period is Primer For Those Who Would Govern.

Oberth returned to the United States to view the launch of STS-51J, the space Shuttle Discovery launched October 3, 1985.

Oberth died in Nuremberg, Germany, on 28 December 1989, just shortly after the fall of the Iron Curtain that had for so long divided Germany into two countries.[6][13]

[edit] Legacy

Hermann Oberth is memorialized by the Hermann Oberth Space Travel Museum in Feucht, Germany, and by the Hermann Oberth Society. The museum brings together scientists, researchers, engineers, and astronauts from the East and the West to carry on his work in rocketry and space exploration.

The Oberth effect, in which a rocket engine when traveling at high speed generates more useful energy than one at traveling at low speed, is named after him.

There is also a crater on the Moon named for Oberth (see Oberth (crater)).

The science-fiction movie Star Trek III: The Search for Spock mentions the Oberth-class of starships hypothetically to be in his honor. Later on, this same class of starships is mentioned in several episodes of the American TV series Star Trek: The Next Generation.

Fullmetal Alchemist the Movie: Conqueror of Shamballa features Hermann Oberth as the "teacher" of the movie's protagonist, Edward Elric. Oberth is also mentioned in the last episode of the TV series Fullmetal Alchemist. In this episode, Elric has heard of a great scientist, named "Oberth", with curious theories. The last moments of the series depict Elric on board a train on his way to meet Oberth, determined to study rocketry with him.

[edit] See also

• Outer space

[edit] Books

• Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen (1929) (By Rocket into Planetary Space) (in German) OCLC 6026491

• Ways to Spaceflight (1929) OCLC 255256956

• The Moon Car (1959) OCLC 574140

• The Electric Spaceship (1960) OCLC 20586236

• Primer for Those Who Would Govern (1987) ISBN 0-914301-06-3

[edit] References

1. ^ Horia-Nicolai Teodorescu, Hermann Oberth And His Professional Geography in the European Context of the 20th CenturyPDF (261 KB)

2. ^ Rip Bulkeley, Graham Spinardi. Space weapons: deterrence or delusion. Barnes & Noble Books, NJ, 1986. ISBN 0-389-20640-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=rmz5T3yEUBQC&pg=PA10&dq=Oberth+Romanian&lr=&cd=4#v=onepage&q=Oberth%20Romanian&f=false.

3. ^ "The Road To The V-2 - Hermann Oberth". http://www.vectorsite.net/tamrc_01.html. Retrieved 2009-12-09.

4. ^ Joseph E. Angelo (2003). Space Technology. Greenwood Press. pp. 70. ISBN 1-57356-335-8.

5. ^ a b c (Romanian) Jürgen Heinz Ianzer, Hermann Oberth, pǎrintele zborului cosmic ("Hermann Oberth, Father of the Cosmic Flight"), p. 3, 11, 13, 15.

6. ^ a b Mort de Hermann Oberth, pionnier de la conquête spatiale ("The Death of Hermann Oberth, Space Conquest Pioneer"), in (Le Monde), (1 January 1990, p. 3, 16, accessed on 7 October 2006).

7. ^ a b "Hermann Oberth, Father of Space Travel", at Kiosek.com

8. ^ L'Aerophile, 1–15 June 1929, p.176; L. Blosset, Smithsonian Annals of Flight, No. 10, p. 11

9. ^ [1]

10. ^ Ordway, Frederick I., III.. The Rocket Team. Apogee Books Space Series 36. pp. 36.

11. ^ Schuessler, John L., "Statements About Flying Saucers And Extraterrestrial Life Made By Prof. Hermann Oberth, German Rocket Scientist" 2002; for example, the American Weekly article also appeared in the Washington Post and Times Herald, pg. AW4

12. ^ "Hermann Oberth", at the U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission

13. ^ "Hermann Oberth, 95, German Rocket Expert". New York Times. 31 December 1989. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DEFD81F3DF932A05751C1A96F948260. Retrieved 2008-04-10. "Hermann Julius Oberth, a pioneer of the space age who worked with Werner von Braun to help develop Germany's V-2 rocket, died on Friday. He was 95 years old. Mr. Oberth died at a hospital in Nuremberg after a short illness, the Hermann Oberth Museum in Feucht said in a statement."

[edit] External links

• The Hermann Oberth Space Museum

• Statements About Flying Saucers and Extraterrestrial Life Made by Hermann Oberth

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Hermann Oberth

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_Oberth"

Categories: Early rocketry | Early spaceflight scientists | Romanian Lutherans | Romanian physicists | Romanian essayists | Romanian schoolteachers | Romanian expatriates in the United States | German expatriates in the United States | German physicists | German essayists | German Lutherans | German people of World War II | German military personnel of World War I | Members of the Romanian Academy elected post-mortem | Babeş-Bolyai University alumni | Austro-Hungarian people | Austrian people of Hungarian descent | Romanian people of German descent | Transylvanian Saxons | People from Sibiu | People from Sighişoara | 1894 births | 1989 deaths

Hidden categories: All pages needing cleanup | Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2009

P.S. Te uiti cate putin, de mai multe ori, cand ai timp. Mai ales la ultimile. :blink: Fizicianul austriac Viktor Schauberger (1885-1958) a inventat o aeronava, care "utilise a tornado light vortex wich produce magnetic effects causing levitation" = “utiliza un vartej-tornada de lumina, care producea efecte magnetice, cauzand levitatie”.

Pentru alte poze si explicatii intrati si pe http://www.pro-bike.ro/forums/topic/78858-o-discutie-foarte-interesanta-despre-viata-motociclistilor/

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adica te dai nazist cum se dau pitzipoancele bisexuale...la asta ma refeream cu interesantu'....hai facem un test...eu vin unde lucrezi tu si mergem impreuna la dein sef...caruia ii vei spune ca esti un nazy....was sagsste?

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Daca se trage in adevar concluzia ca nazistii au avut inca din al doilea razboi mondial tehnologia necesara calatoriilor intergalactice (disc zburator Haunebu IV de 120 m diametru sau nava-mama zburatoare tubulara Andromeda, de 139 m lungime si 30 m diametru, cu un echipaj de 130 oameni, care purta nava Haunebu II si cate doua nave Vril 1 si 2, avand tunuri cu proiectile, dar si cu LASER (penetrau blindaj de 10,16 cm), cat si cu energie negativa, 4 levitatoare Schumann 16 blindate (care presupun si motoare pe implozie) si 4 tahionatoare Thule 11 (tahionul in vidul cosmic are viteza de 1000 de ori mai mare decat are fotonul, adica lumina), care la un moment dat creau un canal dimensional capabil sa transporte nava instantaneu, indiferent de distanta, rezolvand cu adevarat problema transportului in Univers), aceeasi concluzie o trag si americanii, cu care suntem aliati in NATO si care chiar s-au echipat precum trupele SS in al doilea razboi mondial in Ardeni, pentru a-i spiona si sabota pe germani si chiar in ziua de azi reconstituie (persoane particulare) misiuni de lupta naziste cu tehnica si echipament de epoca reconditionate de ei, asta neinsemnand ca sunt nazisti veritabili. Tot ofiterii americani recunosc ca nazistii au avut tehnica de lupta cea mai evoluata si militari antrenati extraordinar si daruiti trup si suflet cauzei lor, exprimandu-si regretul ca nu erau in fortele armate americane. Aceste lucruri se pot observa pe posturile TV: Zone Reality, Weapenology, Discovery, History, Scientific, Civilization, World, National Geographic. De ce oare crezi ca se mai poarta casti nazi de catre motociclisti cu choppere, nakede sau tourere? Pentru ca nemtii au avut cel mai cool echipament. In aceste linkuri de mai sus este vorba de motociclete BMW R 71 si Zundapp 750 Elefantkrieg (Elefant de razboi) blindate de razboi cu atas si remorca (Panzerkraftfahrrad), inclusiv de motociclete-tractor cu senile (Kettenkampfwagenmotorrad). Recunosc si eu, subsemnatul ca au avut cea mai evoluata tehnologie, care nici acum nu se poate reitera (cel putin oficial, deoarece americanii au reusit sa recupereze o parte din tehnica germana si oamenii de stiinta germani din al doile razboi mondial, vezi Area 51), pe de alta parte tot nu se stie (decat superficial) ce e cu bazele germane de farfurii zburatoare din Antarctica, Brazilia, Luna, Marte... si Aldebaran, constelatia Pleiade sau Taurus, la 68 ani-lumina de noi (de unde au venit arienii acum 500 milioane ani - se stie ca s-au gasit urme de ghete de astronaut in strat geologic contemporan cu trilobitii, de acum 500 milioane ani, trilobitii fiind crustacee care au disparut acum 400 milioane ani). Da-i Caesarului ce e al Caesarului, cum se spune, in adevar asta da tehnica si inovatie!

P.S. Chiar seful mi-a zis ca este libertate de exprimare in democratie, deci imi pot pune zvastica sau sigla SS pe motocicleta sau casca oricand, ceea ce n-am voie in adevar este sa merg la adunari conspirative, in aceasta categorie neintrand intrunirile de motociclisti cu casti nazi, toate intrunirile de motociclisti oficiale oricum fiind supervizate.

P.P.S. Iata si fotocopii dintr-o carte aparuta la noi:

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1. farfuriile zburatoare germane.

2. eu cel care a descoperit navele discoidale antigravitationale, capabile de zboruri cosmice, dar au facut-o germanii in anii '40, construind atunci baze in Antarctica, pe Luna si pe Marte.

1. =)) =)) =)) alea Italiene sunt mai usoare si cand sunt aruncate de la etaj zboala mai mult

2. Offff, eu macar m-am cam oprit de citit carti Stiintifico Fantastice odata cu terminarea adolescentei dar macar mi-am continuat pasinea cu jucari reale palpabile care zboara in afara Pamantului asta dragutz.

Ca de povesti ....... Sovietici au reusit sa solidifice oxigenul de pe tot globul si nemti sa faca transfer de cap si sa asambleze branhii de rechin la oameni. =)) =))

1. nazistii au avut inca din al doilea razboi mondial tehnologia necesara calatoriilor intergalactice

2. tahionul in vidul cosmic are viteza de 1000 de ori mai mare decat are fotonul, adica lumina.

Ce a postat Vladisto e propaganda neo-nazista pt tineri fara educatie si directi in viata care cred cam tot ce citesc pe net.

1. =)) =)) =)) =))

2. =)) =)) =)) =))

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1. =)) =)) =)) alea Italiene sunt mai usoare si cand sunt aruncate de la etaj zboala mai mult

2. Offff, eu macar m-am cam oprit de citit carti Stiintifico Fantastice odata cu terminarea adolescentei dar macar mi-am continuat pasinea cu jucari reale palpabile care zboara in afara Pamantului asta dragutz.

Ca de povesti ....... Sovietici au reusit sa solidifice oxigenul de pe tot globul si nemti sa faca transfer de cap si sa asambleze branhii de rechin la oameni. =)) =))

Ce a postat Vladisto e propaganda neo-nazista pt tineri fara educatie si directi in viata care cred cam tot ce citesc pe net.

1. =)) =)) =)) =))

2. =)) =)) =)) =))

Daca te gandesti la propaganda neo-nazista nu te pot opri. Sunt gandurile tale. Recunosc insa ca nazistii au avut oameni de stiinta geniali, fortati sa inventeze o arma care sa neutralizeze armatele inamice, ceea ce afirma si americanii. Deasemenea oricine recunoaste ca au avut cele mai cool simboluri si efecte (adica uniforme militare, aici incluzandu-se si castile), de aceea port casca nazi cu cap de mort cu femure incrucisate, SS ca 2 fulgere si zvastica (primele 2 simboluri sunt folosite si acum pentru atentionarea de inalta tensiune in Romania cel putin, iar ultimul este folosit in India pentru desemnarea rasei ariene, dar nu inclinat la 45 de grade, ci la 90 de grade, acesta fiind sursa de inspiratie de fapt, iar casca de nazi si acum se produce peste tot pentru chopperisti si toureristi), iar numarul de la motocicleta B 40 NAZ este dat chiar de politia rutiera, Sturmgewehr-ul din spate tragand cu sunete, lumini si vibratii, ca doar pentru a trai in libertate am iesit cu colegii de la Institutul de Proiectari Metalurgice la data de 22 decembrie 1989 in strada, in fata centurii de militieni de la Metrou Crangasi, cu toate ca ni s-a spus ca vom fi impuscati! Initial a fost lovitura de stat sau contrarevolutie (tinand cont ca la data de 23 august 1944 a avut loc insurectia armata si revolutia antifascista si antiimperialista), dar a fost sustinuta apoi de tineri, inclusiv de mine, sperand ca va veni o zi in care voi putea conduce si alta motocicleta in afara de Mobra, asa cum a avut tatal meu. Ce-i drept inainte de 1989 nu aveai grija zilei de maine, aveai siguranta pe strada la orice ora, aveai cel putin o garsoniera asigurata, un televizor color, actiuni la o întreprindere pe care o alegeai (eu de exemplu, student la seral si salariat fiind, imi asteptam randul si la garsoniera si la televizor color si aveam si actiuni la Policolor), intrai la facultate pe invatat si nu pe relatii si/sau bani multi (eu am intrat primul la ingineri, placandu-mi matematica si fizica), dupa ce terminai facultatea aveai post corespunzator asigurat, elevii mergeau gratis in tabere la munte si la mare, in Republica Moldova chiar era gratis si transportul in comun si convorbirile telefonice, la noi doar aparatul de telefonie fixa era gratis, apoi nu existau droguri, prostitutie, arme de foc, vanzari de organe umane sau vanzari de copii, aveai serviciul sigur, din salariu de muncitor puteai sa te intretii singur la o garsoniera proprietate particulara sau inchiriata de stat, in Republica Federativa Iugoslavia puteai fi chiar taximetrist sau frizer pe cont propriu, nu existau someri, te salta militia si ti se dadea un loc de munca daca nu aveai! Iar legea era respectata de toti, pedepsele fiind pe masura, adica pentru viol: 7 ani de inchisoare, pentru crima, inclusiv din neatentie conducand un autovehicol: 20 ani de inchisoare, pentru viol al unui copil: executie, nu ca acum, cei cu bani multi si/sau relatii nu sunt pedepsiti, indiferent ce fac, caci acum ucizi calificat si poti scapa de pedeapsa imediat, daca ai relatii si/sau bani multi, oricum pedepsele fiind simbolice! In SUA macar legea este respectata de toti! Pentru furt in valoare de milioane de dolari se da inchisoare pe viata, iar pentru crima nu numai inchisoare pe viata, ci chiar pedeapsa cu moartea! Si SUA este cel mai democrat stat din lume! Dar, inca odata, numai Mobra puteam calari si nu BMW cum am acum! Libertate inseamna sa traiesti cum iti place, cu conditia sa nu atentezi la bunurile si viata altuia. Sper sa ne apropiem cat mai repede de SUA in ceea ce priveste respectarea legii! Eram insa nazist daca furam, ucideam sau violam persoane de nationalitate evrei si tigani, insa cazierul meu este imaculat! Bineinteles ca nu sunt adeptul folosirii fortei decat pentru apararea granitelor tarii al carei cetatean sunt. Evreii ar trebui sa traiasca in pace cu palestinienii, in teritoriul anticei Palestina, actualul Israel, si sa nu-i mai dea afara din casele lor pe palestinieni, si ambele natiuni sa nu se mai masacreze reciproc. Cei mai mari bancheri din lume sunt intr-adevar evreii, inclusiv in SUA. Si se stie ca masura puterii politice este data de multimea banilor in valuta forte! Nu degeaba au fost alesi de Dumnezeu ca sa fie poporul Lui. Insa nu va veni Ziua Judecatii pana nu vor recunoaste si ei ca Iisus Hristos este Dumnezeu-Fiul, Dumnezeu fiind Iubire altruista si Lumina mintii, A Doua Persoana Divina, Mantuitorul lumii, Calea catre Tatal, Adevarul absolut si Viata vesnica, asa cum Duhul Sfant este A Treia Persoana Divina, Sfintitorul lumii, iar IHWH, Iahveh, adica Eu-sunt-Cel-ce-sunt, adica Cel vesnic viu este Dumnezeu-Tatal, Prima Persoana Divina, Creatorul si Proniatorul, adica Pastratorul de grija al lumii, Cele Trei Persoane Divine existand ca O Singura Fiinta Divina. Deasemenea Presedintele american George Bush senior nu a vrut sa asculte sfatul Papei Ioan Paul al II-lea sa nu porneasca razboi in 1990 impotriva Irakului (cu alta ocazie Papa Ioan Paul al II-lea a recunoscut ca exista extraterestrii, moartea Papei fiind circumspecta datorita acestor doua afirmatii), chiar impotriva vointei poporului american, cum a fost si razboiul de mai inainte impotriva Vietnamului. Faptul ca Irakul a vrut sa-si alipeasca Kuweitul este acelasi cu Romania care aliata cu Germania sub Maresalul Antonescu a vrut sa-si alipeasca Basarabia in 1940, asa cum fusese timp de 22 de ani, intre 1918-1940, granita de est fiind Nistrul, nu Prutul, iar port la Marea Neagra fiind Odesa, nu Tulcea, asta incluzand si Insula Serpilor. La fel si rusii au atacat Afganistanul, iar in 1940 au ocupat Basarabia. Maresalul Antonescu s-a zbatut ca pe evrei sa nu-i lase sa-i gazeze nemtii, reusind sa-i plaseze pe multi ca lucratori la spatii verzi (fapt confirmat de sotul mamei mele, care s-a nascut in 1924 si a murit in 2002, fiind de profesie inginer constructor de drumuri si poduri si colonel arma geniu, lucrand la Transfagarasan, Portile de Fier, Canal Dunare - Marea Neagra, zona Basarabi si Satul Nou, langa Medgidia, Metrou Bucuresti Unirii - Semanatoarea, zona Piata Unirii si Palatul Republicii, actualul Palatul Parlamentului), adica maturatori de strada, dandu-li-se halate cu steaua lui David de culoare galbena, putand astfel fiind recunoscuti de toata lumea (fapta aceasta salvatoare a patru sute de mii de evrei savarsita de Maresalul Ion Antonescu nemaifiind recunoscuta de evreii de acum, acestia spunand ca romanii, dar nu Antonescu, i-au salvat), iar pe tigani (tiganii fiind initial adusi de turci in Evul Mediu, din India, ca robi, in Romania si apoi eliberati din robie de Principele Alexandru Ioan Cuza, ca mai apoi, dupa 1989 tiganii sa se autodenumeasca rromi) sa nu-i lase sa-i transforme in sapun nemtii, ci deasemenea a reusit sa-i deporteze pe multi in Transnistria, alianta cu Germania fiind nevoit sa o accepte, cat si exploatarea petrolului de la Ploiesti de catre nemti, deoarece americanii nu ne-au trimis ajutor militar, cu aceasta ocazie profitand sa ne reintregim tara cu Basarabia, luptand alaturi de germani impotriva sovieticilor. Apoi dupa cum se stie iar am fost lipsiti de ajutorul militar american si sovieticii ne-au impus comunismul. Iar Germania a initiat cele doua razboaie mondiale ale secolului XX pentru ca nu era multumita de faptul ca Spania, Portugalia, Anglia, Franta aveau colonii in toata lumea, numai ea, o tara cel putin la fel de avansata a Europei, nu! In consecinta a dus un razboi drept la vremea respectiva, de reimpartire a lumii. Dupa Al II-lea Razboi Mondial se stie ca a inceput lupta de castigare a independentei coloniilor Marilor Puteri Europene. Oamenii nu vor sa invete din istorie faptul ca razboiul nu este o solutie umana la rezolvarea conflictelor de interese, si deasemenea nici marile puteri nu vor sa se comporte corect fata de tarile mici si sa le ofere protectia pe cale diplomatica cand o alta mare putere atenteaza la integritatea teritoriala a acestor state mici. Stalin a facut genocid cand a fost nevoit sa ia cu forta pamanturile industriasilor, mosierilor si taranilor chiaburi, cat si cand a luat prizonieri germani si romani, iar basarabenilor le-a dat ultimatum ca in 3 zile sa treaca granita peste Prut, iar cine nu e in stare sa se incadreze in acest timp va fi obligat sa ramana in Basarabia ocupata. Maine se sarbatoreste 1 decembrie 1918, ziua din care timp de 22 de ani am avut tara intreaga, inclusiv Tinutul Hertei, nordul Bucovinei si Basarabia, care tin acum de Rusia, iar jumatatea de sud a Basarabiei si Insula Serpilor tin acum de Ucraina. Sa speram ca vom recupera aceste teritorii pe cale diplomatica, ajutati de Organizatia Natiunilor Unite, Pactul Militar Nord Atlantic, Uniunea Europeana si Curtea Europeana a Drepturilor Omului, incepand cu redobandirea Insulei Serpilor! Asa sa ne ajute Prea Sfanta Treime si Pururea Fecioara Maria, ca suntem de 2 milenii si crestini, cat si pe aceste plaiuri binecuvantate! Tatal tatalui meu s-a nascut in 1902 si a murit la 38 de ani, cand tatal meu avea 7 ani, in 1940 in lupta pentru dezrobirea Basarabiei, si a fost facut capitan post-mortem, fiind de profesie invatator. Mama tatalui meu, care era tot invatatoare, s-a nascut in 1904 si a murit in 1992, era de loc din Tighina, Basarabia, dar a ajuns datorita pribegiei in Constanta, unde l-a cunoscut pe sotul ei. Tatal meu a fost pilot pe avioane de vanatoare cu elice, s-a nascut in 1933 si a murit in 1997. Tatal bunicii din partea mamei a fost german de profesie tapiter, venit din Germania si stabilit in Bucuresti. Mama mamei mele era din satul Tufa, comuna Mihailesti, judetul Ilfov, fost judet Vlasca si a trait intre 1901 si 1989. Tatal mamei mele s-a nascut in 1898 si a murit in 1971, fiind de vocatie diacon. Mama mea s-a nascut in 1939, acum are 69 de ani si a fost de profesie inginer in chimie alimentara. Eu m-am nascut in 1967 in raionul Nicolae Balcescu din Bucuresti, care apoi s-a numit sectorul 5, capitala avand atunci 8 sectoare, iar acum sectorul 4, capitala avand 6 sectoare, acum am 41 de ani si sunt inginer de sistem. Acestea sunt fapte traite si povestite de inaintasii mei, nu pagini de istorie scrisa in functie de cei aflati la putere intr-o anumita perioada de timp. Henri Coanda a descoperit "efectul Coanda" si principiul aerodinei lenticulare, care putea stationa la punct fix, vira in unghi ascutit si zbura cu viteza supersonica, dar numai in atmosfera. Era vorba de mecanica fluidelor, un produs al studiului curgerii laminare. Deasemenea a pus in practica LASER-ul de mare putere. Herman Oberth a descoperit principiul rachetei in trepte, cu combustibil chimic lichid sau solid, dar era roman de origine german, ca si timisoreanul Jonny Weissmuller, care a jucat prima oara rolul lui Tarzan in prima serie de filme (alb-negru). Viktor Schauberger (1885-1958) a descoperit nave care "utilise a tornado light vortex wich produce magnetic effects causing levitation". Normal ca americanii nu vor sa recunoasca ca au capturat oamenii de stiinta germani si tehnologia antigravitationala a farfuriilor zburatoare de la nazisti, ducand-o in Area 51, desertul Mojave, statul Nevada, iar impreuna cu aceasta si contactul cu civilizatia ariana de pe Aldebaran din constelatia Taurus sau Pleiade, la 68 ani-lumina, unde au apucat sa plece o parte din savantii germani cu nava discoidala Haunebu IV de 120 m diametru, germanii apucand sa construiasca baze in nordul Antarcticii, adica la Polul Sud, apoi pe Luna si pe Marte. Comentariile linkurilor sunt facute de ofiteri specialisti americani, iar filmele sunt facute in direct, reprezentand fapte din al II-lea razboi mondial. In likurile date se pot observa si avioane invizibile radar precum actualul B2, elicoptere puternice de transport, elicoptere-avion precum Black Hawk, submarine electrice silentioase, dupa ale caror carene s-au facut cele nucleare, tancuri sonice pentru scoaterea din lupta a fortei vii a inamicului, precum tunul sonic folosit in Irak de armata americana, bombe atomice ca cele folosite la Hiroshima si Nagasaki, rachete balistice intercontinentale, datorita inventarii giroscopului, acesta fiind folosit la sistemul de ghidare (racheta cu combustibil lichid in trepte, cum a fost cea pentru aselenizare, fiind proiectata si de romanul de etnie svaba Herman Oberth, iar un alt savant roman din vremea cand eram aliati cu nemtii inventand bomba termochimica), farfurii zburatoare cu turbina numai pentru zbor atmosferic, avioane cu reactie, cat si arme LASER de putere, putand penetra blindaj de 10,16 cm (tancul german Panzer VI Tiger de 57 tone avea blindaj de 10 cm, iar tancul american Shermann avea blindaj de 5 cm), pe aceste ultime trei facandu-le si Henri Coanda, in anii 1960 reusind sa opreasca un atac cu tancuri de al rusilor catre noi, topindu-le, creand si elicopterul, inventand si o instalatie care creeaza un zid energetic care transforma in energie orice corp material, dupa principiul E=mc2, inclusiv o eventuala racheta nucleara balistica, insa Viktor Schauberger (1885-1958) a descoperit farfuria zburatoare invizibila radar si vizual (prin posibilitatea curbarii razelor de lumina, acest fenomen observandu-se numai la stelele neutronice, asa-numite "gauri negre", cu densitate uriasa, care au facut implozie, gravitatia fantastica curband lumina si absorbind-o), care "utilise a tornado light vortex wich produce magnetic effects causing levitation", deci anuland masa navei putand astfel sa depaseasca viteza luminii, aceasta din urma limitand viteza unui obiect deoarece la atingerea ei ar trebui ca masa lui sa devina infinita, folosind nu numai levitatoare, dar si tahionatoare, dupa cum a aratat un matematician roman tahionul avand viteza de 1000 ori mai mare decat a luminii, deasemenea farfuria zburatoare fiind izolata complet de cele 4 campuri de forta: electro-magnetic (la trecerea unui curent electric printr-un conductor, datorita diferentei de potential de la capetele acestuia, aceasta conducand la miscarea ordonata a electronilor liberi din nodurile retelei cristaline a metalului din care e confectionat conductorul, spre exemplu cupru, se genereza un camp magnetic, acest fenomen stand la baza construirii electro-magnetilor, si reciproca, prezenta langa un conductor electric a unui camp magnetic datorata unui magnet permanent, conduce la miscarea ordonata a electronilor liberi din nodurile retelei cristaline a metalului din care e confectionat conductorul, spre exemplu cupru, deci se genereaza un curent electric), gravitational (care face ca doua corpuri sa se atraga reciproc), tare (care tine protonii legati de neutroni, formand nucleul) si slab (care tine electronii legati de nucleu, formand atomul), nava fiind astfel independenta de vreme, ocupantii ei putand suporta cu usurinta accelerari si franari bruste sau viraje in unghi ascutit la viteze mari. Se stie ca Albert Einstein, care a ajuns in Statele unite din Germania, a lucrat la unificarea celor 4 campuri de forta in cadrul experimentului de teletransport numit Experimentul Philadelphia, in care folosind generatoare electro-magnetice uriase montate pe un vas maritim, a reusit sa-l transporte instantaneu de la Philadelphia la Washington DC, cale de cel putin 400 km. S-a renuntat atunci la repetarea lui datorita faptului ca materia vie, adica oamenii de la bord au disparut de-a lungul continuumului spatiu-timp (spatiul avand 3 dimensiuni: lungime, latime si inaltime), in cea de a 4-a dimensiune astfel contopita cu celelalte 3: timpul. Iar faptul ca tahionul are o viteza cu trei ordine de marime mai mare decat cea a luminii a aratat-o si un matematician roman renumit. Si inca ceva: e in adevar cea mai buna tactica de psiho-sociologie sa reactionezi prin rasete cand vezi ca esti desconspirat, astfel convingand auditoriul ca interlocutorul e cel care ofera informatii false. In concluzie, germanii si acum sunt cei mai tari in tehnica: autoturisme, motociclete, tancuri (Leopard 2), submarine, avioane de vanatoare (la Eurofighter 2000 au avut contributia principala). Iar la baza germanii sunt crestini romano-catolici. Toate cele bune si spor la construirea navelor spatiale la jobul tau! Oricum de cand am cumparat BMW-ul am renuntat la inscrisurile �SS” (apropos �SS” vine de la societatea secreta germana �Schwarze Sonne”, adica �Soarele negru”, care a controlat studiul levitatiei farfuriilor zburatoare, racoland fizicieni, precum romanii Hermann Julius Oberth, inventatorul rachetei in trepte si bombei termochimice si Henri Marie Coanda, inventatorul avionului cu reactie, al aerodinei lenticulare, al efectului Coanda, LASER-ului de mare putere si perdelei de transfer materie-energie) de pe castile nazi si la numarul de inmatriculare B-40-NAZ! :friends:

Tastati http://www.youtube.com la fiecare din adresele:

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Daca nu merge vre-un link, stergeti ce se afla in parantezele urmatoare: (...feature=related) sau intre parantezele: (&feature=related).

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1. Daca te gandesti la propaganda neo-nazista nu te pot opri.

2. Recunosc insa ca nazistii au avut oameni de stiinta geniali, fortati sa inventeze o arma care sa neutralizeze armatele inamice.

3. casca de nazi si acum se produce peste tot pentru chopperisti si toureristi

4. Libertate inseamna sa traiesti cum iti place, cu conditia sa nu atentezi la bunurile si viata altuia.

5. Bineinteles ca nu sunt adeptul folosirii fortei decat pentru apararea granitelor tarii al carei cetatean sunt.

6. Oamenii nu vor sa invete din istorie faptul ca razboiul nu este o solutie umana la rezolvarea conflictelor de interese,

7. Normal ca americanii nu vor sa recunoasca ca au capturat oamenii de stiinta germani si tehnologia antigravitationala a farfuriilor zburatoare de la nazisti, ducand-o in Area 51, desertul Nevada,

8. In likurile date se pot observa si avioane invizibile radar precum actualul B2,

9. Toate cele bune si spor la construirea navelor spatiale la jobul tau!

1. Normal ca nu ma poti opri. La fel cum nimeni nu poate opri pe uni sa faca propaganda violenta si abuziva.

2. Genial si fortat nu prea se impaca. Daca poti fi fortat sa faci ceva in ochii mei te cobori in lumea animalelor. Nazisti au fost inamici restului omeniri.

3. Da, folosita de cei cu minte putina si sub influenta dopajului neo-nazist.

4. O definitie straina principiilot naziste sau nationaliste.

5. Ce e aia granita? Cu ce esti tu diferit fatza de altul nascut la un km distanta?

6. Razboaie au fost de cand lumea. Europa a fost focarul a 80% din razboaiele lumi si o sa mai fie.

7. =)) daaaaaa!!!! am fost si eu pe langa Area 51 si chiar si la Rosewell. Dar nu am sarit gardul.

8. =)) B2 este invizibil radarului de acum 50 de ani ca cele noi, ionosferice il vad clar.

9. Mersi, Programul ARES si capsula ORION fac parte din proiectele prezente si de abia astept sa treaca testele si sa intre in productie.

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Uitasem de acest topic.

Vladisto nazistii erau tari 'n' cap la tehnica dar frigul ia "topit"

Personal nu cred ca au avut nici un disc zburator sau nava tubulara.Au avut DKW si Zundap si BMW.Astea spun multe insa daca erau asa de sefi peste laser, zbor supersonic etc de ce nu au castigat razboiul?

Da, era poate mai bine ca ne mai civilizau si pe noi pana sa se destrame Uniunea Nazista daca ar fi aparut...

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Da, era poate mai bine ca ne mai civilizau si pe noi pana sa se destrame Uniunea Nazista daca ar fi aparut...

Civilizarea cu forta sa dovedit imposibila.

Africa e un exemplu clar.

Exista un ciclu de timp si stagi prin care o societate trebuie sa treaca.

Similar cu maturizarea personala.

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Cel mai mult mi-a placut replica cu "ce-i aia granita". Ma tem ca asa e, granitele astea au mai degraba rolul de a ne tine prizonieri inauntru decat sa ne apere de ce e afara. Si am cam simtit asta in ultimele decenii.

R1der, ma tem ca nu e asa simplu cum zici. Daca nemtii ar fi avut resurse pe masura agresivitatii si inventivitatiilor, ma tem ca alta era fata Europei, poate a lumii. Si dupa razboi toti cei invingatori au avut parte de multe chestii ingenioase pe care invinsul nu a mai apucat se le duca dincolo de prototip. Recomand celor interesati de "cum ar fi fost daca" o lectura beton: Philip K. Dick - Omul din castelul inalt (The Man In The High Castle)

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Nu ma refeream la civilizare cu forta dar de exemplu poate ne invatau cum e sa nu mai ne gandim la capra vecinului...

Si nu nu sunt nazist :)

Voi aveti dreptate ( ARN & Zoli ) in ce spuneti.

Andrei, India nu? :D

Zoli nu prea inteleg ce vrei sa spui cu invingatorii au parte de beneficii?Da nemtii erau inventivi si agresivi corect.Cat despre harta Europei sa inteleg ca eram un fel de Germania?

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Uitasem de acest topic.

Vladisto nazistii erau tari 'n' cap la tehnica dar frigul ia "topit"

Personal nu cred ca au avut nici un disc zburator sau nava tubulara.Au avut DKW si Zundap si BMW.Astea spun multe insa daca erau asa de sefi peste laser, zbor supersonic etc de ce nu au castigat razboiul?

Da, era poate mai bine ca ne mai civilizau si pe noi pana sa se destrame Uniunea Nazista daca ar fi aparut...

Pai tocmai am dat linkuri in care se arata cum in 1947 americanii si rusii au trimis mai multe nave si un portavion american cu avioane de vanatoare cu elice, asa cum erau dupa razboi, sa atace baza de farfurii zburatoare naziste din nordul Antarcticii, de la Polul Sud, dar s-au intors spunand ca daca ar fi fost atacati, nu ar fi avut nici o sansa.

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Pai cat de multe au luat rusii si americanii din Germania? Fiecare in stil propriu: rusii au luat brut, fabrici cu totul, americanii au mers pe tehnologie si oameni de stiinta. Se zice ca intreaga tehnologie spatiala americana a pornit de la punctul in care ajunsesera nemtii la capatul razboiului. Daca nemtii aveau si vlaga economica de a sprijini nivelul tehnologic la care se zice ca au ajuns, un scenariu in stilul cartii de care zic putea ajunge chiar plauzibil. Pe mine m-a fascinat ideea cartii, dar mi-a dat si un pic de frisoane. Nu ca a fost mare diferenta pentru noi, am schimbat o dictatura cu alta.

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1. poate ne invatau cum e sa nu mai ne gandim la capra vecinului...

2. Andrei, India nu? :D

1. O fi genetic poate.

2. India e un caz extrem de aparte. Ei au o civilizatie mai veche decat europa char daca uni arata inapoiati rau. Aveau apa in casa cand europa inca umbla cu o blana pe ei si un bat in mana. Au ceam ami mare clasa mijlocie din lume si sunt cea mai mare democratie din lume. Poate sistemul lor traditional de caste care este si ilegal creaza o imagine de inapoiati. Poate religia lor unde vaca e sfanta creaza o imagine de inculti. Dar cei pe care i-am cunoscut sunt extrem de inteligenti.

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Se zice ca intreaga tehnologie spatiala americana a pornit de la punctul in care ajunsesera nemtii la capatul razboiului.

Anul acesta am fost la JPL (Jet Propultion Laboratory) si am urmarit un documentar cu Sputnik si raspunsul american.

Erau doua echipe independente care lucrau la sistemele de rachete. Una era condusa de Von Brown si oameni lui din germania si a doua era cea de la JPL condusa de un individ din Noua Zeelanda. Amandoua echipele lucrau la vehiculul care poate plasa un satelit in orbita. Cea germana a primit aprobarea si fondurile si cei de la JPL suparati au continuat lucrarea pe ascuns si fara fonduri.

La prima incercare a echipei germane racheta a cazut pe lateral si a explodad.

Guvernul suparat foc a cerut celor de la JPL sa continue proilectul abandonat.

Au scos satelitul din dulap si intr-o saptamana au lansat primul satelit american in orbita.

Von Brown a facut o criza de nervi in public si sa jurat ca nu va mai lucra pt americani niciodata.

La 2 ani dupa asta a fost recrutat pt a lucra la programul Apollo si a acceptat.

Da, nemti erau cativa pasi inainte dar cand li sa oferit ocazia sa demonstreze s-au grabit si a facut Poc.

Schimbul de informati si cunostinte atunci ca si acuma se transfera rapid de la o natie la alta.

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Raman la parerea mea: sunt sigur ca eram undeva mai binisor daca eram condusi macar o perioada de timp de nemti.Si nu numai noi ci toti care am fost ocupati...Mai ales prin prisma tehnicii si a disciplinei.Nu stiu cat reuseau sa ne impuna si mentalitatile lor care pana la urma nu sunt deloc proaste zic eu.

Referitor la JPL cred ca au avut exces de zel nemtii si tocmai asta a cauzat eroarea.Sunt convins ca daca nu se grabeau reuseau.

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Se zice ca intreaga tehnologie spatiala americana a pornit de la punctul in care ajunsesera nemtii la capatul razboiului.

Anul acesta am fost la JPL (Jet Propultion Laboratory) si am urmarit un documentar cu Sputnik si raspunsul american.

Erau doua echipe independente care lucrau la sistemele de rachete. Una era condusa de Von Brown si oameni lui din germania si a doua era cea de la JPL condusa de un individ din Noua Zeelanda. Amandoua echipele lucrau la vehiculul care poate plasa un satelit in orbita. Cea germana a primit aprobarea si fondurile si cei de la JPL suparati au continuat lucrarea pe ascuns si fara fonduri.

La prima incercare a echipei germane racheta a cazut pe lateral si a explodad.

Guvernul suparat foc a cerut celor de la JPL sa continue proilectul abandonat.

Au scos satelitul din dulap si intr-o saptamana au lansat primul satelit american in orbita.

Von Brown a facut o criza de nervi in public si sa jurat ca nu va mai lucra pt americani niciodata.

La 2 ani dupa asta a fost recrutat pt a lucra la programul Apollo si a acceptat.

Da, nemti erau cativa pasi inainte dar cand li sa oferit ocazia sa demonstreze s-au grabit si a facut Poc.

Schimbul de informati si cunostinte atunci ca si acuma se transfera rapid de la o natie la alta.

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Raman la parerea mea: sunt sigur ca eram undeva mai binisor daca eram condusi macar o perioada de timp de nemti.Si nu numai noi ci toti care am fost ocupati...Mai ales prin prisma tehnicii si a disciplinei.Nu stiu cat reuseau sa ne impuna si mentalitatile lor care pana la urma nu sunt deloc proaste zic eu.

Referitor la JPL cred ca au avut exces de zel nemtii si tocmai asta a cauzat eroarea.Sunt convins ca daca nu se grabeau reuseau.

Intru totul de acord cu R1der. :ph34r:

Nu ma refeream la civilizare cu forta dar de exemplu poate ne invatau cum e sa nu mai ne gandim la capra vecinului...

Si nu nu sunt nazist :)

Da nemtii erau inventivi si agresivi corect.Cat despre harta Europei sa inteleg ca eram un fel de Germania?

Subscriu. Si nu strica sa fim "un fel de Germania"! :dirol:

Daca au caste nu cred ca sunt inapoiati

Multi dintre indieni nu mai sunt organizati in caste, de cand a aparut budismul si a revolutionat gandirea lor religioasa, sustinand faptul ca in functie de evolutia spirituala dintr-o anumita existenta, va rezulta si conditia sociala din existenta urmatoare, sufletului trebuindu-i un numar mare de experiente terestre pentru a ajunge la desavarsire. Deci multi dintre ei nu mai sunt deloc inapoiati! :victory:

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1. Si nu strica sa fim "un fel de Germania"! :dirol:

2. Multi dintre indieni nu mai sunt organizati in caste, de cand a aparut budismul si a revolutionat gandirea lor religioasa, sustinand faptul ca in functie de evolutia spirituala dintr-o anumita existenta, va rezulta si conditia sociala din existenta urmatoare, sufletului trebuindu-i un numar mare de experiente terestre pentru a ajunge la desavarsire. Deci multi dintre ei nu mai sunt deloc inapoiati! :victory:

1. Vise. =))=)) O populatie Latina nu se germanizeaza nici in 5 generati.

2. Ceva nu ai tu clar aici. Hinduismul e cel ce a creat sistemul de caste. Daca din tamplar te-ai nascut tamplat trebuie sa fi. Odata cu introducerea secularismului si cateva sute de ani de eforturi de civilizare o parte din populatie nu mai ia in serios religia. Budismul nu e prea departe prin faptul ca in viata viitoare vei fi intr-o casta mai superioara. Dar asta e pe la tara mai mult sau la cei cu putina educatie precum e si in romania unde inca se mai practica misticism medieval.

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1. Vise. =))=)) O populatie Latina nu se germanizeaza nici in 5 generati.

2. Ceva nu ai tu clar aici. Hinduismul e cel ce a creat sistemul de caste. Daca din tamplar te-ai nascut tamplat trebuie sa fi. Odata cu introducerea secularismului si cateva sute de ani de eforturi de civilizare o parte din populatie nu mai ia in serios religia. Budismul nu e prea departe prin faptul ca in viata viitoare vei fi intr-o casta mai superioara. Dar asta e pe la tara mai mult sau la cei cu putina educatie precum e si in romania unde inca se mai practica misticism medieval.

1. Din pacate ai dreptate, in ceea ce priveste majoritatea unei populatii latine, dar incepand cu a treia generatie sunt in cele din urma germanizati! Fiintele umane se pot educa in profunzime in cateva generatii.

2. Pai tocmai asta am zis, ca budismul desfiinteaza conceptul de caste al hinduismului, aratand ca poti fi orice in existenta prezenta, cat si in celelalte existente viitoare, in functie de cat de multe fapte bune ai savarsit si de cat de mult ai evoluat intelectual. Exemple de personalitati contemporane care au trecut la budism sunt Richard Gere, Brad Pitt si Steven Seagal, care este chiar preot shaolin. Ultimii doi, chiar si cu sotia lui Brad Pitt, Angelina Jolie, au oferit sume de bani consistente pentru orfelinate, aziluri, spitale, Steven oferind bani chiar unui orfelinat din Mangalia, pe care l-a si vizitat dealtfel, Brad si cu Angelina infiind copii din tari din lumea a treia, chiar daca au si ei copii lor biologici.

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